by the Editor

(First Draft, April-October 2010)


It doesn't matter how many times a lie is told anew,
It will never replace the false with the true.

This guide has been written in response to a large majority of visitors to www.masseiana.org wishing to know more about what Gerald Massey really said in the works for which he is now most notably distinguished.

However, it is not my intention here to get involved in a long analytical discussion, nor seek to justify all that Massey said, but rather point out basic concepts which first time readers may have difficulty in grasping. And so this should serve as a useful introduction to those less familiar with his work.

The best way to approach the Masseian corpus is to break it down into numbered relevant points and then to discuss each point in turn. After that, I will clarify them by outlining briefly each work in turn and pointing out where mention is made of these points. I will also give relevant quotations.

The overall schema of Massey's work raises several issues. These issues are not discussed in an isolated way, or individually, but tend to be touched on repeatedly throughout his pages, and he keeps coming back to them in a rather inconsistent manner. As I am not prepared to edit his works into a handy single volume where they all follow on from each other, I can only highlight them and then point the reader in the right direction.


There are basically about a dozen concepts he puts forth in the corpus. I have simplified them as follows:

  1. He first posits that there was an understanding of the world inherent in man, harking back to the earliest period, probably upon his awakening into full self-awareness. Man understood the world. He knew how it worked. He understood he could survive bodily death. He knew the soul was eternal, immortal, that it lived on, way beyond the dissolution of personal consciousness. He knew these things because they were basic to himself, and he understood the world around him because he was in touch with Nature. He did not fight against nature; he worked with nature. He had to in order to survive. And this knowledge can be summed up as the Original Gnosis. This gnosis, or knowledge, later became lost due to dilution and ignorance, and was inevitably corrupted through personal gain and profit. However, fragments of it still exist. These can be found in the earliest texts and are fully recoverable through the correct interpretative tool. The gnosis had its fullest intellectual expression in the early land of Khem, Kmt,  or ancient Egypt, and can be reclaimed directly by using this method.

  2. Massey's chosen method of interpretation was typology, i.e. the study of signs, symbols and metaphors, it being the most viable approach towards such an aim as the gnosis could only be gleaned anterior to the beginnings of language and words. Signs came first, words later. As the gnosis had its beginnings in types, it is therefore logical that typology was the most likely method, spoken language coming much later after its formation.

  3. This gnosis was originally formulated in the cradle of civilisation which Massey posits as lying in what is now known as the deep interior of Africa, or the equatorial region of the lakes. The first formulators used their understanding of the world based on experience and empiricism, having a greater connectivity with Nature than later man. They also had a clarity of perception which went beyond the norm, or what we would now call 'psychic gifts,' enabling them to penetrate beyond the veils of matter and perceiving souls, ghosts, spirits of the dead, etc., as if still living. This did not give rise to animism, nor totemism, for this awareness predated any such conceptions; that came much later. However, this awareness (or more correctly hyper-awareness) also became lost over time as man evolved. Only those who retained it went on to become the shaman, the medicine man, the spiritual teacher of the tribe.

  4. The carriers of this gnosis, having migrated from their original home ground, spread across Africa in waves, each wave being possibly linked to a certain stage of development. There were three stages (or waves). The first was stellar, the second lunar, and the third solar, as the sun was found to be a more accurate timekeeper. The first migratory (stellar) wave moved northward following the path of the Nile, finally settling in Egypt. It was here the gnosis was fully established and governed all aspects of life; art, culture, religious beliefs, etc. The belief-systems developing from the gnosis concentrated particularly on celestial and astronomical phenomena as the heavens were seen to be a reflection of the topography of the earth. And there was a good reason for this belief:

  5. Home was in the stars, and it was to the stars the Egyptians hoped to return upon death. The fixed stars of the north were later identified as the birthplace, for those lying to the south, being beyond the horizon and the equator, were no longer visible from the northern hemisphere. The stars of the north pole, later identified with the gods, would be the final resting place of those who knew the correct route the soul would take after death, for they appeared to be fixed and had longevity, just as the Egyptians believed man had an immortal soul and was eternal, therefore identifying that aspect of himself with its stellar counterpart. Knowing that the earth was not the centre of the universe (i.e. heliocentric) they understood the phenomenon of precession. They were able to accurately predict and mark out exactly the times of the year when their beloved Nile would once more flood again and so irrigate their land. This they called 'messu', saviour, and was later corrupted by other settlers on their lands as 'Messiah.' They also figured at least seven pole star changes and calculated the great year at 26,000 years. Thus, the Egyptians, as we now call them, must have settled far longer in that land than recognised authorities would have us believe.

  6. The earliest migrators were originally of negroid stock, but with the influx of other settlers in the Nile basin their colour soon became an admixture and were later what we would call of Caucasian complexion. Massey holds that the blacks were the earliest makers of civilisation, and this can be determined through the still intact gesture-signs, languages, and clicks of certain African tribes.

  7. As the fatherhood was not known or barely understood (the mechanics of sex and the physiology of reproduction being truly occult), the earliest societies were matriarchal, being based on the mother, because she brought forth progeny, gave flesh to blood. It was through her that the tribe was perpetuated. She came first and regal rights passed down through the female line before the male usurped her place when fatherhood was fully understood much later. This established the norm for societies.

  8. The mother was venerated as the source of all, figured by the haunch as the outlet or place of birth, and her name was known as Apt, Ta-urt, Isis, or whatever name in her later phase of development. Yet her son, being the bastard child, he who was born through indiscriminate sex acts, became the first god, rather than the husband of the goddess, and was later interpreted as such once intercourse was understood. And this was the origin of the Typhonian Tradition. The son was the child, as well as the consort, of Typhon, the Great Goddess. (It is a difficult concept for some readers of Massey to grasp that when he is speaking of Typhon he means the mother, not the son, contrary to the Greek idea of Typhon being identical with the Egyptian Set, or, as Massey spells it, Sut.)

