WHAT REMAINS OF THE WRITINGS OF
SANCHONIATHO, BEROSSUS, ABYDENUS,
MEGASTHENES, AND MANETHO.
THE HERMETIC CREED, THE OLD CHRONICLE,
THE LATERCULUS OF ERATOSTHENES,
THE TYRIAN ANNALS,
THE ORACLES OF ZOROASTER,
AND THE PERIPLUS OF HANNO.
BY I. P. CORY, ESQ.
FELLOW OF CAIUS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.
[The 1st edition. See also the
Note: The Greek texts in this edition have been omitted.]
In presenting this collection of ANCIENT FRAGMENTS to the world, some
explanation of what is comprehended under that title is not altogether
unnecessary. We are accustomed to regard the Hebrew
scriptures, and the Greek and Latin writings, as the only certain records of
antiquity: yet there have been other languages, in which have been written the
annals and the histories of other countries. Where then are those of Assyria and
Babylon, of Persia and Egypt and Phoenicia, of Tyre and Carthage? Of the
literature of all these mighty empires where are even the remains? It will, no
doubt, tend to excite some reflections of a melancholy cast, to look on this
small volume as an answer. That they are all contained in it, I should be
unwilling to assert: yet, with some diligence and research, I have not been able
to discover other fragments, which I could consider sufficiently authenticated,
to increase its size.
It was my wish to have included in this collection all the fragments of the earlier Gentile world, which have reached us through the medium of the [p.ii] Greek language. Of the early historians of Greece the names only of some have come down to us; whilst of others, such as Eupolemus and Histiaeus, several very interesting fragments have escaped the general wreck. In the classic ages of their literature, the acquaintance of the Greek historians with antiquity is generally confined and obscure: nor was it till the publication of the Septuagint, that they turned their attention to the antiquities of their own and the surrounding nations: and for this reason we meet with more certain notices of ancient history in the later, than in the earlier times of Greece. To have drawn a line then, to have inserted the earlier writers to the exclusion of the later, would have been to omit the more valuable. To have reprinted the fragments of many authors, such as Nicolaus Damascenus, a writer of Damascus, of the Augustan age, would have introduced, with some matter worthy of attention, much of little interest. To have selected from them all, the passages relating to ancient times and foreign states, would have been a task as useless as laborious, and would have swelled the collection to a series of volumes. I have therefore excluded all native Greek historians—and every writer of the Augustan age and downwards—I have also omitted all fragments which bear about them the stamp of forgery, or are the productions of Hellenistic Jews; or of authors who have had access to the sacred Scriptures, and following the words [p.iii] throw no additional light upon the subjects: under one or other of which divisions may be classed the Antediluvian books of Enoch, the large fragments of Artapanus, the Sibylline Oracles, the correspondence of Solomon and Hiram king of Tyre, the tragedy of Ezekiel in which Moses figures as the hero, with several compositions of a similar description.
The contents then of this volume are Fragments which have been translated from foreign languages into Greek; or have been quoted or transcribed by Greeks from foreign authors; or have been written in the Greek language by foreigners who have had access to the archives of their own respective countries. They are arranged under the following heads: the Phoenician, the Chaldaean, the Egyptian, the Tyrian, the Persian, and the Carthaginian.
In the following review of these ancient writers, I have passed from themselves into a slight examination of their works: not with a view of entering at all into the details, but merely to call the attention to some few great landmarks, which stand prominently forth amidst what might otherwise be deemed a wild, pathless and interminable. For the most ample and satisfactory explanation of the whole, I must refer to the inimitable works of Mr. Faber and Bryant.
Under the first head is contained only the Phoe- [p.iv] nician Theology of Sanchoniatho, who is considered to be the most ancient writer of the heathen world. In what age he wrote is uncertain: but his history was composed in the Phoenician language, and its materials collected from the archives of the Phoenician cities. It was translated into Greek by Philo Byblius, and for the preservation of these fragments we are indebted to the care of Eusebius. I have deviated but little from the quaint translation of Bishop Cumberland, generally so far only as to render it more consonant with the text of Stephen, or to substitute more modern expressions for phrases become now almost obsolete.
The cosmogony is one of those jargons of Theology and Physics, which were refined by the later heathens into some resemblance of the sublimest mystery of the Christian faith. As the most ancient, it is the most valuable; and as it speaks more plainly than the rest, it affords a key to their interpretation.
The generations contain many very curious passages. They are the only well authenticated heathen account of the times before the flood.
In the first generation is an allusion to the fall: in the second Genus may be Cain: after which we lose the traces of similarity: at the fifth there is an interruption. But taking up the thread of inquiry, at the end of the first fine, in Taautus or Thoyth, we may perhaps recognize Athothis, the second [p.v] king of Egypt, the Hermes Trismegistus, who appears again as the adviser of Cronus. His predecessor Misor, corresponds then with Mizraim, the first king of Egypt, the Menes and Mines of the dynasties. In the preceding generation is Amynus, Ammon, or Ham, the same with the Cronus, of what is supposed a different hue. An ascent higher we find, Agrus, the husbandman, who was worshipped in Phoenicia as the greatest of the gods: he corresponds with Noah, the Ouranus of the other hue, whose original name was Epigeus or Autochthon, a name of similar import with Agrus. There is also some slight appearance of identity between Hypsistus, the father of Autochthon or Ouranus, and Geinus Autochthon, the father of Agrus.
The generations conclude with an intimation, that they contain the real history of those early times, stripped of the fictions and allegories with which it had been obscured by the son of Thabion, the first hierophant of Phoenicia. That such is the case we are assured by Philo Byblius, in the remarks on Sanchoniatho with which he prefaces his translation of the work. The passage also informs us that the history thus disguised was handed down to Isiris, the brother of Chna, the first Phoenician. Bishop Cumberland conjectures that this Isiris is the Osiris of the Egyptian worship, and with greater probability supposes him the same with Mizraim, the son of Ham, who was the [p.vi] brother of Canaan. But he strangely wanders from the truth in his researches after the son of Thabion. If the legends were handed down to Isiris, the son of Ham, they must have been handed down by one of the predecessors of this Isiris, that is by Noah, or one of his own sons: Thabion is derived from Theba the Ark, and in the phraseology of Bryant is equivalent to the Arkite: it is a title of Noah: therefore the first hierophant of Phoenicia was a son of Noah, a predecessor of Mizraim and Canaan, an inhabitant also of Phoenicia, in short was Ham himself. And it is some confirmation, indirect enough it must be owned, of the very prevalent belief in the apostacy of that patriarch.
This fragment is succeeded by a stricture on the propensity of the Greeks for allegory. Several of these strictures occur in the course of the extract. I have generally omitted them as they appear to be the words of Philo, the translator, and could never have been those of so early a writer as Sanchoniatho. But to exhibit the argument in the adverse light, it may be urged, that since these strictures on the Greeks occur, Sanchoniatho could not have written in such ancient times. Be that as it may, the passages have no connection with the history, and at any rate were not contained in the Phoenician records.
The last fragment, upon the mystical sacrifice of the Phoenicians, is so singular, that I cannot forbear inserting the conclusion of Bryant's disser- [p.vii] tation on the subject. After having shewn that this is the only sacrifice among the ancients, which is termed mystical; and that Cronus, the personage who offers it was the chief deity of the Phoenicians; and moreover, that it could not relate to any previous transaction, he concludes thus:—
"The mystical sacrifice of the Phoenicians had these requisites, that a prince was to offer it; and his only son was to be the victim: and as I have shewn that this could not relate to any thing prior; let us consider what is said upon the subject, as future, and attend to the consequence. For if the sacrifice of the Phoenicians was a type of another to come; the nature of this last will be known from the representation, by which it was prefigured. According to this, El, the supreme deity, whose associates were the Elohim,1 was in process of time to have a son, αγαπητίν well-beloved: μανγεντ, his only begotten: who was to be conceived (of ανωϑρετ), as some render it, of grace: but according to my interpretation, of the fountain of light. He was to be called Jeoud whatever that name may relate to; and to be offered up as a sacrifice to his father λντρον, by way of satisfaction, and redemption, to atone for the sins of others, and avert the just vengeance of God; to prevent universal corruption, and at the same time, general ruin. And it is farther remarkable; he was to make [p.viii] the grand sacrifice [Greek], invested with the emblems of royalty. These surely are very strong expressions: and the whole is an aggregate of circumstances highly significant, which cannot be the result of chance. All, that I have requested to be allowed me in the process of this recital, is this simple supposition, that this mystical sacrifice was a type of something to come: how truly it corresponds to that, which I imagine it alludes to, I submit to the reader's judgment. I think, it must be necessarily esteemed a most wonderful piece of history." Sanchoniatho wrote also a history of the serpent. A single fragment of which is preserved by Eusebius.
The Chaldaean Fragments are chiefly from Berossus and Megasthenes.
Berossus, a Babylonian, flourished in the reign of Alexander, and lived some time at Athens: and according to many wrote his Chaldaean history in the Greek language. As a priest of Belus he possessed every advantage, which the records of the temple and the learning and traditions of the Chaldaeans could afford; and seems to have composed his work with a serious regard for truth. He has sketched his history of the earlier times from the representations on the walls of the temples: from written records and traditionary knowledge, he learned several points too well authenticated to be called in question; and correcting the one by [p.ix] the other has produced the strange history before us.
The first fragment, a catalogue of the Chaldaean Kings, has been preserved by Apollodorus; and the second, another version of the same with an epitome of the account of the deluge, by Abydenus, a disciple of Aristotle. The large extract preserved by Alexander Polyhistor, is extremely valuable; and contains a store of very curious information.
The first book of the history opens naturally enough with a description of Babylonia. Then referring to the paintings, the author finds the first series a kind of preface to the rest. All men of every nation appear assembled in Chaldaea: among them is introduced a character, who is represented as their instructor in the arts and sciences, and informing them of the events, which had previously taken place. Unconscious that Noah is represented under the character of Oannes, Berossus describes him, from the hieroglyphical delineation, as a being literally compounded of a fish and man, and as passing the natural, instead of the diluvian, night in the sea, with other circumstances indicative of his character and life.
The instructions of the Patriarch are detailed in the next series of paintings. In the first of which, I conceive, the Chaos is portrayed by the confusion of the limbs of every kind of animal: the second represents the creation of the universe: the third [p.x] the formation of mankind: others again that of animals, and of the heavenly bodies.
The second book appears to have comprehended the history of the ante-diluvian world: and in this the two first fragments ought to have been inserted. The historian seems to have confounded the history of the world with that of Chaldaea. He finds nine persons, probably represented as kings, preceding Noah, who is here again introduced under the name of Xisuthrus, and supposes that the representation was of the first dynasty of the Chaldaean kings. From the universal consent of history and tradition he was well assured that Alorus or Orion, the Nimrod of the Scriptures, was the founder of Babylon and the first king: consequently he places him at the top, and Xisuthrus follows as the tenth. The destruction of the records by Nabonnasar left him to fill up the intermediate names as he could: and who are inserted, is not so easy to determine. If they are the predecessors of Noah; who are the Annedoti that appear to them? or can these appearances relate to any ante-diluvian transactions of the Patriarch? If they are the successors of Nimrod, the appearances of the Annedoti may refer to visits of the Patriarch and his sons: yet every remnant of the heathen accounts, which in anywise relates to this subject, affirms the violent destruction of the tower of Babel, the dispersion of its builders, and the long subsequent desolation of the city.
There is, however, a dynasty of Chaldaean kings, handed down as some suppose by Berossus, of which the following is a list of the names.
1. Evechous 6 Years.
2. ChomaSbolus 7 Years.
3. Porus 35 Years.
4. Nechobes 43 Years.
5. Abius 45 Years.
6. Oniballus 40 Years.
7. Zinzirus 45 Years.
These Mr. Faber conjectures to have been the
[p.xi] immediate descendants and successors of Nimrod in Nineveh, the new seat of his
empire after the catastrophe at Babylon; and that the long continuation of
Assyrian monarchs are the descendants of the same patriarch but of a younger
branch. Bryant fancies he recognizes among them the predecessors of Nimrod, and
thinks the list altogether spurious.
There is also a dynasty of Arabian kings of Chaldaea, who seem to have taken possession of Babylon during the long period of its desolation, and to have reigned there independent of the Assyrian empire. They were six in number, five of whose names are preserved.
1. Mardocentes 45 Years,
2. Sisimadacus 28 Years.
3. Gabius 37 Years.
4. Parannus 40 Years.
5. Nabonnabus 25 Years.
6. ............ 41 Years.
They are to be found in Syncellus.
The history of the flood is very interesting, and wonderfully consonant with the
Mosaic account. It mentions also the circuitous route of the human race from
Armenia to the plains of Shinar.
The fragment on the Tower of Babel is generally quoted as from Abydenus. Whether it is part of his own work, the Assyrian history, or was extracted by him from Berossus, or transcribed from the Scriptures is extremely questionable: indeed it has much the air of a forgery.
The small fragment (page 32) is supposed by Eusebius, who quotes it, to relate to Abraham. Nor is this improbable: a similar passage is found in Nicolaus Damascenus, which mentions the patriarch by name, and styles him King of Damascus, a title which is given him by other writers.
The other fragments of Berossus are well authenticated history, and throw some light upon the scriptural account of the same persons and transactions. It may be observed that Belshazzar, represented in Daniel, as the son of Nebuchadnezzar, is Neriglissoor, who married the daughter, and afterwards conspired against and slew the son of that monarch; succeeded to the kingdom; and was himself taken off by violence. Nabonnedus corresponds with Darius the Mede, who afterwards took the kingdom, and was conquered by Cyrus.
The last fragment is from Megasthenes, a Persian, who wrote an Indian history a few years subsequently to Berossus. The prophecy of Nebu- [p.xiii] chadnezzar apparently alludes to some public notification of Daniel's interpretation of his dream. The Mede he mentions may be Nabonnedus, the Darius of the Scripture.
The singular creed, which stands first of the Egyptian fragments, was transcribed by Jamblichus, from the Hermetic books. It is an exposition of that first principle of the heathen theology, which, with its hypostases, was so largely, insisted upon by the school of Plato; and, according to them, so continually passed over in silent reverence by the earliest heathens.
I have retained the translation of Jones of Nayland, from his Philosophical Disquisitions; and which may be found also in his answer to the Essay on Spirit: and I may refer to those works for the most intelligible and satisfactory exposition of this, and of the other heathen trinities.
