C.W. Goodwin

[Extracted from Revue Archaeoloogique, vol. 4 (1861), pp. 119-36.]

Second Article1


The letter which Mr. Goodwin today released to Journal readers the rationale is interesting for several reasons. Of ancient Egypt, the monuments remind us above all the splendours of kings, the success of their arms and the priesthood. Here the picture of the miseries of the worker shows us that the modern fellah does not really regret the regime of Pharaonic times. When reading this table, we understand that a superficial investigation could mislead the followers of biblical parallels. They believed discover a memory almost contemporary wounds which Egypt was struck during the Exodus of the Jews. Celtic illusion was short-lived, but the impact she had and gave us the extent of the danger of premature solutions; the severe method of Mr. Goodwin said the path to be followed to achieve results very seriously.

F. Chabas.
Chalon-sur-Saone, February 25, 1861.

The first letter which I propose to try to analyse is the fifth in the collection of the scribe Pentaur. It starts at line 11 of the fifth page of papyrus Sallier I. Comparatively, it does not offer great difficulties to the translator, and we have also the advantage of finding at Papyrus Anastasi V, [p.120] p. 15, a duplicate much more clearly written, with about fifty different spellings more or less important. We read the first mention of the names of the scribes between this exchange of correspondence:

            The chief jailer of Ameneman scriptures, the treasure of King3 said the scribe, Pentaur.

I leave aside all that can be considered obvious or sufficiently to experienced Egyptologists, and limit my comments to points of difficulty. In the preceding sentence, one word seems to require some explanation, which is the compound sua-skhai in hieroglyphics [GLYPHS]. The initial sign marked C. 14 to catalogue the types of printing for a variant of imperial monuments Figure [GLYPH] [B. 81]. It is important not to confuse these two signs with [GLYPH] [C. 15] and [GLYPH] [B. 82]. They have indeed a sound and a different purpose.

For [GLYPH] and [GLYPH] I adopt the sound sa, according to the group [GLYPHS]4 which meets this phonetic element. This variant, from the observations of Mr. Edwin Smith, is common in rituals. In a variation of the low times, the initial s the name of the city of Sni (Esne) is expressed by the same hieroglyph.5

[GLYPHS] is almost always preceded by the letters [GLYPHS], ari, which probably represent the phonetic value. It should be remarkable, [p.121] however, that in these different hieratic signs are exactly the same form and cannot be distinguished by their phonetic complements.

Confusion with ari, the word sau has been translated, maintain, and close to the Coptic jre5, custos. This should really feel in some sentences, especially in that which occupies me, but it is inapplicable in many others. For example, in the portrait of a soldier bent under his load: ne tesu en ati-f sau, the joints of his spine are sau,6 the probable meaning is shattered, broken, and the same should still feel the sentence: sau-k ati en pen kheta,7 you break the back of the Kheta. The Ritual keeps returning several times to the words: sau sbau,8 which I think reads break, crush the rebels.

The meaning seems admissible in such phrases as these: au-tu er par en banra em karh em hru pen, it is forbidden (or should be avoided) going out at night, that day9 and sau-tu ur-ur, it must be rigorously avoided, or this is very defended.10

One of the best examples of meaning is keep, observe, in the Treaty of Ramses II with Khitas, where we read the following paragraph: "These are the words of the tablet's gold country of Kheta and Egypt; those who do observe not .... and whosoever shall do."11 This is the word sau that expresses the idea here observed. Found in another text a reference to a pretty girl holding [sau] the vines.12

Other studied texts seem to think that the word has yet different meanings,13 but in that which we [p.122] hold we must take under guard. The Ameneman probably conservative writings on wealth brought into the royal treasury, custos rotulorum you, as we say today. I proceed to the following sentence:

                    Here is brought to you this letter of speech communication.

This is the preamble of all the letters in the collection of Ameneman Pentaur; it is the same for those of Amenemap Panbesa in the collection. The last word hna-tat, composed of hna, cum,, and tat, loqui, litt. colloquium, is not related to the above, since in many cases we find that expression hna earlier used only in the beginning letters. I mention, for example, in particular the duplicate of the same letter that I am analysing

Going by the example of my predecessors, I initially thought that ar enti was a formula input as seen in that, considering that, but comparing a large number of texts made ​​me recognize that almost all these words are taken literally, mean in an affirmative sense, and is quod. In this papyrus, the whole expression is integer ar enti ar entu, is ar enti ar entu, but the papyrus Anastasi III, the second ar is always omitted: integer ar entu is quod allatum.