  9. The recoverable gnosis can be found anywhere throughout the world using the typological method of interpretation. As peoples migrated from their homeland (i.e. Africa) they took with them their understanding of the world. Through diffusion this spread across the globe; hence analogies in all myths and traditions can be found globally because they all flowed from one source, despite their corruption and evolution over time. Thus myths concerning dogs, for example, will have their analogues in Egypt, as well as Mexico or China, and can be traced to their earliest conception in the land of Khem.

  10. Eventually the primordial wisdom, which had taken thousands of years to accumulate, became lost, fragmented, and all but disappeared, only to resurface in a corrupted form, where the ignorance of the usurpers mistook (or misinterpreted) the gnosis as real and historical; signs and symbols being taken as realities, allegorical fables being taken as literal facts, and thus shrouding the following centuries in a fog of mire and delusion.

  11. The biggest culprits of this mistake were the Christians who postulated a real and historical Christ, rather than a spiritual symbol, and were determined to oust any unbelievers. Once their monopoly was established over the western world, any opposers to their claims were denominated heretics, false believers, blasphemers, etc., including, ironically, the Gnostics who were, to all intents and purposes, the true bearers of the gnosis, albeit in a fragmentary form.

  12. Thus the Christ was based on the karast, the embalmed mummy, as a spiritual symbol of eternity and everlastingness. This type would later be applied to Christian eschatology with the belief in a resurrection through Christ and everlasting peace in a paradise of promise, substituting a fable for the realm of the dead, the Egyptian Amenta, or hidden land. There are many examples in Christianity which can be proven to be a misinterpretation of the original gnosis, where the symbol is mistaken for the thing it symbolises, the symbol being misconstrued, and with it the foundations to a very rocky edifice was laid. In fact, everything in the Bible can be found in anterior sources. The Bible is a misinterpretation, or a haphazard and botched rewriting, of the gnosis, a distortion due to confusion and ignorance. The Bible is a blatant ransacking of sacred concepts that constituted the gnosis, an attempt to establish a dogma based on misguided notions. It is essentially a book of lies as none of these concepts were fully understood by the later purveyors.

Lastly, as an addendum to the above, Wisdom, like energy, can never be destroyed, only converted, and this is precisely what happened to the original gnosis.

For those wishing to study the works of Massey, I hope the above points prove useful and provide a fruitful source of information. They are based on my own interpretation of what Massey was saying. Yours may differ from mine even after only a brief perusal of his works. However, most people will find their own interpretation and take from them a personal understanding.

The Masseian corpus can be viewed as follows; the first work, A Book of the Beginnings, is his preliminary attempt to find the natural genesis of types; the second, The Natural Genesis, being a continuation of his researches into reclaiming the primordial wisdom; the last, Ancient Egypt, the Light of the World, being the culmination of his scholarly work; it can also be viewed as a recapitulation of his earlier works. Massey pretty much covers the same ground but with greater confidence, displaying total control over the material he had to hand, and showing the mastery and erudition that 36 years of solid labour had resulted in. It was only then that could sit back and confidently claim that his work was done, being self-assured that he was on the right path.

I will now elucidate each of the above points in turn.


Point 1
Some mystics and scholars have referred to this knowledge as the Secret Wisdom, the Hidden Wisdom, Sophia, Ancient Philosophy, Arcana, etc. Massey uses neither of these terms, nor the Original Gnosis. It is my own appellation and neatly encapsulates the wealth of wisdom filtering through the mouthpiece of ancient Egypt, before its dissemination across the globe. The word he does use throughout is simply gnosis, which I have italicised in his pages because he uses it in an especial sense. He means the Original Gnosis, the True Knowledge, as opposed to the ignorance portrayed by the early Christians. He uses the concepts evolved in ancient Egypt as a benchmark for truth, because ancient Egypt was essentially the earliest civilisation that understood, and incorporated into its beliefs, this primitive understanding. It was in Egypt that these concepts became loud and clear, intellectualised and brought forth with great clarity. Thus to understand the Egyptian way of thinking you have to understand and know the gnosis.

Point 2
The genius of Massey's work is his adoption of typology. Few scholars, contemporaneous with Massey or after, have ever adopted this approach. That it is not a fully recognised science is true. Yet it yields abundant information which can be classified and tabulated, providing a useful comparative table of facts. It is also useful for mapping out, across the board, signs and symbols to be found throughout various cultures with the possibility of demonstrating an underlying unity, suggesting at least a single source, or point of origin. Mythology, a somewhat inaccurate science and open to wide interpretation, he believed was a mode of representation, for primitive man had no other symbols than those he met with in daily life; the phenomena of rain, thunder, lightning, etc., providing him with a basic structure to formulate his ideas. These phenomena suggested superhuman powers, a view that did not arise out of ignorance but simply through limited world-views, or in Massey's opinion, due to both 'mental poverty' and 'the poverty of language.' It gave rise to a representation of natural forces, using signs and symbols, i.e. mythology. The first mythologisers were the scientists of their day and they were attempting to comprehend the world around them and understand it. Myths, therefore, are the embodiments of types; in the same way that Jung sought to find archetypes in the collective unconscious or interior world, the outer world to primitive man was the basis of his weltanschauung or world-view which would culminate much later as the basis of religion. Myths are the allegorical representation of outer facts, on a like-for-like basis, with the invisible powers manifesting their appearance and suggesting to his limited comprehension a power beyond the outer phenomena (or things), which would later give rise to principles of Nature, or powers, and their deification into gods. The first thinkers were thingers, for things, and the ideas they suggested, lay the foundation for symbols as types or representations of things. The same with sign-language. This came about through imitation and by borrowing from natural types. The same for language. Language had its origins in the earliest utterers, the animals, for early man simply imitated what he heard, laying the ground for vocable or utterable sounds, culminating in words and articulate speech. With typology Massey was able to draw parallels between different belief-systems and demonstrated a common strand of traits, suggesting one borrowed from the other, that there was a giver and receiver, the giver in this case being Egypt, and that all other cultures, particularly those associated with the Middle East, like the Babylonian, Assyrian, Hebrew, even further away to the East like Hinduism, borrowed from this source. It is purely for his use of typology as an interpretative tool that Massey should be recognised as a thinker of genius.