Previously to the dispersion at Babel, the apostates from the primitive worship were divided into two sects, whose religion Mr. Faber commonly distinguishes by the titles of Buddhism and Brahmenism. They differed not so much in the original objects of their adoration, as in their form of worship. While the latter descended to the introduction of images, and diverged with every kind of poly theistical absurdity; the former stopped content with a more simple scheme of theology; and in some countries, such as Persia, an almost pure Sabianism was jealously preserved. Both were widely [p.xiv] diffused and often, as in Egypt and Greece, amalgamated into one. The more elaborate and corrupted system of Brahmenism would catch the attention of the casual observer as the religion of the land; while the deeper doctrines, which involved much of the Buddhic theology, were wrapped in mystery, and communicated only to the initiated.
That the heathen trinities are often variations of the Patriarchs, the Divi of the ancient worship, who were canonized under the titles of Ouranus, Cronus, Jupiter, &c. combined with the ark and other symbols, is demonstrated by Mr. Faber and others, too clearly to admit of doubt: yet, still more frequently, when stripped of their theological dress, will they resolve themselves into some mere physical principle of nature, or its powers: of which the present collection affords other decisive instances both in Sanchoniatho and Zoroaster. Among the ancient heathens the Chaos was an object of veneration; it was looked upon as the first great principle, and usually occupies the first place, in those creeds which bear a trinitarian aspect. The other persons of the Triad are equally material: the second is frequently the Sun, or the Light, or rather Ether, the Soul of the World, or the great Patriarch himself: and the third, the Host of Heaven, the Stars, the Soul of the World, or the consecrated Daemons. There was a foundation of Materialism, on which was raised a superstructure of Idolatry.
In the classic ages of Greece and Rome appeared a race of philosophers, who,
while they submitted to superstitions which they sometimes scorned, must be
allowed to have lifted up their minds to truth, as high as unassisted reason
might avail. A Christian may despise, as rank idolatry, the weakness or
hypocrisy, which could bow down before the images, and pray to the departed
spirits of their patriarchal Divi, either as agents or intercessors; but he must
admit that their aspirations towards the first great cause soared far above
materialism, and were wholly directed to a sublimer object of veneration. By
them the ancient creeds were made to speak a loftier language, which was foreign
to their original import; and upon the promulgation of Christianity they were
again remodelled and refined into a further resemblance of its mysteries. And
such has probably been the fate of the Hermetic creed before us.
The old Egyptian Chronicle, preserved by Syncellus, is a valuable guide and index to the dynasties that follow.
The first fragment of Manetho, his Epistle to Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, gives an account of the author and his work. His history was composed by order of that king in emulation of the Septuagint: and its materials collected, under the royal command, from all the records of the kingdom. All that remains is an epitome of the dynasties, and two large extracts; the first [p.xvi] concerning the Shepherd kings, and the other upon the Israelites.
In the dynasties I have followed the text of Africanus, as quoted by Syncellus, in preference to that of Eusebius who has sadly defaced it. The general outline is the same, though the names of the kings, and the length of their respective reigns frequently differ, as well as the collocation and numbers of the dynasties. I have availed myself of the text of Eusebius to correct grammatical errors; but where any material difference occurs, I have inserted the variation in a parenthesis, or observed it in a note. The numerical letters or figures I have given from Africanus without noticing those of Eusebius as very little dependence can be placed on either.
The Laterculus or Canon of the Kings of Thebes was compiled from the archives of that city by Eratosthenes, the librarian to Ptolemy Philadelphus. It is to be found in Syncellus and other writers.
From these fragments, as explained by the ingenious dissertations of Bryant and Mr. Faber, we may collect an outline of the early history of Egypt. It appears then that after the dispersion from Babel the children of Mizraim went off to Egypt; of which they continued in the undisturbed enjoyment for about two centuries and a half. The first fourteen dynasties have given rise to various hypotheses. Bryant, using the Old Chronicle as [p.xvii] an authority, lops them all off at once as spurious. There is nevertheless great reason to suppose that the first, or at least part of it, is genuine. Menes, Mines, or Mizor, the Mizraim of the Scriptures, and the planter of the nation, is naturally placed as the first sovereign of the united realm: and perhaps the dominion of Athothis was equally extensive; for his name occurs both in the Laterculus of the Theban Kings, and in Sanchoniatho. After him the country seems to have been divided into several independent monarchies; some of whose princes may perhaps be found among the thirteen dynasties that follow.
The first fragment from Josephus, gives an account of the invasion and expulsion of a race of foreigners, who were styled Hycsos or Shepherd Kings. They were a branch of the warlike family of the Cuthites, who took advantage of the divided state of Egypt, and conquered it with little difficulty. They retained possession for nearly two hundred and sixty years; when they were expelled by a combination of the native princes under Thummosis, king of Thebes. The Shepherds are placed as the fifteenth dynasty, and Thummosis and his successors, correspond accurately with Amos the first king and his successors of the eighteenth dynasty. Very shortly after the expulsion of the shepherds, Joseph and the children of Israel, came down into Egypt, and were settled in the land of Goshen, the Avaris, which had been evacuated by the Shep- [p.xviii] herds; where they seem to have lived more than a century on terms of the greatest amity with the Egyptians, till a second invasion of the Shepherds reduced them to a state of slavery. Of this invasion the second extract gives an account, and places it in the reign of Amenophis, whom the historian identifies with Amenophis the third, by making him the predecessor of Sethos his son, whom we find the first of the nineteenth dynasty, and who was named Ramesses, after Rampses the father of Amenophis. According to the fragment, the Shepherds effected the conquest in alliance with the Israelites, with whom they reigned conjointly thirteen years, during which time Amenophis, with multitudes of his subjects, retired into Ethiopia. By a comparison of the fragment with the Mosaic account, and some passages relative to the same transactions in Diodorus, Herodotus, and Tacitus, Mr. Faber has extracted the following particulars; that instead of thirteen years, one hundred and six must be allotted to the duration of the second shepherd dynasty; the five hundred and eleven years mentioned by Manetho, being the complete interval between the first invasion and final expulsion: that the native Egyptians and Israelites were equally oppressed under their sway: that the Pyramids were constructed by the joint labours of the conquered, at the command of Cheops, one of the Shepherd kings: and that the Exodus of the Israelites, and destruction of the [p.xix] Shepherd's power were effected at the same time, by the passage of the Red Sea. After the power of the Shepherds was broken by that catastrophe, the native princes returned, and seem to have had some difficulty in expelling the remnant of the Shepherd tribe; which was finally effected by Sethosis, in the emigration of the Danai to Greece.
The second invasion then must have taken place in the reign of Amenophis the second; and the return of the Egyptian kings from Ethiopia, in the person of Amenophis the third, who has been confounded with his predecessor. The kings of the second dynasty of Shepherds, seem to have been but two, Cheops and Chephren according to Herodotus, the Chemmis and Cephren of Diodorus. They correspond apparently with Suphis, and Suphis the second which are placed in the fourth of the dynasties of Manetho. The second dynasty of Shepherds, was in reality the fourth dynasty of Egypt, which is expressly stated to have been Memphites of a different race: and of these Suphis the first is said by Africanus, to be the same as Cheops. By turning also to the Laterculus we may observe, at the fifteenth, a change of dynasty from Theban Egyptian to Theban kings: and in Saophis and Sensaophis or rather Saophis the second, we may recognise the same persons reigning as the kings of Thebes. The Mencheres of Manetho, who follows Suphis, is probably the Mycerinus of Dio- [p.xx] dorus and Herodotus, and the Moscheris of Eratosthenes; and a similarity in the names of his successors to those of the successors of Acherres2 in the eighteenth, may induce us to suppose they were the same persons, the exiled princes of Egypt, the contemporaries and not the successors of the second race of Shepherd kings. If any reliance may be placed upon the numbers, another argument might be drawn from the sum of the united reigns which amounts in all the three cases to something more than a century. For a very ingenious theory, I may also refer to the Egyptian Mythology of Pritchard, in which he separates the Theban, Memphite, Thinite, Elephantine, Xoite, and Heracleotic dynasties from each other, and looks upon them as independent and often contemporaneous dynasties.
The Tyrian Annals are fragments, which were quoted by Josephus from the now extinct histories of Dius and Menander. They agree perfectly with the scriptural accounts, and furnish some curious particulars in addition. The date of the foundation of Carthage, it may be observed is accurately fixed.
The fragments of Zoroaster are generally known [p.xxi] by the title of the Chaldaic Oracle of Zoroaster. A few of them were first published by Ludovicus Tiletanus at Paris, with the commentaries of Pletho; to which were subsequently added those of Psellus. The rest were collected by Franciscus Patricius from the works of Proclus, Hermias, Simplicius, Damascius, Synesius, Olympiodorus, Nicephorus, and Arnobius; and published together with the Hermetic Books at the end of his Nova Philosophia. Stanley in his Lives of the Philosophers, has given the complete collection of the oracles, with a translation into English, to which I have generally adhered.
Great doubts have been entertained respecting the authenticity of these oracles: but the variety of authors by whom they have been quoted, and throughout whose works they lie dispersed, speaks something in their favour. That they were the forgery of some Gnostic, is an opinion which Stanley thinks sufficiently refuted by the great veneration in which they were held by the Platonic school.
The oracles of Zoroaster, if not genuine extracts, at least contain the genuine doctrine of the Sabaean Theology. The writings which are extant under the title of the Hermetic books though of a far more suspicious character, and evidently the compositions of a later age, have by several eminent writers been also supposed to contain the real doctrines of the Egyptian Buddhists. Both savour per- [p.xxii] haps too strongly of the Platonic philosophy: but that peculiar phraseology, by which the materiality of their subject is sublimated into a spiritual form, must be attributed to the Greek translators, who had deeply imbibed the doctrines of that school.
The Periplus of Hanno is an account of the earliest voyage of discovery extant. It was taken from an original and apparently official document which was suspended in the temple of Saturn, at Carthage. Mr. Falconer has edited it as a separate work, and gives two dissertations on it; the first, explanatory of its contents; and the second, a refutation of Mr. Dodwell's reflections on its authenticity. I have followed Mr. Falconer both in his text and translation. With respect to its age, Mr. Falconer agrees with Bougainville in referring it to the sixth century before the Christian era.
The Periplus is prefaced by a few lines, reciting a decree of the Carthaginians relative to the voyage and its objects: and is then continued as a narrative, by the commander or one of his companions, which commences from the time the fleet had cleared the straits of Gibraltar. Mr. Bougainville has given a chart of the voyage, which may be found, together with the corresponding maps of Ptolemy and D'Anville, in Mr. Falconer's treatise. It may be sufficient however, to remark that Thymiaterium, the first of the colonies planted by Hanno, occupies a position very nearly, perhaps precisely the same with that of the present com- [p.xxiii] mercial city of Mogadore. The promontory of Soloeis corresponds with Cape Bojador, nearly opposite to the Canaries. Caricontichos, Gytte, Acra, Mehtta and Arambys are placed between Cape Bojador and the Rio d'Ouro which is supposed to be the Lixus. Cerne is laid down as the island of Arguin under the southern Cape Blanco: the river Chretes perhaps is the St. John, and the next large river mentioned is the Senegal. Cape Palmas and Cape Three Points, are supposed to correspond respectively with the Western and Southern Horns, and some island in the Bight of Benin, with that of the Gorillae. Vossius however supposes the Western Horn, to be Cape Verd, and the Southern, Cape Palmas, in which case the Sierra Leone will answer to the Ochema Theon the Chariot of the Gods.
The description of the Troglodyte, as men of a different form or appearance, may imply a change from the Moresco to the Negro race. Some passages, quoted by Mr. Falconer from Bruce's travels, explain the extraordinary fires and nightly merriment, which alarmed the voyagers, as customs common among many of the negro tribes, and which had repeatedly fallen within the scope of his own observations. The Gorillae are supposed to be large monkeys or wild men as the name ανθρωποι αγροι may in fact import.
It is needless to take notice of the numerous [p.xxiv] forgeries, which have been issued as the productions of the authors of these fragments. There is a complete set which was composed in Latin by Annius, a monk of Viterbo. But it is a singular circumstance, and one which might be urged with great force against the genuineness of almost the whole collection, that not only the original authors have perished, but those also, through whose means these relics have been handed down. With the exception of these fragments, not only have Sanchoniatho, Berossus, and the rest passed on into oblivion; but the preservers of their names have followed in the same track, and to a more unusual fate. The fragments of Philo, Abydenus, Polyhistor, Dius, and the others, are generally not those of their own works, but extracts from their predecessors.
It is necessary also to advert to the numerous errors which will be found in every sheet. The fragments have been exposed to more than the common risks, and accidents, to which all ancient writings have been subject. They have been either copied from the rude annals of antiquity, or sketched from historical paintings or hieroglyphical records, they have been sometimes translated from the sacred, into the common language of the place, and again translated into Greek; then passed in quotation from hand to hand, and are now scattered over the works of the fathers, and the writers of the Roman empire. It is matter of surprise then [p.xxv] not that they abound in error and uncertainty, but that so much has been preserved. For my own errors and inadvertencies I beg leave humbly to apologise, yet I must confess I have some reason to congratulate myself on finding in the above a cloak, under which a multitude of them may be concealed, and to which a charitable disposition may refer as many as it pleases without even recurring to the "errors of the press."
Several of these fragments are preserved in two or three different authors, each of whom contains a different version of the same, differing not so much in the outline, and in the general flow of words, as in those technicalities and variations of termination which were necessary to adapt them to the author's style, and it has been a source of some little perplexity to determine which of these various readings to prefer.
To Eusebius, Syncellus, and Josephus, we are principally indebted for these relics of antiquity. The authors of them are repeatedly cited in the Stromata of Clemens Alexandrinus, and in the works of Justin, Cedrenus, and the fathers of the lower empire: but unfortunately no extracts have been preserved. Diodorus Siculus has borrowed largely, but has incorporated the substance of his quotations in the body of his own work.
