BAHMAN YASHT

Translated by E. W. West

(Extracted from Pahlavi Texts, vol. 1, pp. 189-235)


CONTENTS:

Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Revelation of the religion's near extinction
Chapter 3. How the religion is to be restored, and the renovation of the universe


Chapter 1

0.

May the gratification of the creator Aűharmazd, the beneficent, the developer, the splendid, and glorious, and the benediction of the archangels, which constitute the pure, good religion of the Mazdayasnians, be vigour of body, long life, and prosperous wealth for him whose writing I am.

1.

As it is declared by the Stűdgar Nask that Zaratusht asked for immortality from Aűharmazd, then Aűharmazd displayed the omniscient wisdom to Zaratusht, and through it he beheld the root of a tree, on which were four branches, one golden, one of silver, one of steel, and one was mixed up with iron. 2. Thereupon he reflected in this way, that this was seen in a dream, and when he arose from sleep Zaratusht spoke thus: 'Lord of the spirits and earthly existences! it appears that I saw the root of a tree, on which were four branches.'

3.

Aűharmazd spoke to Zaratusht the Spitâmân thus: 'That root of a tree which thou sawest, and those four branches, are the four periods which will come. 4. That of gold is when I and thou converse, and King Vishtâsp shall accept the religion, and shall demolish the figures of the demons, but they themselves remain for .... concealed proceedings. 5. And that of silver is the reign of Ardakhshir the Kayan king (Kai shah), and that of steel is the reign of the glorified (anoshak-ruban) Khusro son of Kevad and that which was mixed with iron is the evil sovereignty of the demons with dishevelled hair of the race of Wrath and when it is the end of the tenth hundredth winter (sato zim) of thy millennium, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân!'

6.

It is declared in the commentary (zand) of the Vohűman Yasht, Horvadad Yasht, and Ashtad Yasht that, during this time, the accursed Mazdik son of Bâmdâd, who is opposed to the religion, comes into notice, and is to cause disturbance among those in the religion of God (yazdan). 7. And he, the glorified one summoned Khusro son of Mah-dad and Dad-Aűharmazd of Nishapur, who were high-priests of Ataro-patakan, and Ataro-frobag the undeceitful (akadba), Ataro-pad, Ataro-Mitro, and Bakht-afrid to his presence, and he demanded of them a promise, thus: 'Do not keep these Yashts in concealment, and do not teach the commentary except among your relations.' 8. And they made the promise unto Khusro.

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Chapter 2

I.

In the Vohűman Yasht commentary (zand) it is declared that Zaratusht asked for immortality from Aűharmazd a second time, and spoke thus: 'I am Zaratusht, more righteous and more efficient among these thy creatures, O creator! when thou shalt make me immortal, as the tree opposed to harm, and Gopatshah, Gosht-i Fryan, and Kitrok-miyan son of Vishtâsp, who is Peshyotanu, were made. 2. When thou shalt make me immortal they in thy good religion will believe that the upholder of religion, who receives from Aűharmazd his pure and good religion of the Mazdayasnians, will become immortal; then those men will believe in thy good religion.'

3.

Aűharmazd spoke thus: 'When I shall make thee immortal, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! then Tur-i Bradarvash the Karap will become immortal, and when Tur-i Bradarvash the Karap shall become immortal the resurrection and future existence are not possible.'

4.

Zaratusht seemed uneasy about it in his mind; and Aűharmazd, through the wisdom of omniscience, knew what was thought by Zaratusht the Spitâmân with the righteous spirit, and he took hold of Zaratusht's hand. 5. And he, Aűharmazd the propitious spirit, creator of the material world, the righteous one, even he put the omniscient wisdom, in the shape of water, on the hand of Zaratusht, and said to him thus: 'Devour it.'

6.

And Zaratusht devoured some of it; thereby the omniscient wisdom was intermingled with Zaratusht, and seven days and nights Zaratusht was in the wisdom of Aűharmazd. 7. And Zaratusht beheld the men and cattle in the seven regions of the earth, where the many fibres of hair of every one are, and whereunto the end of each fibre holds on the back. 8. And he beheld whatever trees and shrubs there were, and how many roots of plants were in the earth of Spendarmad, where and how they had grown, and where they were mingled.

9.

And the seventh day and night he (Aűharmazd) took back the omniscient wisdom from Zaratusht, and Zaratusht reflected in this way, that I have seen it in a pleasant dream produced by Aűharmazd, and I am not surfeited with the dream. 10. And he took both hands, rubbed his body (kerp) again, and spoke thus: 'I have slept a long time, and am not surfeited with this pleasant dream produced by Aűharmazd.'