The substance of the letter begins only after the word communication. All the above is the preamble, common to all the letters like that.

                    He told me that you give up the letters, you walk away from eloquence, you give the face (to) work of the campaign, you leave behind the divine words.

The meaning of [GLYPHS], khaa, abandon, is well established, yet it appears to deny the radical meaning of this word and is something broader and more vague, such as move or deflect: turn away from it, to one thing, give it up.

In the Orbiney papyrus, the meaning seems to result from throwing, phrases like throw to the dogs, flung into the river, lay on the floor, and finally in terms of gold mines we find the sentence: Path that leads (khaa) or turn to the sea.14 Moreover, the Coptic yj or yss, ponere, mittere, relinquere, appears to be the derivative of khaa, and can account for most of the ancient meanings of the word.15

In the next sentence, the word khaa returns with the complement [GLYPHS] ha-k, your occiput, and one could read; you turn your occiput (you turn your back) to the divine words.

The word [GLYPHS] shama, is found only in formulas similar to that of the papyrus Sallier I.16 I compared it to the Coptic euuo, alienus; lacking other means of investigation, this word has the indirect object [GLYPHS] abu, determined by the hieroglyph group of a man stretching members17 and that of speech. This is obviously a habitual act of some of the scribes. From the energy of determinatives, I'm tempted to see the phrases sermon, recitation, the practice of eloquence. In our passage, the scribe is charged to detach his mind; also another scribe has committed to give his attention.18 [p.124] The Coptic gives us jojw, narratio, and with t causative t-jojw--, recitare.19

For the phonetic value of [GLYPH] representing a meadow or garden, Egyptologists do not agree. I see it as a variant of [GLYPHS], sen, in respect of the god Num, lord of Seni.20 The syllable san or sen is probably the sound of this hieroglyph.

[GLYPHS] neter-tat, in the Rosetta inscription, this hieroglyphic writing means literally the divine words, and it can be compared to our expression Scriptures, and even the general term theology, the study of sacred science was indeed the highest award of the scribe.

In another papyrus21 phrases that are translated at the beginning of a letter are destroyed at the end. However, enough remains to show that this was another exhortation on the same text.

                      Look! did you not see the condition of the farmer: before collecting the harvest, the worm carries some, and the animals eat the rest of the corn.

[GLYPHS], skha, paint, draw, describe, appear. The sentence is interrogative: Do you not portray yourself? do you not have you figured?


Of [GLYPHS], kenau, I know of no other example, but the papyrus Anastasi V duplicate offers us the group, the very well known [GLYPHS], kaa, meaning picture, image, likeness.

For [GLYPHS], hanuti, the cultural meaning, farmer, obviously results from the context, and the branch of flowers used as initial sign with the value han22 is perhaps an allusion to the products of culture. There are [GLYPHS], han, with the value field or area.23 The bird with the black crest erect is not phonetic, it is a component of many groups including several terms of agriculture, but it is impossible to determine its role.

Kheft, front, is followed by two determinatives: an oryx and the horn of the human face, the first because of it is improperly used as a word phonetically, and is closer to kheft, enemy; the second is the determinative of the idea in front, before, etc. In the Anastasi text, both determinatives are deleted.

I consider dubious reading smeru for the group, however I tend to think that the coiled rope [GLYPH] is m and that we have here the root ur, link, preceded by the s causative, and the literal meaning to link (the sheaves ), that is to say to harvest.24

[GLYPHS], hf-ou, corresponds to 5of, 5ob, snake, and to 5jf, jf, fly; 5jboji, viper, and 5jbojei, hornet, derive also from the same radical and resemble several forms.25 [p.126] This is discussed in the passage as some sort of worm or insect, a pest to agriculture.

[GLYPHS], ma, has been translated by side, this side, and that meaning is made ​​obvious by formulas such as the right side, left side.26 The requirements of the context led me to recognize the value part, portion; as yet I have not seen this in other passages.27

The Coptic tebiih seems to have retained the Egyptian [GLYPHS], tebu, cattle. However, this is a group with the determinative of the hippopotamus, and it is possible that this animal was so named by eminence, as in Hebrew behemoth, the hippopotamus, behemah, here, pecus.