Point 3
Massey's pinpointing of Africa, or more precisely Central Africa, as the only possible origin of the human race has been recently corroborated through palaeontology and DNA sampling. His work, and his postulation of an 'Out of Africa' hypothesis is still being hotly debated by geneticists working in fields of research, using technology that was never available to him. In large part they have validated his research. Diffusionism, so extensively ridiculed in his time, not only in his own writings but by others working with similar theories, can no longer be censured as DNA analysis proves conclusively that there was a migratory wave originating from the mother continent, and the earliest hominid types have been found in North Africa, the Congo basin, and other parts of Africa, suggesting there was more than some truth in what he was saying over a hundred years ago. Pity then that his work as an evolutionist never stood alongside that other greatly admired evolutionist, Charles Darwin. But if  all life was seeded from one place, geographically speaking, then it would be possible to prove this by a study of types found in various cultures. If there were parallels to be found then such shared cultural traits were more than likely the results of an expansion of migratory currents from a single source. The commonality of shared traits would suggest his diffusion-theory. Massey, if anything, was a diffusionist, and his work was the attempt to prove diffusionism was true and an objective fact.

Point 4
No one can doubt the splendour of Egypt, yet few choose to believe that its earliest origins were far older than academe or recognised scholars and Egyptologists believe. It is a known fact, and one that was disputed during Massey's time, that the Nile did not have it origins in the great lakes of Victoria, Albert, Edward and George, but all four of them, and that the Nile came about through a shift in the tectonic plates, allowing for the river to course its way northwards some 15,000 years ago. If this is correct, then the earliest migratory wave, following the course of the Nile, could have settled in the Nile basin (i.e. Egypt) anywhere from 5,000 to 10,000 years ago. This would allow for the primitive use of rudimentary tools to die out and be replaced by much more sophisticated implements and the birth, as well as the cohesion, of a proper civilisation as we find it fully established in Egypt circa 3500 BCE. One reason why Massey was so largely ridiculed and denied full recognition, was simply because no one believed Egypt was as old as he said it was. If Egypt was not so old, that did not disprove his theory, for the earliest settlers in the Nile basin may have already had a firm belief-system in place, and they understood celestial phenomena enough to be able to use the stars above as navigation points as they wended their way slowly down the Nile over many thousands of years.

Such modern writers as Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval have, like Massey, attempted to demonstrate that Egypt was a mirror of the heavens above, that the Milky Way could be seen reflected on earth as the Nile, their river of life. The pyramids, like the ones to be found at Giza, were viewed as analogues of the stars; the three pyramids being identified with the three stars of Orion's belt. In which case, for it to be mapped out and laid on the ground as a perfect reflector of the heavens, this could only have taken place at a certain time when the Milky Way and Orion could parallel the terrestrial layout, again at a date reaching back into the remotest antiquity. There are many modern theories regarding the sphinx, for example, namely that it faces east with its gazed fixed on that part of the horizon where the sun would have risen with the constellation of Leo as its backdrop many thousands of years ago. Hence the sphinx is of leonine form, as an adumbrator, or stellar indicator, of that constellation. If this is correct, then the age of the sphinx has to be pre-dynastic, if not primitive. Hence, what we know as Egyptian culture is vastly older than scholastic consensus.

Point 5
This is fairly self-explanatory. Massey was the first to identify the birthplace with the Haunch in Cassiopeia.

Point 6
The reason for Massey's popularity among Afrocentrists is that he gives back to them the recognition they deserve; in founding some of the greatest civilisations known to man. No one denies them of their right, or their need to reclaim such an inheritance, and Massey proved beyond doubt that the first proper civilisation was of negroid stock. If this is correct then essentially we're all black underneath.

There are several established black scholars in this field who have drawn on the work of Massey or have been influenced by it. Charles Finch, Ivan van Sertima, Yosef Ben-Jochannan, etc. I thoroughly recommend to those interested the following works:

Not all of these authors quote from Massey, but most of them bear out his assumptions, and therefore are in some way indebted to him. I have already discussed my opinion and views of these authors in one of my essays (see essay 2), so I will refrain from reiterating them here.

Rey Bowen, an admirer of Massey, has recently spoken on Massey in a streamed radio interview. He outlined in basic concepts what Massey was saying, and obviously believes in the validity of his arguments. It's a pity it cannot be downloaded as a podcast for it would serve as a useful introduction to Massey's works. But do read his introduction to Massey's essay on myths, which can be found at http://gerald-massey.org.uk/massey/cpr_myths_and_totemism.htm.

Point 7
Again self-explanatory. In the earliest societies sexual intercourse was promiscuous. This was before the predominance of morality and societal restrictions. Therefore, any man who had slept with a woman would not know if he was the father of her child or not. In fact, the father could have been anyone, for insemination (i.e., ejaculation and fertilisation of the ovum) was not seen as a cause, the cause being hidden, an out of sight phenomenon.

What was seen was an outer manifestation after parturition, an occurrence that became lauded over time, especially since the woman, and the act of birth, produced in man a sense of bewilderment if not awe. For this reason such a power would be reverenced. As Massey demonstrates throughout his works, sex was a primary factor in formulating the original gnosis for the mysteries were in great part physiological, or had as their basis a physiological fact. The power to propagate became an act worth worshipping, hence women were seen as greater or superior to men. And the first physiological phenomenon that was praised was the simple manifestation of blood in the menarche of the girl. This was very important for two reasons. 1. It signified the girl was now a woman and thus was able to reproduce. 2. It also denoted time as a marker of periods which in itself seemed to be correlated to the lunar phenomena of the moon's waxing and waning. Whether it was possible that in the early days the cycles actually coincided—the occultation of the heavenly body being in tandem with feminine periodicity—is debatable but it did give rise to the notion that Woman was of a lunar aspect, Man of solar, this following on from the realisation that it was the act of penetration, ejaculation and insemination that gave rise to progeny. When this occurred, in the much later stages of evolution, the mother goddess was usurped, and the father god took her place, signalling the ushering in of paternal societies. Massey may on this point revealingly betray his distrust of patriarchal society, leaning to a closer affinity with the matriarchal, seeing perhaps that the latter was far better than the former. And, indeed, if we look at DNA sampling, the mitochondrial gene is only found in women, and this gene can be traced back more accurately through the female line, all the way back, in fact, to a primordial mother, or mother Eve of the human race, a Great Mother who could possibly have an African ethnicity.