11.

Aűharmazd said to the righteous Zaratusht thus: 'What was seen in the pleasant dream produced by Aűharmazd?'

12.

Zaratusht spoke thus: 'O Aűharmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the material world, righteous creator! I have seen a celebrity (khunid) with much wealth, whose soul, infamous in the body, was hungry (gurs) and jaundiced and in hell, and he did not seem to me exalted; and I saw a beggar with no wealth and helpless, and his soul was thriving (farpih) in paradise, and he seemed to me exalted.

13.

[And I saw a wealthy man without children, and he did not seem to me exalted;] and I saw a pauper with many children, and he seemed to me exalted. 14. And I saw a tree on which were seven branches, one golden, one of silver, one brazen, one of copper, [one of tin], one of steel, and one was mixed up with iron.

15.

Aűharmazd spoke thus: 'O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! this is what I say beforehand, the one tree which thou sawest is the world which I, Aűharmazd, created; and those seven branches thou sawest are the seven periods which will come. 16. And that which was golden is the reign of King Vishtâsp, when I and thou converse about religion, and Vishtâsp shall accept that religion and shall demolish the figures of the demons, and the demons desist from demonstration into concealed proceedings; Aharman and the demons rush back to darkness, and care for water, fire, plants, and the earth of Spendarma becomes apparent. 17. And that which was of silver is the reign of Ardashir the Kayan (Kai), whom they call Vohűman son of Spend-dad, who is he who separates the demons from men, scatters them about, and makes the religion current in the whole world. 18. And that which was brazen is the reign of Ardakhshir, the arranger and restorer of the world, and that of King Shahpur, when he arranges the world which I, Aűharmazd, created; he makes happiness (bukhta-kih) prevalent in the boundaries of the world, and goodness shall become manifest; and Ataro-pad of triumphant destiny, the restorer of the true religion, with the prepared brass, brings this religion, together with the transgressors, back to the truth. 19. And that which was of copper is the reign of the Askanian king, who removes from the world the heterodoxy (gavid-rastakih) which existed, and the wicked Akandgar-i Kilisyakih is utterly destroyed by this religion, and goes unseen and unknown from the world. 20. And that which was of tin is the reign of King Vahram Gor, when he makes the sight of the spirit of pleasure manifest, and Aharman with the wizards rushes back to darkness and gloom. 21. And that which was of steel is the reign of King Khusro son of Kevad, when he keeps away from this religion the accursed Mazdik, son of Bamdad, who remains opposed to the religion along with the heterodox. 22. And that which was mixed with iron [is the reign of the demons with dishevelled hair of the race of Wrath, when it is the end of the tenth hundredth winter of thy millennium], O Zaratusht the Spitâmân!'

23.

Zaratusht said thus: 'Creator of the material world! O propitious spirit! what token would you give of the tenth hundredth winter?'

24.

Aűharmazd spoke thus: 'Righteous Zaratusht! I will make all clear: the token that it is the end of thy millennium, and the most evil period is coming, is a hundred kinds, a thousand kinds, a myriad of kinds of demons with dishevelled hair, of the [202] race of Wrath, rush into the country of Iran (Airan shatro) from the direction of the east which has an inferior race and race of Wrath. 25. They have uplifted banners, they slay those living in the world, they have their hair dishevelled on the back, and they are mostly a small and inferior (nitum) race, forward in destroying the strong doer; O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! the race of Wrath is miscreated (vishu) and its origin is not manifest. 26. Through witchcraft they rush into these countries of Iran which I, Aűharmazd, created, since they burn and damage many things; and the house of the house-owner, the land of the land-digger, prosperity, nobility, sovereignty, religion, truth, agreement, security, enjoyment, and every characteristic which I, Aűharmazd, created, this pure religion of the Mazdayasnians, and the fire of Vahram, which is set in the appointed place, encounter annihilation, and the direst destruction and trouble will come into notice. 27. And that which is a great district will become a town; that which is a great town, a village; that which is a great village, a family; and that which is a [great] family, a single threshold. 28. O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! they will lead these Iranian countries of Aűharmazd into a desire for evil, into tyranny and misgovernment, those demons with dishevelled hair who are deceivers, so that what they say they do not do, and they are of a vile religion, so that what they do not say they do. 29. And their assistance and promise have no sincerity, there is no law, they preserve no security, and on the support they provide no one relies; with deceit, rapacity, and misgovernment they will devastate these my Iranian countries, who am Aűharmazd.