It is not impossible, however, that this is the hippo itself. We know that this amphibian was causing havoc in crops on the banks of the Nile. Although no longer met with in the South, it is certain that we have seen it penetrate upto Lower Egypt.28

In [GLYPHS], ketkhu, the first syllable is the Coptic ke, alias, and the word corresponds to keysoji, alii. The rest has another sense, for certain. n the Lee Papyrus ,29 this word is antithetical to ta ua, one, and [GLYPHS], nehau, some, a little. In the Tale of the Two Brothers, it is said that the guilty wife told her husband the facts, em ketkhu, but in a different way.

                      The  many rats in the field, the grasshopper, the cattle eat, the sparrows fly.

The word [GLYPHS] sanhemu, grasshoppers, has not yet been reported. In the great work of Champollion, the determinative of the insect itself is located;30 literally the name means the son of plunder.31 It is found mutilated in some Coptic. In one of Shenute's sermons, the writer speaks of a small animal called sjiiii5; he described it as a winged thing that jumps, and Zoega tells us that the scribe drew something on the sidelines like a grasshopper. This is obviously the Egyptian saneham, deprived of his final m. It is singular that lexicographers have failed to give a meaning.32

In the Ritual and in the book called Sha en sin-sin, the city Sanhemu is mentioned, whose name is in some variants determined by three grasshoppers.33 It may be the Hebrew םעלס, slham, who appoints a species of grasshopper, he borrowed from the Egyptian ל and ג sometimes exchanged it.34

[GLYPHS], aaui, cattle. This is discussed in one of our letters of papyrus: "The cattle (aaui) who are in my lord's fields are in good condition, the bulls in the stables are in good condition."35 Here aaui forms parallels with ka, bull. The meaning cattle is also demonstrated by the Orbiney papyrus.

[GLYPHS], tutu, is the Coptic tat, pass. The [p.128] Anastasi text has the form [GLYPHS], silent, a variant that provides further evidence of the value t for the little bird fluttering.

                    The farmer neglects who else (is in) the field, thieves trample him; iron pickaxes are in use, the horse dies pulling the plow.

At different passages36 where I met the word [GLYPHS], ukanu, meaning laziness, negligence, seems appropriate. The scribes are encouraged to abstain, it would be the root of the Coptic qehe, dipping, remissus. This sense, in all cases, fits our text.

[GLYPHS], nakht-ta has variant [GLYPHS]. From the analysis of the passages where he is,37 and too numerous to discuss here, I find that this word means land on which wheat has been harvested. Compare and et, secare, and hts, ager.

Then [GLYPHS] is found in the full form [GLYPHS].38 The reading tan is completely hypothetical, the sign [GLYPH] is of rare occurrence.39 If this reading is correct, the Coptic tehho, conterere, provides a satisfactory meaning for our words. I shall adopt it provisionally.

[GLYPHS], aakasu, which is determined by the sign, speaks [p.129] of animals or animal products, and is found elsewhere40 with the package tied, a determinative of the names of fabrics. However the text below indicates that this object is a kind of metal, either bronze or iron. The Anastasi text substitutes the word paakau, determined by the hieroglyph of the same metal, a drawn blade. The Coptic jkes ascia, cuspis ferrea, also meaning cinctura feminalia, provides an excellent explanation of the word. Egyptians had probably the same jobs. That at least is what seems to result from the use of various determinatives that we have just quoted and that the scribes of our papyrus were confused. Leaving aside the fact that the sense of the word means an annex of clothing, we cannot help but recognize in the akasu metal, this useful tool that has the same name in almost every language: gr. άξίνη, lat. ascia, allem. axt , fr. ax, Engl. axe.

As for the name of the metal itself, I find it easy to replace the word men or menkh.41 It is probably well pronounced, and we find perhaps a trace in the Coptic behihe, ferrum.

[GLYPHS], aku, occurs fairly often in the texts with the value wear, weaken, collapse, die, and is preserved in the Coptic tbko, corrumpere, interficere, perire. In this sentence the sense to wear, destroy, works well.