Point 8
This point follows on from the former. The son, as the impregnator of its mother, becomes the god-king reigning in a dual sovereignty with the mother; the divine bastard being represented in the Egyptian mysteries by Set. Set was later denounced and vilified once the mechanics of sex were understood, therefore the bastard-god was thrown out to be superseded by the true father, Osiris. This assumption would have occurred in a much later phase of human development when the father was known, and when patriarchy reigned the solar cults began to flourish. There were therefore three integral parts of the human development process:

The first was the Stellar, signified by the Mother.
The second was the Lunar, signified by the Mother and her Son.
The third was the Solar, signified by the Father, giving rise to patriarchy.

These distinctive phases may not be so distinctive and it is difficult now to establish whether they can be really allied to the migratory waves Massey believed took place millennia ago. It would be a nice tidy step to take if we could assume that they tie in; the first, stellar wave who worshipped the mother, migrated north, eventually settling in Egypt, to be later followed by a second, lunar wave who worshipped the mother and son, to be followed by the last, solar wave of father worshippers who supplanted a previous phase of settlement in Egypt and established a cult of the Sun. However, this is extremely unlikely and such a hypothesis would be impossible to prove either way. It simply acts a convenient methodological tool for analysis. Again, I will refrain from any personal remarks or attempt to prove Massey was correct in his assumptions, but it is worth bearing in mind these evolutionary phases of migration, and their astronomical connections, for it forms the basis of his theory of primitive (i.e. early) sociology.

Point 9
Using his own unique approach to discovering the true source of the human race and the origins of knowledge, Massey attempted to map out how these types evolved and how they spread across the world. Although there may be similarities in myths in one part of the world to those in another, he believed it was possible to demonstrate their connection by stripping away the outer layer of a myth or symbol and penetrate to its core. Only then would it be possible to identify the exact causal factor that gave rise to both. Cultural attachments or accretions to a myth, for example, would colour that myth. But if the original could be found, perhaps in a more exact or pristine form, say in Africa, then it would logically follow that they came from the same place, the African being the prototype, the Chinese, North American, Indian, etc., being a later copy.

It is only through studying the myths, symbols and types of a primitive race that we can get back to the original source, for Massey believed the original gnosis was only recoverable through its nearest analogues, and these would be people who had not been affected by the belief-systems of an external culture, or the influence of ideas and dogmas of an institutionalised religion alien to their own. Primitive beliefs embodied the primitive types. The problem he faced was finding such a people who had not been contaminated, tainted or influenced by outsiders. That is why he spent so much time in trying to study the primitive races, or what was left of them, remaining throughout the world. Hence, it would be possible to demonstrate an affinity between the myths of African tribes and those of Australian Aborigines because both had their underpinning in the original gnosis, although admittedly there would be later accretions and individual colouring. Much of the source material he uses is from the archives of travel writers and missionaries for there was no proper study of anthropology in his day, only the accounts written by non-experts. These first-hand witness accounts provided an invaluable source for interpreting how primitive races thought of the world, demonstrating they carried in their myths and beliefs fragments of the gnosis.

Point 10
Sadly, as Christianity spread through missionary enterprises, much of the gnosis became lost and corrupted. Massey sought to find some of the fragmentary remains in the early missionary journals, or sacred texts, or the monuments and their engravings that were still standing, particularly in Egypt, and Africa in general. This proved a daunting task for it meant years of painstaking research in order to sort the wheat from the chaff. The loss of this knowledge was heralded by the dawning of the Dark Ages, which in hindsight was caused by the spread of Christianity. Remember, when that religion took its place in the Roman Empire (after the Council of Nicea in 325 AD), the empire eventually fell apart inaugurating a wave of ignorance that blighted the western world. The sole purveyors of knowledge became the preachers and clerics as they were the only ones who could read or write. It was with the advent of the printing press in the 1400's, and with it proper education, that a new wave was ushered in, the Renaissance, it in turn giving rise to the period of Enlightenment when people could read for themselves the Bible and come up with their own conclusions: knowledge was no longer the monopoly of the Church. The printing press also made it possible now to transmit parts of the gnosis; thus the works of Horapollo, Plato, Proclus, the Classicists, etc., became available once more.

Point 11
Christianity has a lot to answer for. Many of our problems today stem back to this pernicious religion, a religion based on one single flawed concept; the appearance of a man who was purportedly the son of God, who came into this world to redeem mankind. That no such historical figure existed Massey sought to prove, and by so doing attempted to dismantle a religion based on false foundations. After all, if there was no Christ, there could be no such thing as Christianity, and he attempts throughout his works to prove that every thing of Christianity is based on the adoption and corruption of the original gnosis.

Point 12
Christ was the karast, a mummy-type symbolising immortality, endurance, eternity, everlastingness. As the mummy typified eternity, so too did the Egyptians hope to attain an immortality in the body as well as in the spirit. But it was through the early formulators of the Christian religion, who literally misread the signs, that a false Christ was born, and a powerful symbol of a dying and resurrecting god in heaven, became a dying man on the Cross, who was said to resurrect physically, rather than spiritually. This serves as the supreme example of the misinterpretation of the gnosis.