For Josephus I have followed Hudson's edition. The Cologne edition of the Praeparatio Evangelica [p.xxvi] of Eusebius is often considered as the best: but upon close inspection and comparison I have been induced to prefer the text of Stephen. With the exception of a mutilated translation into Latin, Eusebius' Chronicle is lost. Under that title however Scaliger has industriously compiled a very portly folio, which, with some other Chronicles, contains a collection of all the fragments of the Greek text of Eusebius, that could be found. Syncellus has been magnificently edited at Paris under the patronage of Louis the fourteenth. By that father very copious extracts have been preserved. He professes to follow the original documents more closely that his predecessors, and as his Parisian editor makes the same pretences to fidelity, I have very generally taken his text as the groundwork. To correct all the palpable grammatical errors contained in it, would be a difficult undertaking. To effect it in some degree, I have availed myself of the emendations of the margin, and of the different readings to be found in Eusebius. But in no case have I presumed to alter without authority; and where neither the margin nor Eusebius afforded that, I have permitted the error to stand as I found it. The alteration of a single letter would sometimes correct a gross grammatical mistake: yet at the same time by retaining the letters as they stand, and making a different division of them into words, a different meaning may be elicited. This work being a mere collection of quotations. [p.xxvii] I have not deviated from the usual method of quoting without the points. In most cases we make no use of them: in some instances, their introduction might stamp one particular signification upon certain passages, in which two, widely-different, present themselves: but where so much uncertainty prevails, every person must be at liberty to accent as he pleases, or to divide the words as best may suit his purpose. To introduce the accents generally, and omit them in those sentences which may bear a double import, and in which they might assist us to determine the meaning; in short, to use them where they are of no use, and omit them where they might be turned to some account, would be an eccentricity, more needing an apology, than the course I have ventured to pursue. The matter contained in these fragments is the only merit to which they can pretend; the interpretation is all that is required; and refined criticism, bestowed on works which do not rise to elegance, is always a misplaced display of learning: and I feel myself as little competent as inclined to enter into speculations upon the words or accents. So far from presuming to intrude into the province of a commentator, I shall be well content if I have committed no great mistakes.
Such as these fragments are, I send them forth without either note or comment. The classical reader will find, I fear, but poor amusement in perusing a half barbarous dialect, replete with errors [p.xxviii] and inconsistencies: to the student of divinity, however, they may not be altogether unacceptable or devoid of interest: and to the inquirer after ancient history and mythology, it may be useful to have collected into one small volume, the scattered relics for which he must otherwise search so widely.
THEOLOGY OF THE PHOENICIANS
He supposes that the beginning of all things was a dark and condensed windy air,
or a breeze of dark air and a Chaos turbid and indistinct like Erebus: and that
these things were infinite, and for a long time had no bound: but when this wind
became enamoured of its own principles, and a mixture took place, that embrace
was called Desire: and it was the beginning of the creation of all things. But
the wind knew not its own production. And of that wind from its embrace was
begotten Mot; which some call Mud, others the putrefaction of a watery mixture:
and from this sprung all the seed of the creation, and the generation of the
But there were certain animals which had no sense, out of which pro- [p.4] ceeded intelligent animals, and they were called Zophasemin, that is, the inspectors of heaven, and they were moulded in like manner in the shape of an egg, and Mot shone forth the sun and the moon, the less and the greater stars.
And the air shining thoroughly with light, by its fiery influence on the sea and earth, winds were produced, and clouds, and very great defluxions, and torrents of the heavenly waters. And when these things, by the heat of the sun, were parted and separated from their proper places, and all met again in the air, and were dashed to pieces against each other, thunders and lightnings were the effect; and at the sound of the thunders, the before-mentioned intelligent animals were awakened, and frightened by the noise, and male and female moved upon the earth, and in the sea.
(After these things our Author proceeds to say:) These things are written m the Cosmogony of Taautus, and in his memoirs, and from the conjectures, and natural signs which his mind perceived and discovered, and where-with he has enlightened us.
Afterwards, declaring the names of the winds North, South, and the rest, he makes this epilogue:—But these [p.5] first men consecrated the plants of the earth, and judged them gods, and worshipped those things, upon which they themselves lived, and all their posterity, and all before them; to these they made libations and sacrifices. Then he proceeds:—Such were the devices of worship, agreeing with their weakness and the want of boldness of their souls.—Euseb. Praep. Evan. lib. i. c. 10.
Of the wind Colpias, and his wife Baau, which is interpreted Night, were
begotten two mortals, called Ćon and Protogonus: and
Ćon found out food from
Those that were begotten of these were called Genus and Genea, and they dwelt in Phoenicia: and when there were great droughts they stretched forth their hands to heaven towards the Sun; for him they thought the only lord of heaven, calling him Beelsamin, which in Phoenician is Lord of Heaven, but in the Greek Zeus.
Afterwards by Genus, the son of Protogonus and Ćon, were begotten [p.6] mortal children, whose names were Phos, Pur, and Phlox. These found out the method of producing fire by rubbing pieces of wood against each other, and taught men the use thereof. These begat sons of vast bulk and height, whose names were given to the mountains on which they first seised: thus from them were named Mount Cassius, and Libanus, Antilibanus, and Brathu.
Memrumus and Hypsuranius were the issue of these men having intercourse with their mothers, the women of those times, without shame, lying with any man they chanced to meet. Then Hypsuranius inhabited Tyre: and he invented the making of huts of reeds and rushes, and the papyrus. And he fell into enmity with his brother Usous, who first made clothing for the body of the skins of the wild beasts which he could catch. And when there were violent storms of rain and wind, the trees in Tyre being rubbed against each other, took fire, and the forest there was consumed. And Usous having taken a tree, and broken off its boughs, first dared to venture on the sea. And he consecrated two pillars to Fire and Wind, and worshipped them, and poured out to them the blood of the wild beasts he took in hunting: and when there was an end of these (the storm and fire?) [p.7] he consecrated to them the stumps of wood that remained, and worshipped the pillars, and held anniversary feasts unto the stumps.
And in the times after the generation of Hypsuranius, were Agreus and Halieus, the inventors of the arts of hunting and fishing, from whom huntsmen and fishermen are named.
Of these were begotten two brothers who discovered iron, and the forging thereof. One of these called Chrysor, who is the same with Hephaestus, exercised himself in words, and charms, and divinations; and he invented the hook, bait, and fishing-line, and boats slightly built; and he was the first of all men that sailed. Wherefore he was worshipped after his death as a God, and called Diamichius. And it is said his brothers invented the way of making walls of bricks.
Afterwards, from this generation were born two youths, one of whom was called Technites, the other Geinus Autochthon. These discovered the method of mingling stubble with the loam of the bricks, and of drying them in the sun; and found out tiling.
By these were begotten others, of which one was called Agrus, the other
Agrouerus or Agrotes, of whom in Phoenicia there was a statue held in the
highest veneration, and a temple drawn by yokes of oxen: and at Byblus he is
called, by way of eminence, the greatest of the Gods. These invented courts, and
fences for houses, and caves or cellars: husbandmen, and such as hunt with dogs,
derive their origin from these: they are called also Aletae, and Titans.
From these were descended Amynus and Magus, who taught men to construct villages and tend flocks.
By these men were begotten Misor and Sydyc, that is, Well-freed and Just: and they found out the use of salt.
From Misor came Taautus, who invented the writing of the first letters; him the Egyptians called Thoor, the Alexandrians Thoyth, and the Greeks Hermes. But from Sydyc came the Dioscuri, or Cabiri, or Corybantes, or Samothvaces: these (he says) first built a ship complete.
From these descended others, who discovered medicinal herbs, and the cure of poisons and charms.
Contemporary with these was one Elioun, which imports Hypsistus, (the most high) and his wife called [p.9] Beruth, and they dwelt about Byblus; of whom was begotten Epigeus or Autochthon, whom they afterwards called Ouranus (Heaven); so that from him that element, which is over us, by reason of its excellent beauty is named heaven: and he had a sister of the same parents, and she was called Ge (Earth), and by reason of her beauty the earth was called by the same name.
Hypsistus, the father of these, having been killed in a conflict with wild beasts, was consecrated, and his children offered libations and sacrifices unto him.
But Ouranus, taking the kingdom of his father, married his sister Ge, and had by her four sons, Ilus who is called Cronus, and Betylus, and Dagon who is Siton, and Atlas.
But by other wives Ouranus had much issue; whereat Ge, being grieved and jealous, reproached Ouranus, so that they parted from each other: but Ouranus, though he had parted from her, yet by force returned whenever he pleased, and having laid with her again departed; moreover he attempted to kill the children he had by her; Ge also often defended or avenged herself, gathering unto her auxiliary powers.
But when Cronus came to man's age, by the advice and assistance of Hermes
Trismegistus, who was his secretary, he opposed his father Ouranus, that he
might avenge his mother. And Cronus had children, Persephone and Athena; the
former died a virgin; but, by the advice of Athena and Hermes, Cronus made of
iron a scimitar and a spear. Then Hermes, addressing the allies of Cronus with
magic words, wrought in them a keen desire to fight against Ouranus in behalf of
Ge. And thus Cronus overcoming Ouranus in battle, drove him from his kingdom,
and succeeded him in the imperial power. In the battle was taken a well-beloved
concubine of Ouranus who was pregnant; Cronus gave her in marriage to Dagon, and
she was delivered, and called the child Demaroon.
After these events Cronus builds a wall round about his habitation, and founds Byblus, the first city of Phoenicia. Afterwards Cronus suspecting his own brother Atlas, by the advice of Hermes, threw him into a deep cavern in the earth, and buried him.
At this time the descendants of the [p.11] Dioscuri, having built some light and other more complete ships, put to to sea; and being out over against Mount Cassius, there consecrated a temple.
But the auxiliaries of Ilus, who is Cronus, were called Eloim, (as it were) the allies of Cronus; they were called after Cronus. And Cronus, having a son called Sadidus, dispatched him with his own sword, because he held him in suspicion, and with his own hand deprived his son of life.
And in like manner he cut off the head of his own daughter, so that all the gods were amazed at the mind of Cronus.
But in process of time, Ouranus being in banishment, sent his daughter Astarte, with two other sisters, Rhea and Dione, to cut off Cronus by deceit; but Cronus took the damsels, and married them being his own sisters. Ouranus, understanding this, he sent Eimarmene and Hora with other auxiliaries to make war against him: but Cronus gained the affections of these also, and kept them with himself. Moreover, the god Ouranus devised Bsetulia, contriving stones that moved as having life,
And Cronus begat on Astarte seven [p.12] daughters called Titanides, or Artemides; and he begat on Rhea seven sons, the youngest of whom was consecrated from his birth; also by Dione he had daughters, and by Astarte moreover two sons, Pothos and Eros.
And Dagon, after he had found out bread-corn and the plough, was called Zeus Arotrius.
To Sydyc, called the just, one of the Titanides bare Asclepius: Cronus had also in Peraea three sons, Cronus bearing his father's name, and Zeus Belus, and Apollo.
Contemporary with these were Pontus, and Typhon, and Nereus the father of Pontus: from Pontus descended Sidon, who by the excellence of her singing first invented the hymns of odes or praises: and Posidon.
But to Demaroon was born Melicarthus, who is also called Heracles.
Then again Ouranus makes war against Pontus, but parting from him attaches himself to Demaroon. Demaroon invades Pontus, but Pontus puts him to flight, and Demaroon vows a sacrifice for his escape.
In the thirty-second year of his power and reign, Ilus, who is Cronus, having laid an ambuscade for his [p.13] father Ouvanus in a certain place in the middle of the earth, and having gotten him into his hands, dismembers him near fountains and rivers. There Ouranus was consecrated, and his spirit was separated, and the blood of his parts dropt into the fountains and the waters of the rivers; and the place is shewed even to this day.
(Then our historian, after some other things, goes on thus:) But Astarte called the greatest, and Demaroon entitled Zeus, and Adodus named the king of gods, reigned over the country by the consent of Cronus: and Astarte put upon her head, as the mark of her sovereignty, a bull's head: and travelling about the habitable world, she found a star falling through the air, which she took up, and consecrated in the holy island Tyre: and the Phoenicians say that Astarte is Aphrodite.
Cronus, also going about the habitable world, gave to his daughter Athena the kingdom of Attica: and when there happened a plague and mortality, Cronus offered up his only son as a sacrifice to his father Ouranus, and circumcised himself, and forced his allies to do the same: and not long afterwards he consecrated [p.14] after his death another son, called Muth, whom he had by Rhea; him the Phoenicians call Death and Pluto.
After these things, Cronus gives the city of Byblus to the goddess Baaltis, which is Dione, and Berytus to Posidon, and to the Caberi, the husbandmen and fishermen: and they consecrated the remains of Pontus at Berytus.
But before these things the god Taautus, having represented Ouranus, made types of the countenances of the gods Cronus, and Dagon, and the sacred characters of the other elements. He contrived also for Cronus the ensign of his royal power, having four eyes in the parts before and in the parts behind, two of them closing as in sleep; and upon the shoulders four wings, two in the act of flying, and two reposing as at rest. And the symbol was, that Cronus whilst he slept was watching, and reposed whilst he was awake. And in like manner with respect to his wings, that whilst he rested he was flying, yet rested whilst he flew. But to the other gods there were two wings only to each upon his shoulders, to intimate that they flew under the controul of Cronus; he had also two wings upon his head, the one for [p.15] the most governing part, the mind and one for the sense.
And Cronus coming into the country of the south, gave all Egypt to the god Taautus, that it might be his kingdom.
These things, says he, the Caberi, the seven sons of Sydec, and their eighth brother Asclepius, first of all set down in memoirs, as the god Taautus commanded them.
All these things the son of Thabion, the first Hierophant of all among the Phoenicians, allegorized and mixed up with the occurrences and passions of nature and the world, and delivered to the priests and prophets, the superintendants of the mysteries: and they, perceiving the rage for these allegories increase, delivered them to their successors, and to foreigners: of whom one was Isiris, the inventor of the three letters, the brother of Chna, who is called the first Phoenician.—Euseb. Praep. Evan. lib. I. c. 10.
OF THE MYSTICAL SACRIFICE OF THE EGYPTIANS.
It was the custom among the ancients, in times of great calamity, to prevent the
ruin of all, for the rulers of the city or nation to sacrifice to the avenging
deities the most beloved [p.16]
of their children as the price of redemption: they who were devoted for this
purpose were offered mystically.
For Cronus, whom the Phoenicians call Il, and who after his death was deified and instated in the planet which bears his name, when king, had by a nymph of the country called Anobret an only son, who on that account is styled Ieoud, for so the Phoenicians still call an only son: and when great danger from war beset the land he adorned the altar, and invested this son with the emblems of royalty, and sacrificed him.—Euseb. Praep. Evan. lib. I. C. 10.
OF THE SERPENT.
Taautus first consecrated the basilisk, and introduced the worship of the serpent tribe; in which he was followed by the Phoenicians and Egyptians. For this animal was held by him to be the most inspirited of all the reptiles, and of a fiery nature; inasmuch as it exhibits an incredible celerity, moving by its spirit without either hands, or feet, or any of those external organs, by which other animals effect their motion. And in its progress it assumes a variety of forms, moving in a [p.17] spiral course, and at what degree of swiftness it pleases. And it is very long-lived, and has the quality not only of putting off its old age, and assuming a second youth, but it receives a greater increase. And when it has fulfilled the appointed measure of its existence, it consumes itself: as Taautus has laid down in the sacred books, wherefore this animal is introduced in the sacred rites and mysteries.—Euseb. Praep. Evan. lib. i. c. 10.