[GLYPHS], hu, has various meanings. Radically, it expresses an action as the Coptic words 5i, 5ioj et 5ioji, where we find the meaning jacere, imponere, strepere, percutere, expandere, cdere, acuere and many others. In the Egyptian hu I discovered, among other values, to drive the cattle, harvesting, threshing wheat, grow (as the Nile), etc. Here the word precedes the well-known group that designates the plow, and it is almost impossible to make it other than shooting, hanging out.

                    The scribe of the port (is) to the landing, he collects the tribute; officers (are) with sticks, negroes with palm branches, they (cry) is given grain is not repel them outside.

[GLYPHS], menau, is the Coptic uoiih, portus. The objectives determined are suitable for the purposes of heaven to receive vessels; this word is not rare in the texts.

[GLYPHS], meri, also refers to a location closer to the water.

In the Tale of the Two Brothers it is said that the head of washer goes meri and that is where he finds the loop made ​​fragrant by the river. I bring this word of Coptic wrw, navale portus. There the preposition ha, is missing before meri, and is expressed in the Anastasi text.

It is owing to Mr. Brugsch identification [GLYPHS] with  wu.42 This word means both harvest and tribute. I do not hesitate to translate here smeru shmu, collect the tribute, though in the preceding sentences I have made ​​the same expression: gather the harvest. We know that a tax in kind was made ​​on agriculture, the function of the scribe was probably to collect this tax at harvest time from growers on the Nile. Strictly speaking, to meet the difficult objections of philologists,43 we could read it thus without straining the meaning of the Egyptian; the scribe of the door is the landing place, and he (the farmer) is to gather the harvest. The intention would be the same, it would still recall the heavy tax that will be required of the unfortunate farmer.


Armed with sharut, Coptic bwt fustis, stick, [GLYPHS], ari-sra, the agents are probably responsible for assisting the collector of taxes in his office and administer the caning to anyone recalcitrant. I will not discuss in depth the group ari, whose meaning is the radical neighbour, friend, Coptic jrhoj vicinus, erhj socius (in heherhj). In some cases it is a simple preposition with, on, gr. έπί πρός.

Ari-sba consists of ari and the sign [GLYPH] which represents a door and probably reads sra.44 We could translate doorman, doorkeeper, but the passage before us shows that the function of ari-sba was not merely to watch the door of any building.

What are the negroes with palm branches or dates? (Coptic bji rummy palmarum; beiiie dactylus). Probably the stray Negroes seeking work at harvest time from the principal. Depredations on their passage to the detriment of farmers. The papyri mention the work of the negro, it is no doubt that the negro tribes descended the Nile Valley to earn some wages.

The last phrase is obscure. Nothing is more common than the phrase amma, amma-tu, in the imperative sense: give, do that, utinam, but in our text the term imperative would be possible only if one accepts the forgetting of the verb tat, say, in this case the meaning is obvious: they say, give wheat. It should be noted, however, that the duplicate Anastasi does not express the word tat.45


Of [GLYPHS] purshu em, I know of one example: Coptic nwr means extendere, expandere. We can therefore compare em purshu to ubol extra, foras, literally in solvendo. Ancient Egyptian is much richer than the Coptic adverbial forms of this kind.

                    It is related to the channel; they push (him) he is violent with his wife; related to him are his children stripped.

[GLYPHS] sanhu, is the Coptic swii5 ligare, coercere. This identification does not need further evidence.

I conjecture that the farmer is forced to work to repair a canal or well [GLYPHS] shet (copt. jts, canalis, jte puteus). In another papyrus scribe is a threat to send him to the work of [GLYPHS] sheth.46 This is probably in both cases a decent work or chore. However I do confess this is not certain and that after my initial explanation of the word khaa we could read that in a pinch is thrown to the farmer shet, that is to say to the channel. The variant of the papyrus Anastasi: [GLYPHS] tahu-tu-f, suggests that it is immersed, immersed in water.

One and another text added that this action is made ​​tabukatakai em, a word that the Anastasi papyrus gives the determinative for man knocked upside down, the three lines of water and the strong arm and means certainly a violent action. The Coptic gives us jwwke fustigatio and jokjek, rixa.