I will now clarify the above points by going through the corpus, each volume in turn, demonstrating how Massey touches on these points by illustrating them with quotations.

A Book of the Beginnings

This was first published in 1881, comprising a two volume set, and over a thousand pages of data. It was the first comprehensive study of man and his origins, or beginnings, which reach back into the far off distant past. Massey attempts in this work to bring back, or reclaim, these origins by analysing the influence of ancient Egyptian culture, and how the language and myths of that land have affected the western world by comparing the distribution of kamite types found in Britain. This is summed up in the subtitle: 'Containing an attempt to recover and reconstitute the lost origins of the myths and mysteries, types and symbols, religion and language, with Egypt for the mouthpiece and Africa as the birthplace.' Thus, if Africa is the birthplace of the human race, then the types and symbols that are to be found all over the world would be recoverable through this African genesis, having their fullest expression and articulation in the types and symbols to be found in Egypt. The types then are essentially kamitic, i.e. belonging to, or relating to, the black land of the Nile basin.

Section 1

The book opens with a description of the land of Egypt and its geography; so straight away we know the central thesis of this work is the impact of the Egyptian culture on the lands to the north, west, south and east, spreading globally from one isolated spot. Egypt can be seen as the central point (or focal-point) with everything radiating out from that point exponentially. The Nile has not only shaped the land, it has also shaped the lives of the people who rely on its annual inundation for the watering of crops and bringing life back to the land. The Egyptians were entirely dependent on the inundation, and for this reason it was worshipped as a gift of the gods. In a land that had no clocks, the stars in heaven provided an indication of the time, and immediately a connection was made between the star Sirius rising in the south, after an absence of 70 days, and the influx of the Nile. Both seemed to be connected, and from this mental association types and myths were born. 'Only in Egypt could such a phenomenon be observed as the periodic overflow of the river Nile, that not only fertilises the fields with its annual flood, but actually deposits the earth, and visibly realises that imagery of the mythical commencement of all creation, the beginning with the waters and the mud, preserved in so many of the myths.' (p. 3)

Water, represented by the Nile, is the first of the Two Truths, the other being breath (or air), for without either there can be no life. And this is reflected in the beetle (Scarabaeus) which rolled its ball of dung containing its seed prior to the flood, with its offspring later to emerge as the waters subsided. What other image could inspire the idea of a creator god in the form of a beetle? This was the first type of the creator, as moulder, fashioner.

The Typhonians were the worshippers of Typhon, the great mother, and her son. She was the first, and her symbol was the Plough (Ursa Major), his was the star of Sothis. 'Nothing is older than the Great Mother and Child; and as Ta-Urt and Sut, the Great Bear and Dog-star, these were the gods of the Typhonians within the land long ages before they were reintroduced as the Semite Astarte and Bar-Sutekh.' (p. 13) 'In Egypt this oldest form of the Great Mother had been reduced from the status of deity to that of demon, and her idols to that of dolls.' (p. 14) She was identified as a hippo, the bearer of the waters, as her shape, with its huge belly, suggested pregnancy. This hippopotamus-goddess was the first, for she was primordial. With the discovery of the father's part in impregnation she was later ostracised and outcast.

The types of the first are the lower, the back, the left, the hinder, all feminine symbols. Types of the last are the right, the upper, the front. 'The Great Bear was looked to as the great quarter, the birthplace of all beginning.' (p. 16) And this place of birth was first as celestial, but later placed geographically in the south, as the outtrance, the place of gestation suggested by the source of the Nile itself.  'The earliest wise men came from the south, not the east, and made their way north,' (p. 16) following the course of the river, taking with them their understanding and knowledge of the world in symbols and types which can be traced to an inner African origin. 'It will be maintained in this book that the oldest mythology, religion, symbols, language, had their birthplace in Africa, that the primitive race of Kam came thence, and the civilisation attained in Egypt emanated from that country and spread over the world.' (p. 18) If this is the case, then the earliest migrators had to be of a black complexion. 'The most reasonable view on the evolutionary theory.....is that the black race is the most ancient, and that Africa is the primordial home.' (p. 18) This can be ascertained through an examination of the depictions on the monuments, a prime example being the Sphinx. 'The type of the great sphinx, the age of which is unknown, but it must be of enormous antiquity, is African, not Aryan or Caucasian.' (p. 18) It was in Africa, and with the black race, that the first language was formed, based on the primitive types. 'But, beyond this art, just as they have prehuman clicks assigned to the animals, so they have a system of typology of the most primitive nature; one in which the animals, reptiles, birds and insects are themselves the living, talking types, by the aid of which the earliest men of our race would seem to have thinged their thoughts in the birthplace of typology.' (p. 20) Although the migration north would have consisted of their own types, these types would have necessarily changed or evolved as the landscape changed, and the horizon to the south no longer held the recognisable pattern of stars, but looking to the northern heavens, their gaze was now fixed on the polar heavens. 'When at the equator the poles of the heaven are both on the horizon, and the north polestar would furnish there a fixed point of beginning which answers to the starting-point in the north; this would be retained after they had migrated into higher latitudes and the pole of the heaven had risen thirty degrees.' (p. 20)