THE CHALDĆAN HISTORY
BEROSSUS, ABYDENUS, AND MEGASTHENES.
OF THE CHALDĆAN KINGS.
This is the history which Berossus has transmitted to us. He tells us that the first king was Alorus of Babylon, a Chaldaean; he reigned ten sari: and afterwards Alaparus, and Amelon who came from Pantibiblon: then Ammenon the Chaldaean, in whose time appeared the Musarus Oannes the Annedotus from the Erythraean sea. (But Alexander Polyhistor anticipating the event, has said that he appeared in the first year; but Apollodorus says that it was after forty sari; Abydenus, however, makes the second Annedotus appear after twenty-six sari.) Then succeeded Megalarus from the city of Pantibiblon; and he reigned eighteen sari: and after him Daonus the shepherd from Pantibiblon reigned ten sari; in his time (he says) appeared again from the Erythraean sea a fourth Annedotus, having the same form with those above, the shape of [p.20] a fish blended with that of a man. Then reigned Euedoreschus from Pantibiblon, for the term of eighteen sari; in his days there appeared another personage from the Erythraean sea like the former, having the same complicated form between a fish and a man, whose name was Odacon. (All these, says Apollodorus, related particularly and circumstantially whatever Oannes had informed them of: concerning these Abydenus has made no mention.) Then reigned Amempsinus, a Chaldaean from Laranchae; and he being the eighth in order reigned ten sari. Then reigned Otiartes, a Chaldaean, from Laranchae; and he reigned eight sari. And upon the death of Otiartes, his son Xisuthrus reigned eighteen sari: in his time happened the great deluge. So that the sum of all the kings is ten; and the term which they collectively reigned an hundred and twenty sari.—Syncel. Chron. 39. Euseb. Chron. 5.
OF THE CHALDĆAN KINGS AND THE DELUGE.
So much concerning the wisdom of the Chaldaeans.
It is said that the first king of the country was Alorus, who gave out a report that he was appointed by God to be the Shepherd of the people: he reigned ten sari: now a sarus is esteemed to be three thousand six hundred years; a neros six hundred; and a sossus sixty.
After him Alaparus reigned three sari: to him succeeded Amillarus from the city of Pantibiblon, who reigned thirteen sari; in his time a semidaemon called Annedotus, very like to Oannes, came up a second time from the sea: after him Ammenon reigned twelve sari, who was of the city of Pantibiblon: then Megalarus of the same place eighteen sari: then Daos, the shepherd, governed for the space of ten sari; he was of Pantibiblon; in his time [p.22] four double-shaped personages came out of the sea to land, whose names were Euedocus, Eneugamus, Eneuboulus, and Anementus: after these things was Anodaphus, in the time of Euedoreschus. There were afterwards other kings, and last of all Sisithrus: so that in the whole, the number amounted to ten kings, and the term of their reigns to an hundred and twenty sari. (And among other things not irrelative to the subject, he continues thus concerning the deluge:) After Euedoreschus some others reigned, and then Sisithrus. To him the deity Cronus foretold that on the fifteenth day of the month Desius there would be a deluge, and commanded him to deposit all the writings whatever that he had, in the city of the Sun in Sippara. Sisithrus, when he had complied with these commands, instantly sailed to Armenia, and was immediately inspired by God. During the prevalence of the waters Sisithrus sent out birds, that he might judge if the flood had subsided. But the birds passing over an unbounded sea, and not finding any place of rest, returned again to Sisithrus. This he repeated. And when upon the third trial he succeeded, for they then returned with their feet stained with mud, the gods translated him from among men. With respect to the vessel, which yet [p.23] remains in Armenia, it is a custom of the inhabitants to form bracelets and amulets of its wood.—Syncel. 38.—Euseb. Praep. Evan. lib. 9.—Euseb. Chron. 5. 8.
OF THE TOWER OF BABEL.
They say that the first inhabitants of the earth, glorying in their own strength and size, and despising the gods, undertook to raise a tower whose top should reach the sky, where Babylon now stands: but when it approached the heaven, the winds assisted the gods, and overturned the work upon its contrivers: and its ruins are said to be at Babylon: and the gods introduced a diversity of tongues among men, who till that time had all spoken the same language: and a war arose between Cronus and Titan: but the place in which they built the tower is now called Babylon, on account of the confusion of the tongues; for confusion is by the Hebrews called Babel.—Euseb. Praep. Evan. lib. 9.—Syncel. Chron, 55.—Euseb. Chron. 13.
FROM ALEXANDER POLYHISTOR.
OF THE COSMOGONY AND CAUSES OF THE DELUGE.
Berossus, in his first book concerning the history of Babylonia, informs us that
he lived in the time of Alexander the son of Philip. And he mentions that there
were written accounts preserved at Babylon with the greatest care, comprehending
a term of fifteen myriads of years. These writings contained a history of the
heavens and the sea; of the birth of mankind; also of those who had sovereign
rule; and of the actions achieved by them.
And in the first place he describes Babylonia as a country which lay between the Tigris and Euphrates. He mentions that it abounded with wheat, barley, ocrus, sesamum; and in the lakes were found the roots called gongae, which were good to be eaten, and were in respect to nutriment like barley. There were also palm trees and apples, and most [p.25] kinds of fruits; fish too and birds; both those which are merely of flight, and those which take to the element of water. The part of Babylonia which is bordered upon Arabia, was barren, and without water; but that which lay on the other side had hills, and was fruitful. At Babylon there was (in these times) a great resort of people of various nations, who inhabited Chaldea, and lived without rule and order like the beast of the field.
In the first year there made its appearance, from a part of the Erythraean sea which bordered upon Babylonia, an animal endowed with reason, who was called Oannes. (According to the account of Apollodorus) the whole body of the animal was like that of a fish; and had under a fish's head another head, and also feet below, similar to those of a man, subjoined to the fish's tail. His voice too, and language, was articulate and human; and a representation of him is preserved even to this day.
This Being in the day-time used to converse with men; but took no food at that season; and he gave them an insight into letters and sciences, and every kind of art. He taught them to construct houses, to found temples, to compile laws, and explained to them the principles of [p.26] geometrical knowledge. He made them distinguish the seeds of the earth, and shewed them how to collect fruits; in short, he instructed them in every thing which could tend to soften manners and humanize mankind. From that time, so universal were his instructions, nothing has been added material by way of improvement. When the sun set, it was the custom of this Being to plunge again into the sea, and abide all night in the deep; for he was amphibious.
After this there appeared other animals like Oannes, of which Berosus promises to give an account when he comes to the history of the kings.
Moreover Oannes wrote concerning the generation of mankind; of their different ways of life, and of their civil polity; and the following is the purport of what he said:
"There was a time in which there was nothing but darkness and an abyss of waters, wherein resided most hideous beings, which were produced of a two-fold principle. Men appeared with two wings, some with four and with two faces. They had one body but two heads; the one of a man, the other of a woman. They were likewise in their several organs both male and female. Other human figures were to be seen with the legs and horns of goats. Some had horses' feet: others had the limbs of a horse [p.27] behind, but before were fashioned like men, resembling hippocentaurs. Bulls likewise bred there with the heads of men; and dogs with fourfold bodies, and the tails of fishes. Also horses with the heads of dogs: men too and other animals, with the heads run and bodies of horses and the tails of fishes. In short, there were creatures with the limbs of every species of animals. Add to these fishes, reptiles, serpents, with other wonderful animals, which assumed each he other's shape and countenance. Of all these were preserved delineations in the temple of Belus at Babylon.
"The person, who was supposed to have presided over them, was a woman named Omoroca; which in the Chaldaic language is Thalatth; which the Greeks express Thalassa, the sea: but according to the most true computation, it is equivalent to Selene, the moon. All things being in this situation, Belus came, and cut the woman asunder: and out of one half of her he formed the earth, and of the other half the heavens; and at the same time destroyed the animals in the abyss. All this (he says) was an allegorical description of nature. For the whole universe consisting of [p.28] moisture, and animals being continually generated therein; the deity (Belus) above-mentioned cut off his own head: upon which the other gods mixed the blood, as it gushed out, with the earth; and from thence men were formed. On this account it is that they are rational, and partake of divine knowledge. This Belus, whom men call Dis, divided the darkness, and separated the Heavens from the Earth, and reduced the universe to order. But the animals so lately created, not being able to bear the prevalence of light, died. Belus upon this, seeing a vast space quite uninhabited, though by nature very fruitful, ordered one of the gods to take off his head; and when it was taken off, they were to mix the blood with the soil of the earth; and from thence to form other men and animals, which should be capable of bearing the light. Belus also formed the stars, and the sun, and the moon, together with the five planets.
(In the second book was the history of the ten kings of the Chaldeans, and the periods of each reign, which consisted collectively of an hundred and twenty sari, or four hundred and thirty-two thousand years; reaching to the time of the Deluge. For Alexander, as from the writings of the Chaldaeans, enumerating the kings from the ninth Ardates to Xisuthrus, [p.29] who is called by them the tenth, proceeds in this manner;)
After the death of Ardates, his son Xisuthrus succeeded, and reigned eighteen sari. In his time happened the great Deluge; the history of which is given in this manner. The Deity, Cronus, appeared to him in a vision, and gave him notice that upon the fifteenth day of the month Daesia there would be a flood, by which mankind would be destroyed. He therefore enjoined him to commit to writing a history of the beginning, procedure, and final conclusion of all things, down to the present term; and to bury these accounts securely in the city of the Sun at Sippara; and to build a vessel, and to take with him into it his friends and relations; and to convey on board every thing necessary to sustain life, and to take in also all species of animals, that either fly or rove upon the earth; and trust himself to the deep. Having asked the Deity, whither he was to sail? he was answered, "To the Gods:" upon which he offered up a prayer for the good of mankind. And he obeyed the divine admonition: and built a vessel five stadia in length, and in breadth two. Into this he put every thing which he had got ready; and last of all conveyed into it his wife, [p.30] children, and friends. After the flood had been upon the earth, and was in time abated, Xisuthrus sent out some birds from the vessel; which not finding any food, nor any place to rest their feet, returned to him again. After an interval of some days, he sent them forth a second time; and they now returned with their feet tinged with mud. He made a trial a third time With these birds; but they returned to him no more: from whence he formed a judgment, that the surface of the earth was now above the waters. Having therefore made an opening in the vessel, and finding upon looking out, that the vessel was driven to the side of a mountain, he immediately quitted it, being attended by his wife, his daughter, and the pilot. Xisuthrus immediately paid his adoration to the earth: and having constructed an altar, offered sacrifices to the gods. These things being duly performed, both Xisuthrus and those who came out of the vessel with him, disappeared. They, who remained in the vessel, finding that the Others did not return, came out with many lamentations, and called continually on the name of Xisuthrus. Him they saw no more; but they could distinguish his voice in the air, and could hear him admonish them to pay due regard to the gods; and likewise [p.31] inform them that it was upon account of his piety that he was translated to live with the gods; that his wife and daughter, with the pilot, had obtained the same honour. To this he added that he would have them make the best of their way to Babylonia, and search for the writings at Sippara, which were to be made known to all mankind: and that the place where they then were was the land of Armenia. The remainder having heard these words, offered sacrifices to the gods; and taking a circuit, journeyed towards Babylonia.
The vessel being thus stranded in Armenia, some part of it yet remains in the Corcyrajan mountains in Armenia; and the people scrape off the bitumen, with which it had been outwardly coated, and make use of it by way of an alexipharmic and amulet. In this manner they returned to Babylon; and having found the writings at Sippara, they set about building cities, and erecting temples: and Babylon was thus inhabited again.—Syncel. Chron. 28.—Euseb. Chron. 5.8.
After the deluge, ill the tenth generation, was a certain man among the Chaldaeans renowned for his justice and great exploits, and for his skill in the celestial sciences.—Euseb. Praep. Evan. lib. 9.
From the reign of Nabonasar only are the Chaldaeans (from whom the Greek mathematicians copy) accurately acquainted with the heavenly motions: for Nabonasar collected all the mementos of the kings prior to himself, and destroyed them, that the enumeration of the Chaldaean kings might commence with him.—Syncel. Chron. 207.
OF THE DESTRUCTION OF THE JEWISH TEMPLE.
He (Nabopollasar) sent his son Nabuchodonosor with a great army against Egypt, and against Judea, upon his being informed that they had revolted from him; and by that means he subdued them all, and set fire to the temple that was at Jerusalem; and removed our people entirely out [p.33] of their own country, and transferred them to Babylon, and it happened that our city was desolate during the interval of seventy years, until the days of Cyrus king of Persia. (He then says, that) this Babylonian king conquered Egypt, and Syria, and Phoenicia, and Arabia, and exceeded in his exploits all that had reigned before him in Babylon and Chaldaea.—Joseph. contr. Appion. lib. 1. c. 19.
When Nabopollasar his (Nabuchodonosor's) father, heard that the governor, whom he had set over Egypt, and the parts of Coelesyria and Phoenicia, had revolted, he was unable to put up with his delinquencies any longer, but committed certain parts of his army to his son Nabuchodonosor, who was then but young, and sent him against the rebel: and Nabuchodonosor fought with him, and conquered him, and reduced the country again under his dominion. And it happened that his father, Nabopollasar, fell into a distemper at this time, and died in the city of Babylon, after he had reigned twenty-nine years.
After a short time Nabuchodonosor, receiving the intelligence of his father's death, set the affairs of Egypt and the other countries, in order, and committed the captives he had taken from the Jews, and Phoenicians, and Syrians, and of the nations belonging to Egypt, to some of his friends, that they might conduct that part of the forces that had on heavy armour, with the rest of his baggage, to Babylonia; while he went in haste, with a few followers, across the desert to Babylon; where, when he was come, he found that affairs had been well conducted by the Chaldaeans, and that the principal person among them had preserved the kingdom for him: accordingly he now obtained possession of all his father's dominions. And he ordered the Captives to be distributed in colonies in the most proper places of Babylonia: and adorned the temple of Belus, and the Other temples, in a sumptuous and pious manner, out of the spoils he had taken in this war. He also rebuilt the old city, and added another to it on the outside, and so far restored Babylon, that none, who should besiege it afterwards, might have it in their power to divert the river, so as to facilitate an entrance into it: and this he did by building three walls about the inner city, and three about the outer. Some of these walls he [p.35] built of burnt brick and bitumen, and some of brick only. When he had thus admirably fortified the city with walls, and had magnificently adorned the gates, he added also anew palace to those in which his forefathers had adjoining them, but exceeding them in height, and in its great splendour. It would perhaps require too lung a narration, if any one were to describe it: however, as prodigiously large and magnificent as it was, it was finished in fifteen days. In this palace he erected very high walks, supported by stone pillars; and by planting what was called a pensile paradise, and replenishing it with all sorts of trees, he rendered the prospect an exact resemblance of a mountainous country. This he did to please his queen, because she to had been brought up in Media, and was fond of a mountainous situation.—Joseph. contr. Appion, bk. 1. c. 19.—Syncel. Chron. 220.—Euseb. Prcep. Evan. lib. 9.