The wife is bound, senhu-tu, and children [GLYPHS] makhau; this group is still a new word, with the determinative fabrics or clothing we have the choice between the idea bind and the idea strip, which would fit in our context. We see that the violence with which the farmer is exposed either by reason of his inability to pay the tax, either as a result of incursions by negroes, extend to his wife and his children, the exact expression of the violence may escape us, but uncertainty will cease as soon as we have seen enough examples of the words we read here for the first time.

                    His neighbours left off caring for their wheat.

In [GLYPHS], sahu-ta, I find sej5 conjungere, and to terra, thence conterranei, contermini. It is said the dyer or bleacher is close (sahu-ta) to the crocodile.47

The meaning is that the farmer's neighbours are occupied outside their own harvest and cannot help him.

                    The scribe's work excels the work of all kinds; he does not believe the letters; not working is his fee. Know it.

[GLYPHS] apu, is an important word and is used very often. In the Orbiney papyrus, it corresponds exactly to the Coptic 5jii ji 5jii in judicio contendere. It is found in the Abbott papyrus with the value exception, which is a rather ordinary spelling [p.134] [GLYPHS],48 [GLYPHS].49 With the determinative of running, it means messenger, envoy, ambassador, Coptic reuii5wb, nuncius. Finally, in the sentence before us we can assimilate the Coptic 5wb, res, negotium or eiep, ieb, ieope, ars, opus, expressions that are fundamentally identical. This sense of work, occupation, should be used for the rest of a multitude of passages in the Sallier and Anastasi papyri. For example: I have performed all the work (apu); I had been imposed;50 I completed my work (Taia em apu),51 taia apu hu ma hapi, my work is increasing as the Nile.52 From these last two passages we see that apu, in this sense, is feminine.53

[GLYPHS] kherpu, is preserved in the Coptic 5orp, primus. prcenire. This sense suits the passage analyzed and applies very naturally to a sentence in the stele of the Princess of Bakhten: The leaders have brought all kinds of the divine land on their backs, [GLYPHS] ua-neb her kherp ...... ew, each taking precedence, surpassing the other.54 A similar expression is still in use today.

Instead of the word hesbu, the Anastasi papyrus has men hetera. M. Chabas, who suggested several useful observations about [p.135] this passage, thinks that the two words hesbu and hetera are basically identical. According to him, his denial was omitted by the scribe of the Sallier text, unless the sentence is interrogative. M. Chabas translates accordingly: There is no tax on the work of letters. [GLYPHS] hesbu admits indeed the meaning account, the tax roll and [GLYPHS] heterau that of tribute, levy, taxes. However I noticed that the work of the scribe has distinguished carefully crafts, and it seemed that the analyzed sentence alludes to the distinction which the scribes had to be jealous. Ultimately, I remain a little unsure of the true meaning of the passage.

[GLYPHS] shaiu, is a rare word. I met it only in a passage which says to receive fifty or a hundred measures of metal sha en smat.55 Assuming a parallel in the last two sentences of our papyrus, M. Chabas admits the meaning royalty tax. This understanding gives us a repeat of the previous idea: there is not to impose royalty (the work of the scribe), and the sentence relating to the delivery of the metal, it would translate: the fee for the smat is to say the serfs attached to the work of the temple.

[GLYPHS], akh, Coptic j multus, quantus. When the word begins a sentence and is followed by a verb, the sentence has often an imperative sense. Only he is questioning that? what? Very clear passages of the Orbiney papyrus have sufficiently demonstrated that. [GLYPHS],56 akh tera, meaning quid nunc? [GLYPHS], er akh, quantus! ad quantum. [GLYPHS],57 ia akh, is or why. Bringing together the fragments that I have discussed and amended [p.136] lightly turns Egyptian for appropriating the requirements of modern taste, I reproduce the Ameneman letter now in full:

"The chief custodian of the records Ameneman, the king's treasure, said to the scribe Pentaur: We bring you this letter of speech (to make you) a communication.