If we were to imagine a huge universal tree, spreading its branches in all directions, then its roots, buried deep down underneath, are firmly centred in north Africa. 'In Egypt alone, we shall find the roots of the vast tree, whose boughs and branches have extended to a worldwide reach.' (p. 23) This can be proved by a study of types. 'And the final conclusion seems inevitable, that the universal parent of language, of symbolism, of early forms of law, of art and science, is Egypt, and that this fact is destined to be established along every line of research.' (p. 25) With a reaching backwards into primordial time, the origin of the human species can be traced to one single source. 'If we find that each road leads back to Egypt, we may safely infer that every road proceeded from Egypt.' (p. 25) Like a spider's web, each scintillating thread must have had it beginning in the centre for each one is inter-connected. 'The scattered fragments still remain, whereby they can be traced more or less along each radiating line to prove the common model, the common kinship, and the common centre.' (p. 25) 'This, it is now suggested, will be found in Africa as the womb of the human race, with Egypt for the outlet into all the world.' (p. 26) Thus Egypt can be seen as a prism, its light being refracted through it from an earlier source, but its multihued rays radiating out into the future. 'The laws of language prove that the Auritae, the first princes of this long line of descent given at 36,525 years, were Kaf-ritae and the laws of evolution prove the primal race, so far as we can get back, to be the black people.' (p. 29) 'The Auritae were the oldest race. The Karuti were the natives, inhabitants, indigenes, aborigines, and there was nothing more to be said. They had sloughed the black skin of the Nahsi and repudiated it, as we have denied the ape. Nevertheless, they came out of it as we do from the ape without remembering the fact.' (p. 29) But from where exactly did we come? Massey makes a bold claim. 'It is now about to be claimed that civilization did start from a more southern point than Mid-Egypt.' (p. 33) And that 'Ethiopia is claimed for the birthplace.' (p. 35) By understanding how the heavens were configured in the minds of the earliest races we can see that they were enormously influenced by the stars. 'In Egyptian symbolry the celestial is primordial and continually contains the clue to the terrestrial; the earthly is but the image of the heavenly.' (p. 39) Thus, the earliest myths, for example, were astronomical. 'It is the astronomical mythology solely that will reveal to us what the Egyptians and other nations meant by dynasties of deities and the development of series and succession in their rule.' (p. 40)

Section 2

In this section, Massey attempts to demonstrate that the etymologies of certain English words can be traced back to Egyptian sources. Thus, if a word in English, having a similar meaning, may be derived from an Egyptian word with the same meaning, then there must be a causal link. Most of these connections are purely tentative; comparative philology does not always work as a science, and it is here perhaps, that Massey's arguments are the weakest.

Section 3

Massey here attempts to demonstrate that signs and symbols found in Britain have a direct connection with the hieroglyphics of ancient Egypt. Although the British hieroglyphs are not the same as the Egyptian, the underlying types are; the system used by the early inhabitants of Britain developing their own signs based on the Tree-Alphabet and other natural symbols. The primitive alphabet was based on letter-signs. Natural types that would have leant themselves to the primitive peoples of Britain would have been trees, branches, sprigs, etc., as these were abundant, and the people who formulated an alphabet, albeit on a very rudimentary level, would have been the priestly caste we now know as the Druids who were well known to worship trees, especially the mistletoe and oak. Massey then goes on to cite numerous examples of cross-correlations. a stone in Glamis with an engraving of a crocodile would be a figure of the Egyptian god Sebek, a type of the number seven, as the seven-stone, also a symbol of Set. 'The title of this chapter however is used figuratively, although the writer is not sure that even the phonetic hieroglyphics were not once used in Britain.' (p. 92) The nuter sign of the axe was also prevalent in Britain as a type of the divine. 'But this endeavour to arrive at a general sense in which the particulars are swallowed up, and to attain the abstract of all that preceded the later stage of thought is fatal to an understanding of the origins. We have to do with the thingers as the earlier thinkers, and must keep to their region of things if we are to follow them instead of making them follow us. We must abide by their ideographic types and variants, and find the way to the origin of words by means of things.' (p. 94) 'The literalists have been befooled by the legends because they knew nothing whatever of the ancient typology.' (p. 98) He then discusses the significance of British customs in relation to their possible Egyptian origins and derivations.

'These old roots of the past went deep into the soil, and though treated as weeds wherever they cropped up, the roots lived and held on below reach, and could not be eradicated. Stars do not disappear, or seasons pause, though we may lose our almanacs.' (p. 104)

Much of this section is dedicated to the study of natural types as they are found in Britain, and their correlatives in the Egyptian types. Thus the beetle, as a signifier of the end of period, and the commencement of a new one will have the same significance in Britain as it had in Egypt. Hence there has to be a determining factor, the same shadowing forth, because the same means of symbolising was used in both cases.

'Various of our public-house signs are of Egyptian origin, and can only be read by the hieroglyphics.' (p. 129)

Section 4

In this section Massey concentrates on comparative philology, demonstrating that certain words in English must have a connecting root in Egyptian and that most words, despite what the followers of Grimm et al believe, must be common to that language 'because there was a common origin for the primordial stock of words.' (p. 136) And to discover this we have to go back in time, 'in proportion as we get back towards a beginning it becomes more and more apparent that comparative philology and comparative mythology have to make way, in a double sense, for comparative typology, as this only can show the stage of language in which unity is yet recoverable. It is the especial province of the present writer to identify the myths and what he terms the types, for in his view there is a typology anterior to what is known as mythology, and if their identity shows an identity of origin for language, we are surely on the way to the abode of the common parent of all.' (p. 136) And there is only one language; 'Egyptian gives us a glimpse of language in an ideographic stage.' (p. 141) And again, 'Adima appears as the first man in India, as well as in Jewry, because both are independently derived from the common source in Egypt.' (p. 147) To understand the principles of philology, the roots of words can be viewed as lying deep, and 'The solution of this philological problem, as of a hundred others, is that the source is Egyptian, and the same word went out on each line of the radii from the common centre.' (p. 163) The reason why many philologists fail is because they do not take into consideration the significance of the Egyptian language. 'Comparative philology without Egypt has been trying to stand on one leg alone.' (p. 171) Finally,  'The sole object of the present quest, however, was such matter as retains the original likeness, and tends to prove identity in the beginning. Grammatical structure of languages is not of primary importance; that belongs to the mode and means of dispersion and diversifying the one into the thousand languages which enable philologists to class them according to their later differences, and lose sight of the original unity.' (p. 179)