30.

'And at that time, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! all men will become deceivers, great friends will become of different parties, and respect, affection, hope, and regard for the soul will depart from the world; the affection of the father will depart from the son; and that of the brother from his brother; the son-in-law will become a beggar (kidyak or kasik) from his father-in-law, and the mother will be parted and estranged from the daughter.

31.

'When it is the end of thy tenth hundredth winter, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! the sun is more unseen and more spotted (vasangtar); the year, month, and day are shorter; and the earth of Spendarmad is more barren, and fuller of highway-men; and the crop will not yield the seed, so that of the crop of the corn-fields in ten cases seven will diminish and three will increase, and that which increases does not become ripe; and vegetation, trees, and shrubs will diminish; when one shall take a hundred, ninety will diminish and ten will increase, and that which increases gives no pleasure and flavour. 32. And men are born smaller, and their skill and strength are less; they become more deceitful and more given to vile practices; they have no gratitude and respect for bread and salt, and they have no affection for their country (desak).

33.

'And in that most evil time a boundary has most disrespect where it is the property of a suffering man of religion; gifts are few among their deeds, and duties and good works proceed but little from their hands; and sectarians of all kinds are seeking mischief for them. 34. And all the world will be burying and clothing the dead, and burying the dead and washing the dead will be by law; the burning of, bringing to water and fire, and eating of dead matter they practise by law and do not abstain from. 35. They recount largely about duties and good works, and pursue wickedness and the road to hell; and through the iniquity, cajolery, and craving of wrath and avarice they rush to hell.

36.

'And in that perplexing time, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân!—the reign of Wrath with infuriate spear and the demon with dishevelled hair, of the race of Wrath,—the meanest slaves walk forth with the authority of nobles of the land; and the religious, who wear sacred thread-girdles on the waist, are then not able to perform their ablution (padiyavih), for in those last times dead matter and bodily refuse become so abundant, that one who shall set step to step walks upon dead matter; or when he washes in the barashnűm ceremony, and puts down a foot from the stone seat (magh), he walks on dead matter; or when he arranges the sacred twigs (baresom) and consecrates the sacred cakes (drono) in their corpse-chamber (nasai katak) it is allowable.

37.

Or, in those last times, it becomes allowable to perform a ceremonial (yazishn) with two men, so that this religion may not come to nothing and collapse; there will be only one in a hundred, in a thousand, in a myriad, who believes in this religion, and even he does nothing of it though it be a duty; and the fire of Vahram, which will come to nothing and collapse, falls off from a thousand to one care-taker, and even he does not supply it properly with firewood and incense; or when a man, who has performed worship and does not know the Nirangistan ('code of religious formulas'), shall kindle it with good intentions, it is allowable.

38.

'Honourable wealth will all proceed to those of perverted faith (kevid-keshan); it comes to the transgressors, and virtuous doers of good works, from the families of noblemen even unto the priests (mog-mardan), remain running about uncovered; the lower orders take in marriage the daughters of nobles, grandees, and priests; and the nobles, grandees, and priests come to destitution and bondage. 39. The misfortunes of the ignoble will overtake greatness and authority, and the helpless and ignoble will come to the foremost place and advancement; the words of the upholders of religion, and the seal and decision of a just judge will become the words of random speakers (andezo-gokan) among the just and even the righteous; and the words of the ignoble and slanderers, of the disreputable and mockers, and of those of divers opinions they consider true and credible, about which they take an oath, although with falsehood, and thereby give false evidence, and speak falsely and irreverently about me, Aűharmazd. 40. They who bear the title of priest and disciples wish evil concerning one another; he speaks vice and they look upon vice; and the antagonism of Aharman and the demons is much brought on by them; of the sin which men commit, out of five sins the priests and disciples commit three sins, and they become enemies of the good, so that they may thereby speak of bad faults relating to one another; the ceremonies they undertake they do not perform, and they have no fear of hell.

41.

'And in that tenth hundredth winter, which is the end of thy millennium, O righteous Zaratusht! all mankind will bind torn hair, disregarding revelation so that a willingly-disposed cloud and a righteous wind are not able to produce rain in its proper time and season, 42. And a dark cloud makes the whole sky night, and the hot wind and the cold wind arrive, and bring along fruit and seed of corn, even the rain in its proper time; and it does not rain, and that which rains also rains more noxious creatures than water; and the water of rivers and springs will diminish, and there will be no increase. 43. And the beast of burden and ox and sheep bring forth more painfully, and awkwardly, and acquire less fruitfulness; and their hair is coarser and skin thinner; the milk does not increase and has less cream (karbisht); the strength of the labouring ox is less, and the agility of the swift horse is less, and it carries less in a race.