"I was told that you have left the letters, you are alienated from the practice of elocution. that you give your attention to field work, you turn your back that read the divine Scriptures. Consider! have you not represented the condition of the farmer. Before he reaps, insects carry a portion of wheat, animals eat what remains; multitudes of rats are in the fields, locusts fall, the cattle eat, sparrows fly. If the farmer neglects what remains in the fields, the thieves ravage that which is left; his tool of iron wears out; his horse dies in pulling the plow. The scribe arrives at the station, he collects taxes, there are officers with sticks, negroes with palm branches, and say, Give us of wheat! and we cannot push them. He is bound, and sent to the channel, they grow violent; his wife is bound in his presence, his children are stripped. As for his neighbours, they are far and look after their own harvest. The occupation of the scribe takes priority over any other kind of work; it does not look like the letters work, there is no tax on it. Know this. "

This letter tells us that at the time of the Nineteenth Dynasty scribes did not form a distinct class whose offices are passed from father to son. Individuals belonging to lower classes were free to choose a literary career and then, as now, served as an extended statement delivery to offices of trust and even the dignities of the state. The title of skhai, scribe, corresponds exactly to the English clerk and the French committed. It assumes knowledge essential to writing, but it could happen that the special function of some scribes did not require a writing. Egyptian scribes were indeed attached to offices very varied, and although the study of the sacred language is consistently mentioned as one of their functions, we see them used in civilian and military posts that have nothing in common with theological science. The Coptic has preserved the name of sj4 ii ieeb, scribe of the sea; probably a pilot or captain.


I consider a circumstance worthy of notice the mention of the use of the horse to work in agriculture.58 No other nation of antiquity has, I believe, used this animal for plowing. In Egypt, the horses were at that time very abundant, and it is from this country that Solomon imported them from Judea. Genesis mentions the number of horses to the animals that the Egyptians brought Joseph to exchange against the grain.59

A large number of foreign workers came to serve the Egyptians, including Nahsi or Negroes. Perhaps we find an index of employment in domestic service in the Coptic iie5s ii hi in the Sahidic version (Gen., c. xiv, v. 14), corresponding to the Greek οίχογενείς , literally the negroes of the house.60

C. W. Goodwin.
Translated by F. Chabas.


1 See the first article, Rev. archol., new series, 1st year, p. 223.

2 M. Goodwin transcribed kh by the strong aspiration that the French Egyptologists are by h' or ch. (Translator's Note.)

3 The king is here indicated by the long title: the double wide home, healthy and strong. Mr. Goodwin removes this strange phraseology, as I did in my Mm. sur l'inscr. d'Ibsamboul. Rev. arch., 1859, p. 578. (Translator's Note.)

4 Sharpe, Eg. reg . Series I, pl. 79, 8 and pl. 80, 6.

5 Lepsius, Koenigsb. Taf. IV, 26.

6 Pap. Anast. IV, pl. 9, 1. 10. The duplicate, the pap. Anast. III, pl. V, Fig. 11, substituted for the word sau the group [GLYPHS], khabu, which means bow.

7 Pap. Sallier III, pl. 8, and 4 pl. 9, 9.

8 Todtb., c. xvii, 45; c. xviii, 8, etc.

9 Pap. Sallier IV, pl. ii, 6.

10 Todtb., c. cxliv, 32.

11 Denkm., III, 146, 30.

12 Pap. Anast. I, pl. 25, 4.

13 This multiplicity of meanings for the same word is by no means peculiar to the Egyptian language, it is the same for many words in all languages, ancient and modern. The word sau, discussed by Mr. Goodwin, occurs in a fairly large number of spelling forms and with different determinatives, including the sign of the pastor or shepherd (which is often used as initial), the papyrus roll, the armed wing, the knife, the claiming man. The caprice of the scribes has confused these forms, which corresponded to the origin of special meanings. It should be noted however that the meaning prevent, to guard, protect, is related to the idea keep, keep aside. (Translator's Note.)

14 Lepsius, Ausw. Taf. XXII.

15 There are only slight differences between the various meanings of the word khaa, whose real fundamental meaning is to leave, abandon, reject; it says, very well let the dogs leave the water, leaving the ground, and a path he left, he stops at the point where it leads. (Translator's Note.)

16 Anast. V, 6, 1, 15, 6; Anast. IV, 11, 8.

17 A sprawling human figure.

18 Lit. his heart; Anast. V, 6, 2.

19 In his first work Mr. Goodwin had made ​​this passage: you're addicted to pleasure. This sense may be appropriate to the group abc, which are determinatives of the dance or exercise the body and the passions and speech. [GLYPHS] ab, want, desire, love, the rest is very experienced, shaua is quite uncertain. (Translator's Note.)