Section 5

He then moves on to discuss the possible derivation of water and river names as types in English and attempts to trace them to their roots. These type-names (names based on roots having formed the type) can be found all over the British isles once the root-language is understood. Massey then gives plenty of examples. 'The total list of names might have been lengthened indefinitely, especially by adding all the rivers entitled from these types, but that is unnecessary. The converse reading of the facts would imply that Egypt had gathered all these names of water from all the groups of languages in the world, including the river-names found in the British Isles.' (p. 207) The mysteries are based firmly on natural facts, mainly physiological. 'We shall find however that all elementary naming from the Egyptian origin is divine, that is, mystical, that is, finally, physiological.' (p. 181)

Section 6

Massey continues his analysis of people's names to be found in the British Isles and their possible derivation from an Egyptian source. Also official titles have their origins in Egyptian root-words like neb for lord (compare our nob), khep, to wield power (akin to chief), etc. 'All that belonged to the first formation of thought was afterwards decried, denounced, and derided. Its types were condemned to serve as images of evil, evil being chiefly discovered in the superseded conditions, out of which the advance had been made. The ass was one of these living types that have suffered ever since. Woman has been degraded in various characters for her early supremacy in typology, one of these being that of the stepmother, another that of the widow. Her type in mythology is pre-monogamous. Her other name, as in the Book of Revelation, is the Great Harlot, because she had been the Great Mother, who produced without the proper, that is, later fatherhood. In her sacred aspect she was the Virgin Mother, in her degraded one the whore.' (p. 228) It is only through the study of mythology that we can understand the primitive psychology and the minds of primitive peoples in ancient societies because 'mythology is a mirror which still reflects the primitive sociology.' (p. 228) This phrase is something he repeats throughout the corpus.

Section 7

Massey now discusses British customs and popular pastimes, old games, marriage ceremonies, skin adornments, etc., and their relation to Egyptian types. The body, being the most natural choice for ornamentation, was a primitive canvas and a means of remembering before there was such a thing as writing. 'Such customs did not originate in the mere ornamentation of human bodies, but were the means of reckoning, and of registering facts for use. Picture-writing was precious because of its purpose. No amount of suffering was considered too great. The significance had to be branded into the memory. When the boundaries of certain parishes are beaten, and the boys are bumped against the stone, they are told it is to make them remember. These customs contain the earliest acting drama on the world's stage. The players were bringing on to us what they knew with no other means of preserving and communicating their knowledge.' (p. 267) It is the same with the derivation of the word 'Christ,' which has its roots in a natural fact. 'The Christ is said to mean the anointed, but it cannot be that grease is the root-meaning of so mystical a name. It is so, however, for all that has hitherto been expounded. Chriso, chrisei, christes, chriesthai denote an anointing with oil or unguents, and the Christ in this sense is literally the greased.' (p. 294)

Section 8

This deals with the derivation of British deities having their origin in the original Egyptian types. Thus you will find correlations between the two, based on comparative philology, symbolism and myth. 'How easy is it to turn round and claim this to be the Hebrew Adonai, and then to infer that he was derived from the Hebrew writings! Aeddon is identical with Adonai and with Adonis, and Tammuz, and Duzi, and other forms of the same god in divers lands, who were independently derived from the Egyptian Aten, long before the Jews brought their version of the mythos out of Egypt. The same perversion of the original imagery is manifest in Freemasonry through this recasting of the ancient matter in the biblical mould. It was this process of interpreting the fragments by the Hebrew rendering of the same original matter that put Davies irrecoverably on the wrong track. The process may be followed into the Christian stage in which the Christ is substituted for Prydhain.' (p. 314) With the migration to the north, the northern heaven would take on a meaningful significance, being deemed a birthplace. 'The celestial north is the oldest place of birth in mythology.' (p. 315) In an interesting statement, he sees himself as also reaping ridicule for the same reasons as other speculative writers. 'The present writer believes that books have been written, although he has not read them, to identify Gomer with the Cymry of Wales. After long seeking and by very different roads he arrives at the same result, and anticipates having the pleasure of seeing the ripple of derision ironed smoothly out of the faces of the scoffers and scorners this time by the weighty pressure of hard facts.' (p. 315) As stated in Point 4, there were three waves of migration with their own myths. 'The order of mythological sequence is first the Sabean [stellar], next the lunar, and lastly the solar.' (p. 362)

Section 9

This section deals with the origins of place-names in the British Isles having their possible derivation from Egyptian type-words. Massey now proceeds to discuss how these names came about, demonstrating a correlation between them. Digging down deep, the root-words supply the basis of county names, rivers, towns, etc. These would have been based on natural facts and from observation. 'Watching the works and ways of Khepra the Egyptians conferred on the beetle the honour of being the symbol of transformation into new life. In Egypt they could bury beneath the soil without fear of damp. But in the north they learned that the chief dry places for the dead whom they desired to preserve would be the high places.' (p. 420)

Section 10

The names of people in the British Isles and other European countries as clans and tribes can be traced back to Egyptian types. 'It is not necessary to notice the customary explanations of ancient names as Roman or Norse, because, if the present reading of facts be true, they are to a great extent superseded. Our land was mapped out and named and trodden all over ages before the Romans and Norsemen came, and their bloody hoofs did but little to obliterate the deeper footprints of the earlier men of a peaceful invasion.' (p. 445) 'The British beginning was pre-solar and pre-lunar. It was the Sabean beginning on the night side, and the dating from the dark, the mythical abyss common to the oldest races in the world.' (p. 448) Massey also here attempts to demonstrate how certain letters of the English alphabet came about. 'Language is a mirror which has registered all that it once reflected. And if we may now trust this mirror so often found to be true, if we may follow language as our guide a little furtherand it is one of the most unerring guides and one of the last left uswe may trace the migration to Europe, and within the Isles by name in these three stages: First came the Pigmeans with the cave-and-ape-name the Kafruti, or Kam­ruti, the typical uncivilized and ignorant men of the later Egyptians.' (p. 501)

Section 11

In this section Massey demonstrates how certain words in Hebrew have their roots in the ancient words of Kem, the Semitic being identical with the Kemitic language.