44.

'And on the men in that perplexing time, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! who wear the sacred thread-girdle on the waist, the evil-seeking of misgovernment and much of its false judgment have come as a wind in which their living is not possible, and they seek death as a boon; and youths and children will be apprehensive, and gossiping chitchat and gladness of heart do not arise among them. 45. And they practise the appointed feasts (gasno) of their ancestors, the propitiation (ausofrid) of angels, the prayers and ceremonies of the season festivals and guardian spirits, in various places, yet that which they practise they do not believe in unhesitatingly; they do not give rewards lawfully, and bestow no gifts and alms, and even those [they bestow] they repent of again. 46. And even those men of the good religion, who have reverenced the good religion of the Mazdayasnians, proceed in conformity with (bar-hamako rubishn) those ways and customs, and do not believe their own religion. 47. And the noble, great, and charitable, who are the virtuous of their own country and locality, will depart from their own original place and family as idolatrous; through want they beg something from the ignoble and vile, and come to poverty and helplessness; through them nine in ten of these men will perish in the northern quarter.

48.

Through their way of misrule everything comes to nothingness and destitution, levity and infirmity; and the earth of Spendarmad opens its mouth wide, and every jewel and metal becomes exposed, such as gold and silver, brass, tin, and lead. 49. And rule and sovereignty come to slaves, such as the Turk and non-Turanian (Atur) of the army and are turbulent as among the mountaineers; and the Kini, the Kavuli, the Softi, the Ruman (Arumayak), and the white-clothed Karmak, then attain sovereignty in my countries of Iran, and their will and pleasure will become current in the world. 50. The sovereignty will come from those leathern-belted ones and Arabs (Tazigan) and Rumans to them, and they will be so misgoverning that when they kill a righteous man who is virtuous and a fly, it is all one in their eyes, 51. And the security, fame, and prosperity, the country and families, the wealth and handiwork, the streams, rivers, and springs of Iran, and of those of the good religion, come to those non-Iranians; and the army and standards of the frontiers come to them, and a rule with a craving for wrath advances in the world. 52. And their eyes of avarice are not sated with wealth, and they form hoards of the world's wealth, and conceal them underground; and through wickedness they commit sodomy, hold much intercourse with menstruous women, and practise many unnatural lusts.

53.

'And in that perplexing time the night is brighter and the year, month, and day will diminish one-third ; the earth of Spendarmad arises, and suffering, death, and destitution become more severe in the world.'

54.

Aűharmazd said to Zaratusht the Spitâmân: 'This is what I foretell: that wicked evil spirit, when it shall be necessary for him to perish, becomes more oppressive and more tyrannical.'

55.

So Aűharmazd spoke to Zaratusht the Spitâmân thus: 'Enquire fully and learn by heart thoroughly! teach it by Zand, Pazand, and explanation! tell it to the priests and disciples who speak forth in the world, and those who are not aware of the hundred winters, tell it then to them! so that, for the hope of a future existence, and for the preservation of their own souls, they may remove the trouble, evil, and oppression which those of other religions cause in the ceremonies of religion (dinoyesnan). 56. And, moreover, I tell thee this, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! that whoever, in that time, appeals for the body is not able to save the soul, for he is as it were fat, and his soul is hungry and lean in hell; whoever appeals for the soul, his body is hungry and lean through the misery of the world, and destitute, and his soul is fat in heaven.'

57.

Zaratusht enquired of Aűharmazd thus: 'O Aűharmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the material world who art righteous!'—He is Aűharmazd through righteous invocation, and the rest through praise; some say 'righteous creator'—'O creator! in that perplexing time are they righteous? and are there religious people who wear the sacred thread-girdle (kustik) on the waist, and celebrate religious rites (dino) with the sacred twigs (baresom) and does the religious practice of next-of-kin marriage (khvetuk-das) continue in their families?'

58.

Aűharmazd said to Zaratusht thus: 'Of the best men is he who, in that perplexing time, wears the sacred thread-girdle on the waist, and celebrates religious rites with the sacred twigs, though not as in the reign of King Vishtâsp. 59. Whoever in that perplexing time recites Ita-ad-yazam (Av. itha ad yazamaide, Yas. Vand XXXVII), and one Ashemvohu and has learned it by heart, is as though, in the reign of King Vishtâsp, it were a Dvazdahhomast with holy-water (zohar).