OF THE CHALDĆAN KINGS AFTER NEBUCHADNEZZAR.
Nabuchodonosor, after he had begun to build the abovementioned wall, fell sick,
and departed this life, when he had reigned forty-three years; whereupon his son
Evilmerodachus [p.36] obtained the kingdom. He governed public affairs in an illegal and improper
manner, and by means of a plot laid against him by Neriglissoorus, his sister's
husband, was slain when he had reigned but two years.
After his death Neriglissoorus, who had conspired against him, succeeded him in the kingdom, and reigned four years.
His son Laborosoarchodus obtained the kingdom though he was but a child, and kept it nine months; but by reason of the evil practices he exhibited, a plot was laid against him by his friends, and he was tormented to death.
After his death, the conspirators assembled, and by common consent put the crown upon the head of Nabonnedus, a man of Babylon, and one of the leaders of that insurrection. In his reign it was that the walls of the city of Babylon were curiously built with burnt brick and bitumen.
But in the seventeenth year of his reign, Cyrus came out of Persia with a great army, and having conquered all the rest of Asia, he came hastily to Babylonia. When Nabonnedus perceived he was advancing to at- [p.37] tack him, he assembled his forces and opposed him, but was defeated, and fled with a few of his attendants, and was shut up in the city Borsippus. Whereupon Cyrus took Babylon, and gave orders that the outer walls should be demolished, because the city had proved very troublesome to him, and difficult to take. He then marched to Borsippus, to besiege Nabonnedus; but as Nabonnedus delivered himself into his hands without holding out the place, he was at first kindly treated by Cyrus, who gave him an habitation in Carmania, but sent him out of Babylonia. Accordingly Nabonnedus spent the remainder of his time in that country, and there died.—Joseph. contr. App. lib. 1. c. 20.—Euseb. Praep. Evan. lib. 10.
OF THE FEAST OF SACEA.
Berossus, in the first book of his Babylonian history, says; That in the eleventh month, called Loos, is celebrated in Babylon the feast of Sacea for five days; in which it is the custom that the masters should obey their domestics, one of whom is led [p.38] round the house, clothed in a royal garment, and him they call Zoganes.—Athenaeus, lib. 14.
Abydenus, in his history of the Assyrians, has preserved the following fragment
of Megasthenes, who says: That Nabucodrosorus, having become more powerful than
Hercules, invaded Libya and
Iberia, and when he had rendered them tributary, he extended his conquests over
the inhabitants of the shores upon the right of the sea. It is moreover related
by the Chaldaeans, that as he went up into his palace he was possessed by some
god; and he cried out and said: "Oh! Babylonians, I, Nabucodrosorus, foretel
unto you a calamity which must shortly come to pass, which neither Belus my
ancestor, nor his queen Beltis, have power to persuade the Fates to turn away. A
Persian mule shall come, and by the assistance of your gods shall impose upon
you the yoke of slavery: the author of which shall be a Mede, the foolish pride
of Assyria. Before he should thus betray my sub- [p.40] Oh! that some sea or whirlpool might receive him, and his memory be blotted out
for ever; or that he might be cast out to wander through some desert, where
there are neither cities nor the trace of men, a solitary exile among rocks and
caverns, where beasts and birds alone abide. But for me, before he shall have
conceived these mischiefs in his mind, a happier end will be provided."
When he had thus prophesied, he expired: and was succeeded by his son Evilmaluruchus, who was slain by his kinsman Neriglisares: and Neriglisares left Labassoarascus his son: and when he also had suffered death by violence, they made Nabannidochus king, being no relation to the royal race; and in his reign Cyrus took Babylon, and granted him a principality in Carmania.
And concerning the rebuilding of Babylon by Nabuchodonosor, he writes thus: It is said that from the beginning all things were water, called the sea (Thalatth?): that Belus caused this state of things to cease, and appointed to each its proper place: and he surrounded Babylon with a wall: but in process of time this wall disappeared: and Nabuchodonosor wallcd it in again, and it remained so with its brazen gates until the time of the Macedonian conquest.
And after other things he says: Na- [p.41] buchodonosor having succeeded to the kingdom, built the walls of Babylon in a triple circuit in fifteen days; and he turned the river Armacale, a branch of the Euphrates, and the Acracanus: and above the city of Sippara he dug a receptacle for the waters, whose perimeter was forty parasangs, and whose depth was twenty cubits; and he placed gates at the entrance thereof, by opening which they irrigated the plains, and these they call Echetognomones (sluices:) and he constructed dykes against the irruptions of the Erythraean sea, and built the city of Teredon against the incursions of the Arabs; and he adorned the palace with trees, calling them hanging gardens.—Euseb. Praep. Evan. lib. 10.—Euseb. Chron. 49.
THE EGYPTIAN HISTORIES:
THE HERMETIC CREED;
THE OLD CHRONICLE;
THE REMAINS OF MANETHO;
THE LATERCULUS OF ERATOSTHENES.
THE HERMETIC CREED:
Before all things that really exist, and before the beginning of all time, there is one God, prior to the first God, and ruler of the world, remaining immoveable in the solitude of his unity; for neither is intelligence immixed with him, nor any other thing. He is the exemplar of himself; the Father, the self-begotten God, who is the only Father, and is truly good. For he is the greatest and the first, the fountain of all things and the root of all primary intellectual forms. But out of this one, the God that is self-sufficient shone forth of himself: for which reason he is the father of himself, and all- sufficient: for he is the beginning and the God of gods. He is unity from the only one; before essence, and yet he is the beginning of essence, for from him is entity and essence; on which account he is celebrated as the prince of intelli- [p.46] gence. These are the most ancient principles of all things, which Hermes places first in order, before the ethereal, empyrean, and celestial deities.—Jamblichus.
THE OLD EGYPTIAN CHRONICLE.
Among the Egyptians there is a certain tablet called the Old Chronicle,
containing thirty dynasties in 113 descents, during the long period of 36,525
years. The first series of princes was that of the
Auritae; the second was that of the Mestraeans; the third of Egyptians. The
Chronicle runs as follows:
To Hephaestus is assigned no time, as he is apparent both by night and day.
Helius the son of Hephaestus reigned three myriads of years.
Then Cronus and the other twelve divinities reigned 3984 years.
Next in order are the demigods, in number eight, who reigned 217 years.
After these are enumerated 15 generations of the Cynic circle, which take up 443 years.
The 16th Dynasty is of the Tanites, eight kings, which lasted 190 years.
17th Memphites, 4 in descent, 103 years.
18th Memphites, 14 in descent, 348 years.
19th Diospolites, 5 in descent, 194 years.
20th Diospohtes, 8 in descent, 228 years.
21st Tanites, 6 in descent, 121 years.
22nd Tanites, 3 in descent, 48 years.
23rd Diospolites, 2 in descent, 19 years.
24th Saites, 3 in descent, 44 years.
25th Ethiopians, 3 in descent, 44 years.
26th Memphites, 7 in descent, 177 years.
27th Persians, 5 in descent, 124 years.
29th Tanites, ... in descent, 39 years.
30th a Tanite, 1 in descent, 18 years.
In all, 30 Dynasties, and 36,525 years.—Syncel. Chron. 51.—Euseb. Chron. 6.
THE EPISTLE OF MANETHO, THE SEBENNYTE, TO PTOLEMY PHILADELPHUS.
To the great and august king Ptolemy Philadelphus: Manetho, the high priest and
scribe of the sacred adyta in Egypt, being by birth a Sebennyte and a citizen of
Heliopolis, to his sovereign
Ptolemy, humbly greeting:
It is right for us, most mighty king, to pay due attention to all things which it is your pleasure we should take into consideration. In answer then to your inquiries concerning the things which shall come to pass in the world, I shall, according to your commands, lay before you what I have gathered from the sacred books written by Hermes Trismegistus, our forefather. Farewell, my prince and sovereign.—Syncel. Chron. 40.—Euseb. Chron. 6.
THE EGYPTIAN DYNASTIES.
THE DYNASTY OF THE DEMIGODS.
The 1st of the Egyptian kings was Hephgestus, who reigned 724 years and a half
and 4 days.
The 2nd was Helius, the son of Hephaestus, 86 years.
3rd, Agathodeemon, who reigned 56 and a half and ten days.
4th, Cronus, 40 and a half years.
5th, Osiris and Isis, 35 years.
6th, ... years.
7th, Typhon, 29 years.
8th, Horus, the demigod, 25 years.
9th, Ares, the demigod, 23 years.
10th, Anubis, the demigod, 17 years.
11th, Heracles, the demigod, 15 years.
12th, Apollo, the demigod, 25 years.
13th, Ammon, the demigod, 30 years.
14th, Tithoes, the demigod, 27 years.
15th, Sosus, the demigod, 32 years.
16th, Zeus, the demigod, 20 years.—Syncel. Chron. 19.—Euseb. Chron. 7.
THE EGYPTIAN DYNASTIES AFTER THE DELUGE.
THE FIRST DYNASTY.
1. After the dead demigods the first dynasty consisted of eight kings, of whom
the first was Menes the Thinite; he reigned 62 years, and perished by a wound
received from an hippopotamus.
2. Athothis, his son, reigned 57 years; he built the palaces at Memphis, and left the anatomical books, for he was a physician.
3. Cencenes, his son, reigned 31 years.
4. Venephes, his son, reigned 23 years. In his time a great plague raged through Egypt. He raised the pyramids near Cochome.
5. Usaphsedus, his son, reigned 20 years.
6. Miebidus, his son, 26 years.
7. Semempsis, his son, reigned 18 years. In his reign a terrible pestilence afflicted Egypt.
8. Bienaches, his son reigned 26 years.
The whole number of years amounted to 253.
THE SECOND DYNASTY.
Of nine Thinite kings.
1. Boethus the first reigned 38 years. During his reign a chasm of the earth opened near Bubastus, and many persons perished.
2. Caeachos reigned 39 years. Under him the bulls Apis in Memphis, and Meneus in Heliopolis, and the Mendesian goat, were appointed to be gods.
3. Binothris reigned 47 years. In whose time it was judged that women might hold the imperial government.
4. Tlas reigned 17 years.
5. Sethenes reigned 41 years.
6. Chaeres 17 years.
7. Nephercheres 25 years. In his time it is said the Nile flowed with honey during eleven days.
(8. Sesochris 48 years, whose height was five cubits, and his breadth three.
9. Cheneres 30 years.
The whole number of years is 302.)
THE THIRD DYNASTY.
Of nine Memphite kings.
1. Necherophes reigned 28 years. In his time the Libyans revolted from the Egyptians, but on account of an unexpected increase of the moon they surrendered themselves for fear.
2. Tosorthrus reigned 29 years. He is called Asclepius by the Egyptians, for his medical knowledge. He built a house of hewn stones, and greatly patronized writing.
3. Tyris reigned 7 years.
4. Mesochris 17 years.
5. Soiphis 16 years.
6. Tosertasis 19 years.
7. Achis 42 years.
8. Siphuris 30 years.
9. Cerpheres 26 years.
Altogether 214 years.
THE FOURTH DYNASTY.
Of eight Memphite kings of a different race.
1. Soris reigned 29 years.
2. Suphis reigned 63 years. He [p.54] built the largest pyramid: he was called also Peroptes, and was translated to the gods, and wrote the sacred book.
3. Suphis reigned 66 years.
4. Mencheres 63 years.
5. Ratoeses 25 years.
6. Bicheres 22 years.
7. Sebercheres 7 years.
8. Thampthis 9 years.
Altogether 274 years.
THE FIFTH DYNASTY.
Of nine Elephantine kings.
1. Usercheris reigned 28 years.
2. Sephres 13 years.
3. Nephercheres 20 years.
4. Sisiris 7 years.
5. Cheres 20 years.
6. Rathuris 44 years.
7. Mercheres 9 years.
8. Tarcheres 44 years.
9. Obnos 33 years.
Altogether 248 years.
THE SIXTH DYNASTY.
Of six Memphite kings.
1. Othoes, who was killed by his guards.
2. Phius reigned 53 years.
3. Methusuphis 7 years.
4. Phiops who began to reign at six years of age, and reigned till he had completed his hundredth year.
5. Mentesuphis reigned one year.
6. Nitocris, who was the most handsome woman of her time, of a dark complexion; she built the third pyramid, and reigned 12 years.
Altogether 203 years.
THE SEVENTH DYNASTY.
Of seventy Memphite kings, who reigned 70 days.
THE EIGHTH DYNASTY.
Of twenty-seven Memphite kings, who reigned 146 years.
THE NINTH DYNASTY.
Of nineteen Heracleotic kings, who reigned 409 years.
1. The first was Achthoes, the worst of all his predecessors. He did much harm to all the inhabitants of Egypt, was seized with madness, and killed by a crocodile.
THE TENTH DYNASTY.
Of 19 Heracleotic kings, who reigned 185 years.
THE ELEVENTH DYNASTY.
Of sixteen Diospolites kings, who reigned 43 years. Among whom Ammenemes reigned
The whole number of the above-mentioned kings is 192, who reigned during a space of 2308 years and 70 days.—Syncel. Chron. 54 to 59.—Euseb. Chron. 14, 15.
THE SECOND BOOK OF MANETHO
THE TWELFTH DYNASTY.
Of seven Diospolite kings.
1. Geson Goses the son of Ammanemes. He reigned 46 years.
2. Ammanemes reigned 38 years. He was slain by his eunuchs.
3. Sesostris 48 years. He conquered all Asia in nine years, and Europe as far as Thrace, every where erecting monuments of his conquests of those nations; of men among nations who acted bravely, but among the degenerate he erected figures of women, engraving their follies upon the pillars. By the Egyptians he is supposed to be the first after Osiris.
4. Lachares 8 years, who built the Labyrinth in Arsenoite as a tomb for himself.
5. Ammeres 8 years.
6. Ammenemes 8 years.
7. Scemiophris, his sister, 4 years.
Altogether 160 years.
THE THIRTEENTH DYNASTY.
60 Diospolite kings, who reigned 184 years.
The names are lost.
THE FOURTEENTH DYNASTY.
Is lost altogether.
THE FIFTEENTH3 DYNASTY.
Of the Shepherds.