20 Lepsius, Koenigsb. IV, 26.

21 Anast. V, 6, 1.

22 Bunsen's Egypt. phonetics, H, 12.

23 Anast. VI, 12, 4.

24 Variants accumulating that the winding has the syllabic value rer, in the word [GLYPHS], surround, circulate, but the hieratic sign that Mr. Goodwin transcribed in this form may correspond to another hieroglyph, for example [GLYPH] which often supplement to n. (Translator's Note.)

25 Zoega, Cat. Note 52.

26 Todtb., 145, 3; 153, 9.

27 The idea is to share; both are related to the ideas and party side. This grade should also exist in Egypt, ma doubles as a separative particle, of, eg, from, and one could read: the worm takes on wheat. (Translator's Note.)

28 Abdallatif, Hist. Egypt., cap. 2.

29 Sharpe, 2d series, p. 875.

30 Champollion, Mon., pl. XIII.

31 Bunsen gives only the last syllable hm. Ideog., No. 353.

32 Peyron, which refers to the passage cited by Zoega, gives olearius as the value of sjhhe5.

33 This information is due to Mr. Edwin Smith, who collected a large number of variants of the Ritual.

34 Gesenius, Lex., has ל.

35 Sallier I, pl. 4. 7.

36 Sallier I, pl. 5, 6; Anast. V, pl. 23, 5.

37 Sallier 1, pl. 4, 12, ibid., pl. 17 and 19, back.

38 Sallier II, pl. 7, 2, ibid., pl. 5, 1; Anast. VI, pl. 2, 11. These passages throw some light on the meaning of the word.

39 Bunsen, Ideog., No. 614, gives the value tata-nn.

40 Sallier II, pl. 6, 2; pl. 5.8.

41 Sallier I, pl. 4, 0.

42 Brugsch, Nouvelles recherches, etc. Berlin, 1856.

43 On a harvest scene in which two kinds of workers work separately, we read the legend: Harvest by workers in the field, harvest by royal slaves. Pharaoh has collected the taxes well in kind at the time of cutting wheat. Cut the wheat, in the words of the text that I quote (Denkm., II, 107), or gather the harvest, according to the papyrus, it was for the collection of taxes. The translation of Mr. Goodwin is excellent. (Translator's Note.)

44 Pap. hirat. Leide l, 348, back, pl. 2, last line, we find the form [GLYPHS] which shows that the initial letter is s.

45 It seems certain that the sentence is elliptical, the suppression of tat erb, say, is a fairly common occurrence (see Inscr. d'Ibsamboul, Revue arch., 1859, p. 722). The most typical example is in the Register of Kuban (Prisse, Mon., pl. XXI, fig. 3 and 4), where such removal is repeated three times: The gods are to (say) our seed is him the goddesses to (say): he left us to exercise the kingship of the sun; Ammon to (say): I have done justice to install in its place. (Translator's Note.)

46 Anast. V, p. 22, fig. 5.

47 Sallier II, p. 8, fig. 3.

48 Lepsius, Ausw., IX, stele, 1. 13.

49 Ibid., XVI, 1. 8.

50 Anastasi VI, p. 1, 1. 8.

51 Anast. IV, p. 4.1. 8.

52 Anast. IV, p. h, I. 10.

53 V. de Rouge, Etude sur une stle egypt., p. 111. The eminent Egyptologist left the issue undecided.

54 The use of the preposition m the genitive, though common in Coptic, is rarely seen in ancient Egyptian, [GLYPH] means almost always done at, to, and, of, eg, from. The sentence is awkward. The pap. Sallier II, pl. 9, 1, reads very clearly: There are juices that are winning professions, ap sh'ac, except the scribe, because he is prime. After the picture of the miseries of the labourer, the term ap sh'au, etc.., means to me: Another thing is the scribe, because he has priority over any other profession. (Translator's Note.)

55 Anast. III, p. 6, 1. last.

56 Sallier III, p. 2, 1. 5.

57 Anast. IV, p. 9, 1. 4; Sallier l, pl. 4. 1. 1.

58 The Orbiney papyrus also speaks of the horse used for the plow.

59 Genesis, ch. xlvii, v. 17.

60 It is permissible to doubt the authenticity of the word. (V. Taltam, Lex., sv). The memphitique version has ues 4ei hi, born in the house.