60.

And by whomever prayer is offered up, and the Gatha-hymns are chanted, it is as though the whole ritual had been recited, and the Gatha-hymns consecrated by him in the reign of King Vishtâsp. 61. The most perfectly righteous of the righteous is he who remains in the good religion of the Mazdayasnians, and continues the religious practice of next-of-kin marriage in his family.'

62.

Aűharmazd said to the righteous Zaratusht: 'In these nine thousand years which I, Aűharmazd, created, mankind become most perplexed in that perplexing time; for in the evil reigns of Az-i Dahak and Frasiyav of Tur mankind, in those perplexing times, were living better and living more numerously, and their disturbance by Aharman and the demons was less. 63. For in their evil reigns, within the countries of Iran, there were not seven towns which were desolate as they will be when it is the end of thy millennium, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! for all the towns of Iran will be ploughed up by their horses' hoofs, and their banners will reach unto Padashkhvargar, and they will carry away the sovereignty of the seat of the religion I approve from there; and their destruction comes from that place, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! this is what I foretell.'

64.

Whoever of those existing, thus, with reverence unto the good, performs much worship for Aűharmazd, Aűharmazd, aware of it through righteousness, gives him whatsoever Aűharmazd is aware of through righteousness, as remuneration and reward of duty and good works, and such members of the congregation, males and females, I reverence; and the archangels, who are also male and female, they are good.

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Chapter 3

I.

Zaratusht enquired of Aűharmazd thus: 'O Aűharmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the material world, righteous one! whence do they restore this good religion of the Mazdayasnians? and by what means will they destroy these demons with dishevelled hair of the race of Wrath? 2. O creator! grant me death! and grant my favoured ones death! that they may not live in that perplexing time; grant them exemplary living! that they may not prepare wickedness and the way to hell.'

3.

Aűharmazd spoke thus: 'O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! after the ill-omened sovereignty of those of the race of Wrath there is a fiend, Shedaspih of the Kilisyakih, from the countries of Salman; Mahvand-dad said that these people are Ruman (Arumayik), and Roshan said that they have red weapons, red banners, and red hats (kulah). 4. 'It is when a symptom of them appears, as they advance, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! the sun and the dark show signs, and the moon becomes manifest of various colours; earthquakes (bum-guzand), too, become numerous, and the wind comes more violently; in the world want, distress, and discomfort come more into view; and Mercury and Jupiter advance the sovereignty for the vile, and they are in hundreds and thousands and myriads. 5. They have the red banner of the fiend Shedaspih of Kilisyakih, and they hasten much their progress to these countries of Iran which I, Aűharmazd, created, up to the bank of the Arvand,' some have said the Frat river, 'unto the Greeks (Yunan) dwelling in Asuristan;' they are Greeks by strict reckoning, and their Assyrian dwelling is this, that they slay the Assyrian people therein, and thus they will destroy their abode, some have said the lurking-holes (grestak) of the demons.

6.

'They turn back those of the race of Wrath in hundreds and thousands and myriads; and the banners, standards, and an innumerable army of those demons with dishevelled hair will come to these countries of Iran which I, Aűharmazd, created. 7. And the army of the invader is an extending enemy of the Turk and even the Karm, be it with banners aloft when he shall set up a banner, be it through the excessive multitude which will remain—like hairs in the mane of a horse—in the countries of Iran which I, Aűharmazd, created.

8.

'The leathern-belted Turk and the Ruman Shedaspih of Kilisyakih come forth with simultaneous movement and in three places, with similar strife, there was and will be three times a great contest (ardih), O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! 9. One in the reign of Kai-Kaus, when through the assistance of demons was with the archangels; and the second when thou, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! receivedst the religion and hadst thy conference, and King Vishtâsp and Argasp miscreated by wrath, were, through the war of the religion, in the combat of Sped-razur ("the hoary forest"),' some have said was in Pars; 'and the third when it is the end of thy millennium, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! when all the three, Turk, Arab, and Ruman, come to this place,' some have said the plain of Nisanak. 10. 'And all those in the countries of Iran, which I, Aűharmazd, created, come from their own place unto Padashkhvargar owing to those of the race of Wrath, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! so that a report of something of the cave dwellings, mountain dwellings, and river dwellings of these people will remain at Padashkhvargar and Pars; some have said the fire Vishnasp on the deep Lake Kekast which has medicinal water opposed to the demons, is there (in Padashkhvargar?) as it were conspicuous, some have said 'originating' 'so that [219] they may use it anew, and the fire may become shining in these countries of Iran which I, Aűharmazd, created. 11. For when one shall be able to save his own life, he has then no recollection of wife, child, and wealth, that they may not live, m that perplexing time, O Zaratusht! yet the day when the hundredth winter becomes the end of thy millennium, which is that of Zaratusht, is so that nothing wicked may go from this millennium into that millennium.