There were six foreign Phoenician kings: they took Memphis, and built a city in the Sethroite nome, from whence they made an invasion, and conquered all Egypt; of whom
1. Saites reigned 19 years, after whom the Saite Nome is so called.
2. Beon reigned 44 years.
3. Pachnan 61 years.
4. Staan 50 years.
5. Archies 49 years.
6. Aphobis 61 years.
Altogether 284 years.
THE SIXTEENTH DYNASTY.
Of 32 Grecian shepherds, who reigned 518 years.
THE SEVENTEENTH DYNASTY.
Consisted of 43 shepherd kings and 43 Theban Diospolites.
The Shepherds and Thebans reigned altogether 151 years.
THE EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY.
Of sixteen Diospolite kings.
2. Chebros 13 years.
3. Amenophthis 24 years.
4. Amersis 22 years.
5. Misaphris4 13 years.
6. Misphragmathosis 26 years, in [p.60] whose time happened the deluge of Deucalion.
7. Tuthmosis 9 years.
8. Amenophis 31 years. He is supposed to be Memnon, to whom the musical statue is erected.
9. Horus 37 years.
10. Acherrhes 32 years.
11. Rathos 6 years.
12. Chebres 12 years.
13. Acherrhes 12 years.
14. Armeses 5 years.
15. Rammesses 1 year.
16. Amenoph 19 years.
Altogether 263 years.
THE NINETEENTH DYNASTY.
Of seven Diospolite kings.
1. Sethos reigned 51 years.
2. Rapsaces 61 years.
3. Ammenephthes 20 years.
4. Rameses 60 years.
5. Ammenemnes 5 years.
6. Thuoris, who is called by Homer Polybus.
7. Alcandrus 7 years, in whose time Ilion was taken.
Altogether 209 years.
In this second book of Manetho are contained 96 kings and 2121 years.—Syncel. Chron. 59 to 75.—Euseb. Chron. 15 to 17.
THE THIRD BOOK OF MANETHO
THE TWENTIETH DYNASTY.
Of 12 Diospolite kings, who reigned 135 years.
THE TWENTY-FIRST DYNASTY.
Of seven Tanite kings.
1. Smedes reigned 26 years.
2. Psusenes, or Psuneses, 46 years.
3. Nephelcheres 4 years.
4. Amenophthis 9 years.
5. Osochor 6 years,
6. Pinaches 9 years.
7. Susenes 30 years.
Altogether 130 years.
THE TWENTY-SECOND DYNASTY.
Of nine Bubastite kings.
1. Sesonchis 21 years.
2. Osoroth 15 years.
3, 4, 5. Three Others reigned 25 years.
6. Tacellothis 13 years.
7, 8, 9. Three others 42 years.
Altogether reigned 120 years.
THE TWENTY-THIRD DYNASTY.
Of four Tanite kings.
1. Petoubates reigned 40 years, in whose time the Olympiads began.
2. Osorcho 8 years, whom the Egyptians call Hercules.
3. Psammus 10 years.
4. Zeet 31 years.
Altogether 89 years.
THE TWENTY-FOURTH DYNASTY.
Bonchoris the Saite reigned 6 [p.64] years, in whose reign a sheep spoke.
Altogether 990 years.
THE TWENTY-FIFTH DYNASTY.
Of three Ethiop kings.
1. Sabbacon, who having taken Bonchoris a captive, burnt him alive, and reigned 8 years.
2. Seuechus, his son, reigned 14 years.
3. Tarcus 18 years.
Altogether 40 years.
THE TWENTY-SIXTH DYNASTY.
Of nine Saite kings.
1. Stephinates reigned 7 years.
2. Nerepsos 6 years.
3. Nechao 8 years.
4. Psammiticus 54 years.
5. Nechao the second 6 years. He took Jerusalem, and carried Joachas, the king, to Egypt.
6. Psammuthius 6 years.
7. Vaphris 19 years, to whom the remainder of the Jews fled when [p.65] Jerusalem was taken by the Assyrians.
8. Amosis 44 years.
9. Psammacherites5 6 months.
Altogether 150 years and six months.
THE TWENTY-SEVENTH DYNASTY.
Of eight Persian kings.
1. Cambyses reigned over Persia, his own kingdom, 5 years, and over Egypt 6 years.
2. Darius, the son of Hystaspes, 36 years.
3. Xerxes the Great 21 years.
4. Artabanus6 7 months.
5. Artaxerxes 41 years.
6. Xerxes 2 months.
7. Sogdianus 7 months.
S. Darius the son of Xerxes, 19 years.
Altogether 124 years and four months.
THE TWENTY-EIGHTH DYNASTY.
Amyrteos, the Saite, 6 years.
THE TWENTY-NINTH DYNASTY.
Of four Mendesian kings.
1. Nepherites reigned 6 years.
2. Achoris 13 years.
3. Psammuthis 1 year.
4. Nephorotes 4 months.
(5. Muthis 1 year.)
Altogether 20 years and four months.
THE THIRTIETH DYNASTY.
Of three Sebennyte kings.
1. Nectanebes 18 years.
2. Teos 2 years.
3. Nectanebes 18 years.
Altogether 38 years.
THE THIRTY-FIRST DYNASTY.
Of three Persian kings.
1. Ochus ruled Persia twenty years, and Egypt 2 years.
2. Arses reigned 3 years.
3. Darius 4 years.
Altogether 9 years.
And the whole 1050 years.—Syncel. Chron. 73 to 78.—Euseb. Chron. 16, 17.
OF THE SHEPHERD KINGS.
We had formerly a king whose name was Timaus. In his time it came to pass, I
know not how, that God was displeased with us: and there came up from the East
in a strange manner men of an ignoble race, who had the confidence to invade our
country, and easily subdued it by their power without a battle. And when they
had our rulers in their hands, they burnt our cities, and demolished the temples
of the gods, and inflicted every kind of barbarity upon the inhabitants, slaying
some, and reducing the wives and children of others to a state of slavery. At
length they made one of themselves king, whose name was Salatis: he lived at
Memphis, and rendered both the upper and lower regions of Egypt tributary, and
stationed garrisons in places which were best adapted for that purpose. But he
directed his attention principally to the security [p.69] of the eastern frontier; for he regarded with suspicion the increasing power of
the Assyrians, who he foresaw would one day undertake an invasion of the
kingdom. And observing in the Saite nome, upon the east of the Bubastite
channel, a city which from some ancient theological reference was called Avaris;
and finding it admirably adapted to his purpose, he rebuilt it, and strongly
fortified it with walls, and garrisoned it with a force of two hundred and fifty
thousand armed men. To this city Salatis repaired in summer time, to collect his
tribute, and pay his troops, and to exercise his soldiers in order to strike
terror into foreigners.
And Salatis died after a reign of nineteen years: after him reigned Beon forty-four years: and he was succeeded by Apachnas who reigned thirty-six years and seven months: after him reigned Apophis sixty-one years, and Ianias fifty years and one month. After all these reigned Assis forty-nine years and two months. These six were the first rulers amongst them, and during all the period of their dynasty, they made war upon the Egyptians in hope of exterminating the whole race. All this nation was styled [p.70] Hycsos, that is the Shepherd Kings; for the first syllable, Hyc, according to the sacred dialect, denotes a king, and Sos signifies a shepherd, but this according to the vulgar tongue; and of these is compounded the term Hycsos: some say they were Arabians. This people, who were thus denominated Shepherd Kings, and their descendants retained possession of Egypt for the space of five hundred and eleven years.
After these things he relates that the kings of Thebais and of the other parts of Egypt, made an insurrection against the Shepherds, and that a long and mighty war was carried on between them, till the Shepherds were subdued by a king whose name was Alisphragmuthosis, and were by him driven out of the rest of Egypt, and hemmed within a place containing ten thousand acres, which was called Avaris. All this tract (says Manetho) the Shepherds surrounded with a vast and strong wall, that they might retain all their possessions and their prey within a hold of strength.
And Thummosis, the son of Alisphragmuthosis, endeavoured to force them by a
siege, and beleaguered the place with a body of four hundred and eighty thousand
men; but at the moment when he despaired of reducing them by siege, they agreed
to a capitulation, that they would leave Egypt, and should be permitted to go
out without molestation wheresoever they pleased. And, according to this
stipulation, they departed from Egypt with all their families and effects, in
number not less than two hundred and forty thousand, and bent their way through
the desert towards Syria. But as they stood in fear of the Assyrians, who had
then dominion over Asia, they built a city in that country which is now called
Judaea, of sufficient size to contain this multitude of men, and named it
(In another book of the Egyptian histories Manetho says) That this people, who are here called Shepherds, in their sacred books were also styled Captives.
After the departure of this nation of Shepherds to Jerusalem, Tethmosis, the king of Egypt who drove them out, reigned twenty-five years and four months, and then died: after him his son Chebron took the government into his hands for thirteen years; after him reigned Ameno- [p.72] phis for twenty years and seven months: then his sister Amesses twenty-one years and nine months: she was succeeded by Mephres, who reigned twelve years and nine months: after him Mephramuthosis twenty-five years and ten months: then Thmosis reigned nine years and eight months; after whom Amenophis thirty years and ten months: then Orus thirty-six years and five months: then his daughter Acenchres twelve years and one month: after her Rathotis nine years: then Acencheres twelve years and five months: another Acencheres twelve years and three months: after him Armais four years and one month: after him reigned Ramesses one year and four months: then Armesses the son of Miammous sixty-six years and two months: after him Amenophis nineteen years and six months: and he was succeeded by Sethosis who is called Ramesses, he maintained an army of cavalry and a naval force.
This king (Sethosis) appointed his brother Armais his viceroy over Egypt: he also invested him with all the other authority of a king, but with these restrictions; that he should not wear the diadem, nor interfere with the queen, the mother of his children, nor abuse the royal concubines. Sethothis then made an expedition against Cyprus and Phoenicia, and waged [p.73] war with the Assyrians and Medes; and he subdued them all, some by force of arras, and others without a blow, by the mere terror of his power. And being puffed up with his success, he advanced still more confidently, and overthrew the cities, and subdued the countries of the East.
But Armais, who was left in Egypt, took advantage of the opportunity, and fearlessly committed all those acts which his brother had enjoined him not to do: he violated the queen, and continued an unrestrained intercourse with the rest, and at the persuasion of his friends he assumed the diadem, and openly opposed his brother.
But the ruler over the priests of Egypt sent to Sethosis, and informed him of what had happened, and how his brother had set himself up in opposition to his power. Upon this Sethosis immediately returned to Pelusium, and recovered his kingdom. The country of Egypt took its name from Sethosis, who was called also AEgyptus, as was his brother Armais known by the name of Danaus.—Joseph. contr. App. lib. I. c. 14, 15.
OF THE ISRAELITES.
This king (Amenophis) was desirous of beholding the gods, as Orus, one of his
predecessors in the kingdom, had seen them. And he communicated his desire to a
priest of the same name with himself, Amenophis, the son of Papis, who Seemed to
partake of the divine nature, both in his wisdom and knowledge of futurity: and
Amenophis returned him answer, that he might behold the gods, if he would
cleanse the country of all lepers and other unclean persons that were in it.
Well pleased with this information, the king gathered together out of the land of Egypt all that laboured under any defect in body, to the amount of eighty thousand, and sent them to the quarries, which are situate on the east side of the Nile, that they might work in them and be separated from the rest of the Egyptians.
And (he says) there were among them some learned priests who were affected with leprosy. And Amenophis the wise man and prophet, fearful lest the vengeance of the gods should fall both on himself and on the king, if it should appear that violence had been offered them, added this also [p.75] in a prophetic spirit;—that certain people would come to the assistance of these polluted wretches, and would subdue Egypt, and hold it in possession for thirteen years. These tidings however he dared not to communicate to the king, but left in writing an account of what should come to pass, and destroyed himself, at which the king was fearfully distressed.
(After which he writes thus, word for word:) When those that were sent to work in the quarries had continued for some time in that miserable state, the king was petitioned to set apart for their habitation and protection the city Avaris, which had been left desolate by the Shepherds; and he granted them their desire: now this city, according to the theology above, is a Typhonian city.
When these men had taken possession of the city, and found it well adapted for a revolt, they appointed over themselves a ruler out of the priests of Heliopolis, one whose name was Osarsiph, and they bound themselves by oath that they would be obedient. Osarsiph then, in the first place enacted this law, that they should neither worship the gods, nor abstain from any of those sacred animals which the Egyptians hold in the highest veneration, but sacrifice and slay them all, and that they should connect themselves with none but [p.76] such as were of that confederacy. When he had made such laws as these, and many others of a tendency directly in opposition to the customs of the Egyptians, he gave orders that they should employ the multitude of hands in rebuilding the walls about the city, and hold themselves in readiness for war with Amenophis the king, whilst he took into his confidence and counsels some others of the priests and unclean persons: and he sent ambassadors to the city called Jerusalem, to those Shepherds who had been expelled by Tethmosis, whereby he informed them of the affairs of himself and of the others who had been treated in the same ignominious manner, and requested they would come with one consent to his assistance in this war against Egypt. He also promised in the first place to reinstate them in their ancient city and country Avaris, and provide a plentiful maintenance for their host, and fight for them as occasion might require; and informed them that they could easily reduce the country under dominion. The Shepherds received this message with the greatest joy, and quickly mustered to the number of two hundred thousand men, and came up to Avaris.
Now Amenophis the king of Egypt, when he was informed of their invasion, was in great consternation, [p.77] remembering the prophecy of Amenophis, the son of Papis, and he assembled the armies of the Egyptians, and took counsel with the leaders, and commanded the sacred animals to be brought to him, especially those which were held in the greatest veneration in the temples, and particularly charged the priests to conceal the images of their gods with the utmost care. And his son Sethos, who was also called Ramesses from his father Rampses, being but five years old he committed to the protection of a friend. And he marched with the rest of the Egyptians being three hundred thousand warriors, against the enemy, who advanced to meet him; but he did not attack them, thinking it would be to wage war against the gods, but he returned, and came again to Memphis, where he took Apis and the other sacred animals he had sent for, and retreated immediately into Ethiopia together with all his army, and all the multitude of the Egyptians: for the king of Ethiopia was under obligations to him, wherefore he received him kindly, and took care of all the multitude that was with him, while the country supplied all that was necessary for their food. He also allotted to him cities and villages during his exile, which was to continue from its beginning during the predestined thirteen years. More- [p.78] over he pitched a camp for an Ethiopian army upon the borders of Egypt, as a protection to king Amenophis.