12.

Zaratusht enquired of Aűharmazd thus: 'O Aűharmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the material world, righteous one! when they are so many in number, by what means will they be able to perish?'

13.

Aűharmazd spoke thus: 'O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! when the demon with dishevelled hair of the race of Wrath comes into notice in the eastern quarter, first a black token becomes manifest, and Hushedar son of Zaratusht is born on Lake Frazdan. 14. It is when he comes to his conference with me Aűharmazd, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! 'that in the direction of Kinistan,' it is said—some have said among the Hindus—'is born a prince (kai); it is his father, a prince of the Kayan race, approaches the women, and a religious prince is born to him; he calls his name Vahram the Varavand,' some have said Shahpur. 15. 'That a sign may come to the earth, the night when that prince is born, a star falls from the sky; when that prince is born the star shows a signal.' 16. It is Dâd-Aűharmazd who said that the month Avan and day Vad is his father's end; they rear him with the damsels of the king, and a woman becomes ruler.

17.

'That prince when he is thirty years old'—some have told the time—'comes with innumerable banners and divers armies, Hindu and Kini', having uplifted banners—for they set up their banners—having exalted banners, and having exalted weapons; they hasten up with speed as far as the Veh river'—some have said the country of Bambo—as far as Bukhar and the Bukharans within its bank, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! 18. When the star Jupiter comes up to its culminating point (balist) and casts Venus down, the sovereignty comes to the prince. 19. Quite innumerable are the champions, furnished with arms and with banners displayed,' some have said from Sagastan, Pars, and Khurasan, some have said from the lake of Padaashkhvargar, some have said from the Hiratis and Kohistan, some have said from Taparistan; and from those directions every supplicant for a child comes into view. 20. It is concerning the displayed banners and very numerous army, which were the armed men, champions, and soldiers from the countries of Iran at Padashkhvargar—whom I told thee that they call both Kurd and Karman—it is declared that they will slay an excessive number, in companionship and under the same banner, for these countries of Iran.

21.

'Those of the race of Wrath and the extensive army of Shedaspih, whose names are the two-legged wolf and the leathern-belted demon on the bank of the Arvand wage three battles, one in Sped-razur and one in the plain of Nisanak;' some have said that it was on the lake of the three races, some have said that it was in Maruv the brilliant, and some have said in Pars. 22. 'For the support of the countries of Iran is the innumerable army of the east; its having exalted banners is that they have a banner of tiger skin (bopar post), and their wind banner is white cotton; innumerable are the mounted troops, and they ride up to the lurking-holes of the demons; they will slay so that a thousand women can afterwards see and kiss but one man.

23.

'When it is the end of the time, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! those enemies will be as much destroyed as the root of a shrub when it is in the night on which a cold winter arrives, and in this night it sheds its leaves; and they will reinstate these countries of Iran which I, Aűharmazd, created.

24.

'And with speed rushes the evil spirit, with the vilest races of demons and Wrath with infuriate spear, and comes on to the support and assistance of those demon-worshippers and miscreations of wrath, O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! 25. And I, the creator Aűharmazd, send Neryosang the angel and Srosh the righteous unto Kangdez, which the illustrious Siyavakhsh formed, and to Kitro-miyan son of Vishtâsp, the glory of the Kayans, the just restorer of the religion, to speak thus: "Walk forth, O illustrious Peshyotanu! to these countries of Iran which I, Aűharmazd, created; consecrate the fire; waters for the Hadokht and Dvazdah-homast! that is, celebrate them with the fire and waters, and such as is appointed about the fire and waters!"

26.

'And Neryosang proceeds, with Srosh the righteous, from the good Kakad-i-Daitik to Kangdez, which the illustrious Siyavakhsh formed, and cries out from it thus: "Walk forth, O illustrious Peshyotanu! O Kltro-miyan son of Vishtâsp, glory of the Kayans, just restorer of the religion! walk forth to these countries of Iran which I, Aűharmazd, created! restore again the throne of sovereignty of the religion!"

27.

'Those spirits move on, and they propitiate them; with holy-water the illustrious Peshyotanu celebrates the Dvazdah-homast, with a hundred and fifty righteous who are disciples of Peshyotanu, in black marten fur, and they have garments as it were of the good spirit. 28. They walk up with the words: "Humat, hukht, huvarsht," and consecrate the fire of the waters; with the illustrious Hadokht they bless me, Aűharmazd, with the archangels; and after that it demolishes one-third of the opposition. 29. And the illustrious Peshyotanu walks forth, with the hundred and fifty men who wear black marten fur, and they celebrate the rituals (yasnan) of the Gadman-homand ("glorious") fire, which they call the Roshano-kerp ("luminous form") which is established at the appointed place (dato-gas), the triumphant ritual of the Froba fire, Horvadad, and Amerodad, and the ceremonial (yazin) with his priestly co-operation; they arrange and pray over the sacred twigs; and the ritual of Horvadad and Amerodad, in the chapter of the code of religious formulas (nirangistan) demolishes three-thirds of the opposition. 30. Peshyotanu son of Vishtâsp walks forth, with the assistance of the Froba fire, the fire Gusnasp, and the fire Burzin-Mitro, to the great idol-temples, the abode of the demons; and the wicked evil spirit, Wrath with infuriate spear and all demons and fiends, evil races and wizards, arrive at the deepest abyss of hell; and those idol-temples are extirpated by the exertions of the illustrious Peshyotanu.

31.

'And I, the creator Aűharmazd, come to Mount Hukairyad with the archangels, and I issue orders to the archangels that they should speak to the angels of the spiritual existences thus: "Proceed to the assistance of the illustrious Peshyotanu!" 32. Mitro of the vast cattle-pastures, Srosh the vigorous, Rashn the just, Vahram the mighty, Ashtad the victorious, and the glory of the religion of the Mazdayasnians, the stimulator of religious formulas (nirang), the arranger of the world, proceed to the assistance of the illustrious Peshyotanu, through the order of which I, the creator, have just written.

33.

'Out of the demons of gloomy race the evil spirit cries to Mitro of the vast cattle-pastures thus: "Stay above in truth, thou Mitro of the vast cattle-pastures!"

34.

'And then Mitro of the vast cattle-pastures cries thus: "Of these nine thousand years' support, which during its beginning produced Dahak of evil religion, Frasiyav of Tur, and Alexander the Ruman, the period of one thousand years of those leathern-belted demons with dishevelled hair is a more than moderate reign to produce."

35.

'The wicked evil spirit becomes confounded when he heard this; Mitro of the vast cattle-pastures will smite Wrath of the infuriate spear with Stupefaction; and the wicked evil spirit flees, with the miscreations and evil progeny he flees back to the darkest recess of hell. 36. And Mitro of the vast cattle-pastures cries to the illustrious Peshyotanu thus: "Extirpate and utterly destroy the idol-temples, the abode of the demons! proceed to these countries of Iran which I, Aűharmazd, created! restore again the throne of sovereignty of the religion over the wicked! when they see thee they will be terrified."

37.

'And the illustrious Peshyotanu advances, and the fire Froba, the fire Gushnasp, and the triumphant fire Burzin-Mitro will smite the fiend of excessive strength; he will extirpate the idol-temples that are the abode of demons; and they celebrate the ceremonial (yazishn), arrange the sacred twigs, solemnize the Dvazdah-homast, and praise me, Aűharmazd, with the archangels; this is what I foretell. 38. The illustrious Peshyotanu walks forth to these countries of Iran which I, Aűharmazd, created, to the Arvand and Veh river; when the wicked see him they will be terrified, those of the progeny of gloom and those not worthy.

39.

'And regarding that Vahram the Vargavand it is declared that he comes forth in full glory, fixes upon Vandid-khim ("a curbed temper"), and having intrusted him with the seat of mobadship of the mobads, and the seat of true explanation of the religion, he restores again these countries of Iran which I, Aűharmazd, created; and he drives away from the world covetousness, want, hatred, wrath, lust, envy, and wickedness. 40. And the wolf period goes away, and the sheep period comes on; they establish the fire Froba, the fire Gushnasp, and the fire Burzin-Mitro again at their proper places, and they will properly supply the firewood and incense; and the wicked evil spirit becomes confounded and unconscious, with the demons and the progeny of gloom. 41. And so the illustrious Peshyotanu speaks thus: "Let the demon be destroyed, and the witch be destroyed! let the fiendishness and vileness of the demons be destroyed! and let the gloomy progeny of the demons be destroyed! The glory of the religion of the Mazdayasnians prospers, and let it prosper! let the family of the liberal and just, who are doers of good deeds, prosper! and let the throne of the religion and sovereignty have a good restorer!" 42. Forth comes the illustrious Peshyotanu, forth he comes with a hundred and fifty men of the disciples who wear black marten fur, and they take the throne of their own religion and sovereignty,'

43.