While such was the state of things in Ethiopia, the people of Jerusalem, having come down with the unclean of the Egyptians, treated the inhabitants with such barbarity, that those who witnessed their impieties believed that their joint sway was more execrable than that which the Shepherds had formerly exercised: for they not only set fire to the cities and villages, but committed every kind of sacrilege, and destroyed the images of the gods, and roasted and fed upon those sacred animals that were worshipped; and having compelled the priests and prophets to kill and sacrifice them, they cast them naked out of the country. It is said also that the priest, who ordained their polity and laws, was by birth of Heliopolis, and his name Osarsiph, from Osiris the god of Heliopolis: but that when he went over to these people his name was changed, and he was called Moyses.—Joseph. contr. App. lib. I. c. 26.
OF THE ISRAELITES.
(Manetho again says:) After this Amenophis returned from Ethiopia with a great force, and Rampses also, his son, with other forces, and encountering the Shepherds and the unclean people, they defeated them and slew multitudes of them, and pursued them to the bounds of Syria.—Joseph. contr. App. lib. I. c. 27.
CANON OF THE KINGS OF THEBES.
The first who reigned was Mines the Thebinite, the Thebean; which is by
interpretation Dionius. He reigned sixty-two years, and lived in the year of the
The 2nd of the Theban kings reigned Athothes the son of Mines, 59 years. He is called by interpretation Hermogenes. In the year of the world 2962.
The 3rd of the Theban Egyptian kings was Athothes, of the same name, 32 years. In the year of the world 3021.
The 4th of the Theban kings was Diabiesthe son of Athothes, 19 years. By interpretation he is called Philesteros. In the year of the world 3053.
The 5th of the Theban kings was Pemphos, the son of Athothes, who is called Heraclides. He reigned 18 years. In the year of the world 3072.
The 6th of the Theban Egyptian kings was Toegar Amachus Mom- [p.81] chiri, the Memphite, who is called a man redundant in his members, 79 years and A. M. 3090.
The 7th of the Theban Egyptian kings, Stoechus his son, who is Ares the senseless, reigned 6 years. A. M. 3169.
The 8th of the Theban Egyptian kings Gosormies, who is called Etespantus, reigned 30 years, and A. M. 3175.
The 9th of the Theban Egyptian kings Mares, his son, who is called Heliodorus, 26 years, and A. M. 3205.
The 10th of the Theban Egyptian kings Anoyphes, which signifies a common son, reigned 20 years, and A. M. 3231.
The 11th of the Theban Egyptian kings Sirius, which signifies the son of the cheek, but according to others Abascantus reigned 18 years, and A. M. 3251.
The 12th of the Theban Egyptian kings reigned Chnubus Gneurus, which is Chryses the son of Chryses, 22 years, A. M. 3269.
The 13th of the Theban Egyptian kings reigned Ranosis, which is Archicrator, 13 years, A. M. 3291.
The 14th of the Theban Egyptian [p.82] kings reigned Biyris, 10 years, A. M. 3304.
The 15th of the Theban kings Saophis Comastes, or, according to some, Chrematistes, reigned 29 years, and A. M, 3314.
The 16th of the Theban kings Sensaophis the second, reigned 27 years, A. M. 3343.
The 17th of the Theban kings, Moscheris Hehodotus, reigned 31 years, A. M. 3370.
The 18th of the Theban kings, Musthis, reigned 33 years, A. M. 3401.
The 19th of the Theban kings, Pammus Archondes, reigned 35 years, A. M. 3434.
The 20th of the Theban kings, Apaphus Maximus, is said to have reigned 100 years with the exception of one hour, A. M. 3469.
The 21st of the Theban kings, Achescus Ocaras, reigned one year, A. M. 3569.
The 22nd of the Theban sovereigns was Nitocris, instead of her husband, she is Athena Nicephorus, and reigned 6 years, A. M. 3570.
The 23rd of the Theban kings, Myrtgeus Ammonodotiis, reigned 22 years, A. M. 3576.
The 24th of the Theban kings, Thyosiniares the robust, who is called [p.83] the sun, reigned 12 years, and A. M. 3598.
The 25th of the Theban kings, Thinillus, which is the augraenter of country's strength, reigned 8 years, A. M. 3610.
The 26th of the Theban kings, Semphrucrates, who is Hercules Harpocrates, reigned 18 years, A. M. 3618.
The 27th of the Theban kings, Chuther Taurus the tyrant, 7 years, A. M. 3636.
The 28th of the Theban kings, Meures Philoscorus, reigned 12 years, A. M. 3643.
The 29th of the Theban kings, Chomaephtha Cosmus Philephsestus, reigned 11 years, A. M. 3655.
The 30th of the Theban kings, Ancunius Ochytyrannus, reigned 60 years, A. M. 3666.
The 31st of the Theban kings, Penteathyris, reigned 42 years, A. M. 3726.
The 32nd of the Theban kings, Stamenemes the second, reigned 23 years, A. M. 3768.
The 33rd of the Theban kings, Sistosichermes, the strength of Hercules, reigned 55 years, A. M. 3791.
The 34th of the Theban kings; Maris, reigned 43 years, A. M. 3846.
The 35th of the Theban kings, Siphoas, which is Hermes the son of Hephaestus,
reigned 5 years, A. M. 3889.
The 36th of the Theban kings, reigned 14 years, A. M. 3894.
The 37th of the Theban kings, Phruron, which is Nilus, reigned 5 years, A. M. 3908.
The 38th of the Theban kings, Amuthantgeus, reigned 63 years, A.M. 3913.—Syncel. Chron. 91. 96, 101. 104. 109. 123. 147.
THE TYRIAN ANNALS:
DIUS AND MENANDER.
THE TYRIAN ANNALS
Upon the death of Abibalus his son Hiromus succeeded to the kingdom. He raised the eastern parts of the city, and enlarged it; and joined to it the temple of Jupiter Olympius, which stood before upon an island, by filling up the intermediate space: and he adorned that temple with donations of gold: and he went up into Libauus to cut timber for the construction of the temples. And it is said that Solomon, king of Jerusalem, sent enigmas to Hiromus, and desired others in return, with a proposal that whichsoever of the two was unable to solve them, should forfeit money to the other. Hiromus agreed to the proposal, but was unable to solve the enigmas, and paid a large sum as a forfeit. And it is said that One Abdemonus, a Tyrian, solved the enigmas, and proposed others [p.88] which Solomon was not able to unriddle, for which he repaid the fine to Hiromus.—Joseph. contr. App. lib. I. c. 17.—Syncel. Chron. 182.
THE TYRIAN ANNALS
After the death of Abibalus, Hiromus his son succeeded him in his kingdom, and reigned thirty-four years, having lived fifty-three. He laid out that part of the city, which is called Eurychoron: and consecrated the golden column which is in the temple of Jupiter. And he went up into the forest on the mountain called Libanus, to fell cedars for the roofs of the temples: and having demolished the ancient temples, he rebuilt them, and consecrated the fanes of Hercules and Astarte: he constructed that of Hercules first, in the month Peritius; then that of Astarte, where he had overcome the Tityans who had refused to pay their tribute: and when he had reduced them he returned. In his time was a certain young man named Abdemonus, who used to solve the problems which were propounded [p.90] to him by Solomon king of Jerusalem.—Joseph. contr. App. lib. I. c. 18.—Joseph. Antiq. Jud. lib. VIII. C. 5.
OF THE SUCCESSORS OF HIRAM.
Upon the death of Hiromus, Baleazarus his son succeeded to the kingdom; he lived forty-three years, and reigned seven: after him Abdastratus his son reigned nine years, having lived twenty-nine: against him the four sons of his nurse conspired, and slew him: of these the eldest reigned twelve years: after them Astartus, the son of Delaeastartus, reigned twelve years, having lived fifty-four: after him his brother Aserumus reigned nine years, having lived fifty-four: Tea-a-apa, he was slain by his brother Pheles, who governed the kingdom eight months, having lived fifty years: he was slain by a priest of Astarte, Ithobalus, who reigned thirty-two years, having lived sixty-eight: and he was succeeded by Badezorus his son, who reigned six years, having lived forty-five: his successor was Matgenus his son, who reigned nine years, having lived thirty-two: and he was succeeded by Phygmalion who reigned forty-seven years, having lived fifty-six: in the seventh year of his reign his sister [p.91] fled from him, and founded the city of Carthage in Libya.—Joseph. contr. App. lib. I. C. 18.
OF THE INVASION OF SALMANASAR.
Elulaeus reigned thirty-six years: and he fitted out a fleet against the Cittaeans (Chittim or Cypriots) who had revolted, and reduced them to obedience. But Salmanasar, the king of the Assyrians, sent them assistance, and overran Phoenicia: and when he had made peace with the Phoenicians he returned with all his forces. And Sidon, and Ace (Acre), and Palaetyrus, and many other cities revolted from the Tyrians, and put themselves under the protection of the king of Assyria. But as the Tyrians still refused to submit, the king made another expedition against them: and the Phoenicians furnished him with sixty ships and eighty gallies: and the Tyrians attacked him with twelve ships, and dispersed the hostile fleet, [p.92] and took prisoners to the amount of five hundred men: upon which account the Tyrians were held in great respect. But the king of Assyria stationed guards upon the river, and aqueducts, to prevent the Tyrians from drawing water: and this continued five years, during all which time they were obliged to drink from wells which they dug.—Joseph. Antiq. Jud. lib. IX. c. 14.
THE TYRIAN ANNALS.
OF THE KINGS AND JUDGES FROM NEBUCHADNEZZAR TO CYRUS.
In the reign of Ithobalus, Nabuchodonosorus besieged Tyre for thirteen years. After him reigned Baal ten years. After him Judges were appointed who judged the people: Ecnibalus, the son of Baslachus, two months: Chelbes, the son of Abdaeus, ten months: Abbarus, the high-priest, three months: Mytgonus and Gerastratus the son of Abdelemus, six years: after them Balatorus reigned one year. After his death they sent to fetch Merbalus from Babylon: and he reigned four years: and when he died they sent for Hiromus, his brother, who reigned 20 years. In his time Cyrus was king of Persia.—Joseph. contr. App. lib. I. c. 21.
THE ORACLES OF ZOROASTER.
MONAD, DUAD, AND TRIAD.
.......... Where the paternal Monad is.
The Monad is enlarged, and generates two,
For the Duad sits by him, and glitters with intellectual Sections
Both to govern all things, and to order every thing not ordered.
For in the whole world shineth the Triad, over which the Monad rules.
This order is the beginning of all section.
For the mind of the Father said, that all things be cut into three:
Whose will assented, and then all things were divided.
For the mind of the Eternal Father said all things into three,
Governing all things by the mind.
And there appeared in it (the Triad) virtue, and wisdom.
And multiscient verity.
This way floweth the shape of the Triad, being pre-existent.
Not the first (Essence) but where they are measured.
For thou must conceive that all things serve these three principles.
The first is the sacred course .... but in the middle
Air, the third the other which cherisheth the earth in fire.
The fountain of fountains and .... of all fountains.
The matrix containing all things.
Thence abundantly springs forth the generation of multifarious matter.
Thence extracted a Prester the flower of glowing fire,
Flashing into the cavities of the World: For all things from thence
Begin to extend downward their admirable beams.
THE FATHER AND MIND.
The Father hath snatched away himself; neither
Hath he shut up his own fire in his intellectual power.
For nothing unfinished proceedeth from the Father's rule.
For the Father perfected all things,
And delivered them over to the second mind,
Which the whole race of men call the first.
Light begotten of the Father, for he alone
Having cropt the flower of the Mind from the Father's vigour.
For the paternal self-begotten Mind understanding (his) work,
Sowed in all the fiery bond of Love,
That all things might continue loving for ever.
Neither those things which are intellectually context in the Light of the Father in all things.
That being the Elements of the World they might persist in Love.
For by understanding he hath the power to instil the paternal mind
Into all fountains and beginnings.
For it is the bound of the Paternal depth and the fountain of the Intellectuals.
Neither went he forth, but abode in the Paternal depth,
And in the Adytum according to divinely-nourished Silence.
For the fire once above, shutteth not his power
Into matter by Actions, but by the Mind.
For the Paternal Mind hath sowed symbols through the world.
Which understandeth intelligibles and beautifieth ineffables.
Wholly division and indivisible.
By mind he contains the Intelligibles, but introduceth sense into the Worlds.
By mind he contains the Intelligibles, but introduceth Soul into the Worlds.
MIND, INTELLIGIBLES, AND INTELLECTUALS.
And of the one Mind, the Intelligible (Mind).
For the Mind is not without the Intelligible; it exists not without it.
These are Intellectuals and Intelligibles which being understood understand.
For the Intelligible is the aliment of the Intelligent.
Learn the Intelligible, since it exists beyond the Mind.
And of the Mind which moves the empyreal heaven.
For the Framer of the fiery world is the Mind of the Mind.
You who know certainly the supermundane paternal depth.
The Intelligible is predominant over all section.
There is something Intelligible which it behoves thee to understand with the flower of the Mind.
For if thou inclinest thy mind, thou shalt understand this also.
Yet understanding something (of it) thou shalt not understand I this wholly;
For it is a power of circumlucid strength,
Glittering with intellectual sections (rays): but it behoves not
To consider this Intelligible with vehemence of Intellection,
But with the ample flame of the ample Mind
Which measureth all things, except this Intelligible:
But it behoves to understand this; for if thou inclinest
Thy mind thou shalt understand this also, not fixedly
But having a pure turning eye (thou must)
Extend the empty mind of thy soul
Towards the Intelligible; that thou mayest learn the Intelligible;
For it exists beyond the mind.
But every mind understands this God; for the Mind is not
Without the Intelligible, neither is the Intelligible without the Mind.
To the Intellectual Presters of the intellectual fire all things
By yielding are subservient to the persuasive counsel of the Father,
And to understand, and always to remain in a restless whirling.
Fountains and principles, to turn, and always to remain in a restless whirling.
By insinuating into Worlds the venerable name in a sleepless whirling
By reason of the terrible menace of the Father.
Under two Minds the life-generating fountain of the Souls is contained.
And the Maker who, self-operating, framed the World.
Who sprung first out of the Mind.
Clothing fire with fire, binding them together to mingle
The fountainous craters, preserving the flower of his own fire.
He glittereth with Intellectual sections, and filleth all things with love.
That things unfashioned may be fashioned.
Like swarms they are carried, being broken
About the bodies of the world.
What the Mind speaks, it speaks by understanding.
Power is with them—mind is from her.
LYNGES, IDEAS, AND PRINCIPLES.
These being many ascend into the lucid Worlds,
Springing into them, and in which are three tops.
Beneath them lies the chief of Immaterials.
Principles, which have understood the intelligible works of the Father,
Disclosed them in sensible works as in bodies:
Being (as it were) the ferrymen betwixt the Father and matter.