Aűharmazd said to Zaratusht the Spitâmân: 'This is what I foretell, when it is the end of thy millennium it is the beginning of that of Hushedar 44. Regarding Hushedar it is declared that he will be born in 1600 and at thirty years of age he comes to a conference with me, Aűharmazd, and receives the religion. 45. When he comes away from the conference he cries to the sun with the swift horse, thus: "Stand still!"

46.

'The sun with the swift horse stands still ten days and nights; and when this happens all the people of the world abide by the good religion of the Mazdayasnians. 47. Mitro of the vast cattle-pastures cries to Hushedar, son of Zaratusht, thus: "O Hushedar, restorer of the true religion! cry to the sun with the swift horse thus: 'Move on!' for it is dark in the regions of Arzah and Savah, Fradadafsh and Vidadafsh, Vorubarsht and Vorugarsht, and the illustrious Khvaniras."

48.

'Hushedar son of Zaratusht cries, to the sun he cries, thus: "Move on!" 49. The sun with the swift horse moves on, and Varavand and all mankind fully believe in the good religion of the Mazdayasnians.'

50.

Aűharmazd spoke thus: 'O Zaratusht the Spitâmân! this is what I foretell, that this one brings the creatures back to their proper state. 51. When it is near the end of the millennium Peshyotanu son of Vishtâsp comes into notice, who is a Kayan that advances triumphantly; and those enemies who relied upon fiendishness, such as the Turk, Arab, and Ruman, and the vile ones who control the Iranian sovereign with insolence and oppression and enmity to the sovereignty, destroy the fire and make the religion weak; and they convey their power and success to him and every one who accepts the law and religion willingly; if he accept it unwillingly the law and religion ever destroy him till it is the end of the whole millennium.

52.

'And, afterwards, when the millennium of Hushedar-mah comes, through Hushedar-mah the creatures become more progressive, and he utterly destroys the fiend of serpent origin; and Peshyotanu son of Vishtâsp becomes, in like manner, high-priest and primate (ra) of the world. 53. In that millennium of Hushedar-mah mankind become so versed in medicine, and keep and bring physic and remedies so much in use, that when they are confessedly at the point of death they do not thereupon die, nor when they smite and slay them with the sword and knife.

54.

'Afterwards, one begs a gift of any description out of the allowance of heretics, and owing to depravity and heresy they do not give to.' 55. And Aharman rises through that spite on to the mountain of Dimavand which is the direction of Bevarasp, and shouts thus: "Now it is nine thousand years, and Fredun is not living; why do you not rise up, although these thy fetters are not removed, when this world is full of people, and they have brought them from the enclosure which Yim formed?"

56.

'After that apostate shouts like this, and because of it, Az-i Dahak stands up before him, but, through fear of the likeness of Fredun in the body of Fredun, he does not first remove those fetters and stake from his trunk until Aharman removes them. 57. And the vigour of Az-i Dahak increases, the fetters being removed from his trunk, and his impetuosity remains; he swallows down the apostate on the spot, and rushing into the world to perpetrate sin, he commits innumerable grievous sins; he swallows down one-third of mankind, cattle, sheep, and other creatures of Aűharmazd; he smites the water, fire, and vegetation, and commits grievous sin.

58.

'And, afterwards, the water, fire, and vegetation stand before Aűharmazd the lord in lamentation, and make this complaint: "Make Fredun alive again! so that he may destroy Az-i Dahak; for if thou, O Aűharmazd! dost not do this, we cannot exist in the world; the fire says thus: I will not heat; and the water says thus: I will not flow."

59.

'And then I, Aűharmazd the creator, say to Srosh and Neryosang the angel: "Shake the body of Keresasp the Saman, till he rises up!"

60.

'Then Srosh and Neryosang the angel go to Keresasp; three times they utter a cry, and the fourth time Sam rises up with triumph, and goes to meet Az-i Dahak. 61. And Sâm does not listen to his words, and the triumphant club strikes him on the head, and smites and kills him; afterwards, desolation and adversity depart from this world, while I make a beginning of the millennium. 62. Then Soshyans makes the creatures again pure, and the resurrection and future existence occur.'

63.

May the end be in peace, pleasure, and joy, by the will of God (yazdano)! so may it be! even more so may it be!

 

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This page last updated: 04/02/2009