And producing manifest images of unmanifest things:
And inscribing the unmanifest in the manifest frame of the World,
The Mind of the Father made a jarring noise, understanding by vigorous counsel
Omniform Ideas: and flying out of one fountain
They sprung forth: for from the Father was the counsel and end
By which they are connected with the Father by alternate
Life from several vehicles.
But they were divided, being by intellectual fire distributed
Into other Intellectuals: for the king did set before the multiform world
An intellectual incorruptible pattern; the print of whose form
He promoted through the world, according to which things the world appeared
Beautified with all kinds of Ideas, of which there is one fountain;
Out of which come rushing forth others undistributed,
Being broken about the bodies of the World;
Which through the vast recesses, like swarms.
Are carried round about every way.
Intellectual notions from the paternal fountain
Cropping the flower of Fire
In the point of sleepless time of this primigeneous Idea
The first self-budding fountain of the Father budded.
Intelligent lynges do (themselves) also understand from the Father:
By unspeakable counsels being moved so as to understand.
HECATE, SYNOCHES, AND TELETARCHS.
For out of him spring all
Implacable thunders, and the prester-receiving cavities
Of the entirely-lucid strength of Father-begotten Hecate.
And he who begirds (viz.) the flower of Fire and the strong
Spirit of the poles fiery above.
He gave to his presters that they should guard the tops.
Mingling the power of his own strength in the Synoches.
Oh how the world hath intellectual guides inflexible!
Because she is the operatrix, because she is the dispensatrix of fire-giving life.
Because also it fills the life-producing bosom of Hecate,
And instils in the Synoches the enlivening strength Of potent fire.
But they are guardians of the works of the Father.
For he assimilates himself, professing
To be clothed with the print of the images.
The Teletarchs are comprehended with the Synoches.
To those intellectual presters of intellectual fire
All things are subservient.
But as many as serve the material Synoches
Having put on the completely-armed vigour of resounding light.
With triple strength fortifying the soul and the mind
To put into the mind the symbol of variety.
And not to walk dispersedly on the empyreal channels
These frame indivisibles and sensibles,
And corporiforms and things destined to matter.
The Soul being a bright fire, by the power of the Father,
Remains immortal and is mistress of life;
And possesseth many complexions of the cavities of the world:
For it is an imitation of the Mind ; but that which is born hath something of the body.
The channels being intermixed she performs the part of incorruptible fire.
Next the paternal conception, I, the soul dwell;
Warmth heating all things, for he did put
The mind in the soul, the soul in the dull body.
Of us the father of gods and men interposed.
Abundantly animating light, fire, ether, worlds.
For natural works co-exist with the intellectual light
Of the Father. For the soul which adorned the great
Heaven, and adorning with the Father,
But her horns are fixed above:
But about the shoulders of the Goddess immense Nature is exalted.
Again indefatigable Nature commands the worlds and works;
That Heaven drawing an eternal course might run,
And the swift sun might come about the centre as he useth.
Look not into the fatal name of this Nature.
The Maker who operating by himself framed the World.
And there was another bulk of fire, self-operating
All things, that the body of the World might be perfected.
That the World might be manifest, and not seem membranous.
The whole World of fire, and water, and earth,
And all-nourishing ether.
The inexpressible and expressible watchwords of the World.
One life with another, from the distributed channels.
Passing from above through the opposite part
Through the centre of the Earth; and another fifth the middle,
Another fiery channel, where it descends to the material channels.
Stirring himself up with the goad of resounding light.
Another fountainous, which guides the empyreal World.
The centre from which all (lines) which way soever are equal.
For the paternal Mind sowed symbols through the World.
For the centre of every one is carried betwixt the Fathers.
For it is an imitation of the Mind, but that which is born hath something of the Body.
For the Father congregated seven firmaments of the World,
Circumscribing Heaven in a round figure.
And fixed a great company of inerratic stars.
And he constituted a septennary of erratic animals.
Placing earth in the middle, and water in the middle of the earth,
The air above these.
He fixed a great company of inerratic stars,
To be carried not by laborious and troublesome tension,
But by a settlement which hath no error.
He fixed a great company of inerratic stars,
Forcing fire to fire.
To be carried by a settlement which hath no error.
He constituted them six, casting into the midst
The seventh fire of the sun.
Suspending their disorder in well-ordered zones.
For the goddess brings forth the great sun and the bright moon.
Oh ether, sun, spirit of the moon, guides of the air,
And of the solar circles, and of the lunar clashings
And of the aerial recesses!
The melody of the ether, and of the passages of the sun and moon, and of the air.
And the wide air, and the lunar course, and the pole of the sun,
It collects it, receiving the melody of the ether,
And of the sun, and of the moon, and of all things that are contained in the air.
Fire the derivation of fire, and the dispenser of fire.
His hair pointed is seen by his native light,
The sun assessor beholding the pure pole
And the ethereal course and the vast motion of the moon,
And the aerial fluxions.
And the great sun, and the bright moon.
The mundane god eternal, infinite.
Young and old, and of a spiral form,
And another fountainous who guides the empyreal heaven.
SOUL, BODY, MAN.
It behoves thee to hasten to the light, and the beams of the Father,
From whence was sent to thee a Soul clothed with much Mind.
These things the Father conceived, and so the mortal was animated.
For the paternal Mind sowed symbols in Souls,
Replenishing the Soul with profound love.
For the Father of Gods and Men placed the Mind in the Soul,
And in the Body he established you.
For all divine things are incorporeal.
But bodies are bound in them for your sakes:
Incorporeals not being able to contain the bodies
By reason of the corporeal nature in which you are concentrated.
And they are in God, attracting strong flames.
Descending from the Father, from which descending the Soul
Crops of empyreal fruits the soul-nourishing flower.
And therefore conceiving the works of the Father
They avoid the audacious wing of fatal destiny.
And though you see this soul manumitted,
Yet the Father sends another to make up the number.
Certainly these are superlatively blessed above all
Souls; they are sent forth from heaven to earth.
And those rich souls, which have inexpressible fates,
As many of them (O king) as proceed from shining thee,
Or from Jove himself, under the strong power of his thread,
Let the immortal depth of thy Soul be predominant; but thine eyes
Stoop not down to the dark world.
Beneath which continually lies a faithless depth and Hades
Dark all over, squalid, delighting in images unintelligible,
Precipitous, craggy, always involving a dark abyss,
Always espousing an opacous, idle, breathless body.
And the light-hating world, and the winding currents
By which many things are swallowed up.
Seek thou the way of the Soul, whence, and by what order
Having served the body, to the same place from which thou didst flow,
Thou mayest rise up again, joining action to sacred speech.
Stoop not down, for a precipice lies below the Earth.
Drawing through the ladder which hath seven steps; beneath which
Is the throne of necessity.
Enlarge not thy destiny.
The Soul of men will in a manner clasp God to herself.
Having nothing mortal she is wholly inebriated from God.
For she boasts harmony, in which the mortal body exists.
If thou extend the fiery mind to the work of piety,
Thou shalt preserve the fluxible body.
There is a room for the image also in the circumlucid place.
Every way to the unfashioned soul stretch the reins of fire.
The fire-glowing cogitation hath the first rank.
For the mortal approaching to the fire shall have light from God.
For to the slow mortal the Gods are swift.
The furies are stranglers of men.
The bourgeons even of ill matter are profitable and good.
Let fiery hope nourish thee in the angelic region,
But the paternal Mind accepts not her will,
Until she go out of oblivion and pronounce a word
Inserting the remembrance of the pure paternal symbol.
To these he gave the docile character of life to be comprehended.
Those that were asleep he made fruitful by his own strength.
Defile not the spirit nor deepen a superficies.
Leave not the dross of matter on a precipice.
Bring her not forth, lest going forth she have something.
The souls of those who quit the body violently are most pure.
The ungirders of the soul which give her breathing are easy to be loosed.
In the side of sinister Hecate there is a fountain of virtue;
Which remains entire within, not omitting her virginity.
Oh man, the machine of boldest nature!
Subject not to thy mind the vast measures of the earth,
For the plant of truth is not upon earth.
Nor measure the measures of the sun, gathering together canons,
He is moved by the eternal will of the Father not for thy sake.
Let alone the swift course of the moon and the progression of the stars,
For she runs always by the impulse of necessity.
And the progression of the stars was not brought forth for thy sake.
The ethereal wide flight of birds is not veracious,
And the dissections of entrails of victims; all these are toys,
The supports of gainful cheats; fly thou these
If thou intendest to open the sacred paradise of piety;
Where virtue, wisdom, and equity are assembled.
For thy vessel the beasts of the earth shall inhabit,
And the earth bewails them even to their children.
Nature persuades that there are pure Demons.
The bourgeons even of ill matter are profitable and good.
But these things I revolve in the recluse temples of my mind.
Extending the like fire sparklingly into the spacious air,
Or fire unfigured whence a voice issuing forth.
Or light abundant; whizzing and winding about the earth.
But also to see a horse more glittering than light,
Or a boy on thy shoulders riding on a horse.
Fiery or adorned with gold, or divested,
Or shooting, or standing on thy shoulders,
If thou speakest often to me thou shalt see absolutely that which is spoken,
For then neither appears the celestial concave bulk.
Nor do the stars shine, the light of the moon is covered,
The Earth stands not still, but all things appear in thunders.
Invoke not the self-conspicuous image of Nature,
For thou must not behold these before thy body is initiated :
When soothing souls they always seduce them from these mysteries.
Certainly out of the cavities of the Earth spring terrestrial dogs.
Which show no true sign to mortal man.
Labour about the Hecatick Strophalus.
Never change barbarous names,
For there are names in every nation given from God,
Which have an unspeakable power in Rites.
When thou seest a sacred fire without form,
Shining flashingly through the depths of the World,
Hear the voice of fire.
But God is he that has the head of a hawk. He is the first indestructible, eternal, unbegotten, indivisible, dissimilar; the dispenser of all good; incorruptible; the best of the good, the wisest of the wise: he is the father of equity and justice, self-taught, physical, and perfect, and wise, and the only inventor of the sacred philosophy.—Euseb. Praep. Evan. lib. I. c. 10.
THE PERIPLUS OF HANNO.
THE VOYAGE OF HANNO, COMMANDER OF THE CARTHAGINIANS.
ROUND the parts of Libya beyond the Pillars of Hercules, which he too deposited
in the temple of Saturn.
It was decreed by the Carthaginians, that Hanno should undertake a voyage beyond the Pillars of Hercules, and found Libyphoenician cities. He sailed accordingly with sixty ships of fifty oars each, and a body of men and women to the number of thirty thousand, and provisions and other necessaries.
When we had passed the Pillars on our voyage, and had sailed beyond them for two days, we founded the first city which we named Thymiaterium. Below it lay an extensive plain. Proceeding thence towards the west, we came to Soloeis, a promontory of Libya, a place thickly covered with trees, where we erected a temple to Neptune; and again pro- [p.126] ceeded for the space of half a day towards the east, until we arrived at a lake lying not far from the sea, and filled with abundance of large reeds. Here elephants, and a great number of other wild beasts, were feeding.
Having passed the lake about a day's sail, we founded cities near the sea, called Cariconticos, and Gytte, and Acra, and Melitta, and Arambys. Thence we came to the great river Lixus, which flows from Libya. On its banks the Lixitae, a shepherd tribe, were feeding flocks, amongst whom we continued some time on friendly terms. Beyond the Lixitae dwelt the inhospitable Ethiopians, who pasture a wild country intersected by large mountains, from which they say the river Lixus flows. In the neighbourhood of the mountains lived the Troglodytse, men of various appearances, whom the Lixitae described as swifter in running than horses.
Having procured interpreters from them we coasted along a desert country towards the south two days. Thence we proceeded towards the east the course of a day. Here we found in a recess of a certain bay [p.127] a small inland, containing a circle of five stadia, where we settled a colony, and called it Cerne. We judged from our voyage that this place lay in a direct line with Carthage; for the length of our voyage from Carthage to the Pillars, was equal to that from the Pillars to Cerne. We then came to a lake which we reached by sailing up a large river called Chretes. This lake had three islands, larger than Cerne; from which proceeding a day's sail, we came to the extremity of the lake, that was overhung by large mountains, inhabited by savage men, clothed in skins of wild beasts, who drove us away by throwing stones, and hindered us from landing. Sailing thence we came to another river, that was large and broad, and full of crocodiles, and river horses; whence returning back we came again to Cerne.
Thence we sailed towards the south twelve days, coasting the shore, the whole of which is inhabited by Ethiopians, who would not wait our approach but fled from us. Their language was not intelligible even to the Lixitae, who were with us. Towards the last day we approached some large mountains covered with trees, the wood of which was sweet-scented and varie- [p.128] gated. Having sailed by these mountains for two days we came to an immense opening of the sea; on each side of which, towards the continent, was a plain; from which we saw by night fire arising at intervals in all directions, either more or less.
Having taken in water there, we sailed forwards five days near the land, until we came to a large bay which our interpreters informed us was called the Western Horn, In this was a large island, and in the island a salt-water lake, and in this another island, where, when we had landed, we could discover nothing in the day-time except trees; but in the night we saw many fires burning, and heard the sound of pipes, cymbals, drums, and confused shouts. We were then afraid, and our diviners ordered us to abandon the island. Sailing quickly away thence we passed a country burning with fires and perfumes; and streams of fire supplied from it fell into the sea. The country was impassable on account of the heat. We sailed quickly thence, being much terrified; and passing on for four days, we discovered at night a country full of fire. In the middle was a lofty fire, larger than the rest, which seemed to touch the stars. When day came we disco- [p.129] vered it to be a large hill called the Chariot of the Gods. On the third day after our departure thence, having sailed by those streams of fire we arrived at a bay called the Southern Horn; at the bottom of which lay an island like the former, having a lake, and in this lake another island, full of savage people, the greater part of whom were women, whose bodies were hairy, and whom our interpreters called Gorillae. Though we pursued the men we could not seize any of them; but all fled from us, escaping over the precipices, and defending themselves with stones. Three women were however taken; but they attacked their conductors with their teeth and hands, and could not be prevailed upon to accompany us. Having killed them, we flayed them, and brought their skins with us to Carthage. We did not sail further on, our provisions failing us.
Thomas White, Printer,
1 See page 11.
2 Possibly the name was Cheres or Ares, varied by the common prefixes of Men, Ach, &c.
3 This is the seventeenth according to Eusebius.
4 In the list of Eusebius the fifth is omitted, and the name of Χερρης inserted between the thirteenth and fourteenth.
5 Eusebius omits the last, and inserts Αμμεης; at the beginning as the first.
6 Eusebius omits Artabanus, and between Cambyses and Darius places the Magi, with a reign of seven months.
This page last updated: 02/02/2013