Section 12

He further demonstrates the Hebrew from Egyptian connection with a study of interconnecting types. 'The beginning, in mythology, was with blackness or darkness, as the background of emanation.' (p. 32) He uses many of the biblical phrases as cruxes for his argument. The only way the books of the Bible can be understood is by applying the interpretative method. 'Without the ideography it is impossible to fathom the language of Psalms.' (p. 40) And by understanding the types involved. 'The Hebrew writings are full of language which has no meaning without the types by which alone it can be understood, and hitherto it has been read and rendered without these types. It is enough, one would think, to make the ignorant expounders of symbolical language who have drivelled for half a lifetime spend the rest in a savage silence, with the tongue held fast between the teeth, as the only amends they can make.' (p. 42) Primitive man borrowed from his surroundings, and the animals provided a good assessment of how the world worked, for example, as timekeepers. But to understand time you need markers, points of division, and the most natural factor was that nearest to hand, as in menstruation which was used for mensuration, or the measuring of time. 'The truth is, the kaf is a menstruating monkey, and suffered eclipse (khab) periodically like the moon, and was adopted in the mysteries, where it took the place of the Q'deshoth, the human demonstrators of primary facts in nature.' (p. 56) As well as time, numbers formed the cornerstone of facts, and each number can be traced back to an original type. 'The origin of the number seven will be found in the seven stars of the Great Bear or Typhon.' (p. 75) Over the passing of time, the original meaning had lost its significance and the beginnings became obscured, if not lost altogether. 'Enough for the present to show how the messiah is Egyptian, and where we must seek for the obscure root of the matter, and get it related once more to the phenomenal fact from which names have been so long and completely divorced.' (p. 77) As the facts of fatherhood were not understood, the son of the mother also became her consort. 'The first divine son in mythology was not the true Anointed; was not the Begotten of the Father. Sut had no father, hence in the development of the doctrine he had to become his own father and was said to do violence to his own mother. This character is the original type of the solar god.' (p. 77) This became a theological theme. 'The doctrine descended from the time when the fatherhood had not been individualized on earth, therefore could not be represented in heaven, and the virgin mother and child were the sole types of deity. It is easily understood on its own natural ground. But when reproduced by modern theology these primitive ideas are like the fabled giants of old; they stand up against the dawn and cast across the world the shadows that have darkened all our mental day.' (p. 77) The section ends with the statement that it 'will be sufficient to prove that Egypt has much to tell us respecting the fundamental nature of the Hebrew scriptures and mythology,' (p. 79) a theme that will run throughout the remainder of the work.

Section 13

Following on from the previous section, he now goes on to demonstrate further correlations between Hebrew myths and symbols found in the Old Testament and other rabbinical writings with those to be found in Egyptian sources, stating that even the gods of the Hebrews and other nations had their origins in Egyptian mythology. 'The Phoenicians derived their divinities, including Taautus, and their mythology, from Egypt, as will be made apparent in the course of the present inquiry. The Jews of Palestine were no exception to the rest of the neighbouring nations.' (p. 80) All mythology stems from astronomical observations. 'According to the present reading, which will be substantiated bit by bit, the first seven of all mythology are the seven stars in Ursa Major, the primal type of a septenary of divinities.' (p. 81) In Psalms, the supposed author David can be identified with the Egyptian Thoth (or as he prefers to call him, Taht) as manifestor and scribe of the gods. 'When Taht superseded Sut he became the manifestor of the seven, because lunar time had been established as truer than the time of the stars. At last the solar Horus was elevated to the divine supremacy and Taht was made subsidiary to the solar measurer of time and saviour of souls from the abyss.' (p. 83) But the ancient Hebrew writers did not understand the original symbolism for it was 'sealed to those who rewrote the mythos as history.' (p. 88) He demonstrates the parallels existing between the Ritual and texts of the Old Testament, like Psalms, concluding that the subject matter is identical for both deal with the soul in Hades. The mother and son were the first to be worshipped and 'the earliest temple was that of Sut-Typhon.' (p. 105) Not only the language of the Old Testament, Hebrew, is of Egyptian origin, even the shape of the letters themselves lend themselves to an Egyptian identification. 'Fuerst insists that the Hebrew alphabet is not symbolical or founded on picture writing. Nevertheless the characters represent ideographs and are named in the ideographic, not in the phonetic stage of writing. They are hieroglyphics turned into square letters.' (p. 120) There is a good possibility that Hebrew letters are founded on Egyptian glyphs.

Section 14

In continuation, he now examines the roots of the Hebrew deity Jehovah and its derivation from Egyptian sources that were based on primary facts. One fact often ignored by bibliolaters is that the Hebrew god has its basis in natural phenomena of a feminine type and there is a good indication to prove that Jehovah was essentially female. The Egyptian thinkers were not speculative thinkers, they did not assume the facts, they merely observed them. 'Whereas the beginnings in mythology were phenomenal, palpable, and verifiable; they were the primary facts observed and registered by the earliest thinkers. The Egyptians did not begin with nowhere in particular, to arrive at nothing definite in the end.' (p. 125)

'The Hebrew beginning does not enable us to begin, it is a fragment from a primitive system of thought and expression which cannot be understood directly or according to the modern mode. When the ancient matter has been divested of all that constituted its character as real myth, it only becomes false myth, and is of no value whatever until restored to its proper place in the mythical system. This can only be done by recovering the phenomenal origin and mould that shaped the matter of mythology. The primitive genesis was no carving of chaos into the shape of worlds, according to the absurd modern notion of a creation. The mapping out of the heavens and measuring of time and period were the registered result of human observation, utterly remote from the ordinary notion of divine revelation; it was a work of necessity accomplished for the most immediate use. The creation belongs to the mythological astronomy, and has no relation at all to the supposed manufacture of matterabout which the early thinkers knew nothing and did not pretend to knowthe formation of worlds, or the origin of man, but simply meant the first formulation of time and period observed in the heavens, the recurring courses of the stars and moon and sun, and the recording of their motions by aid of the fixed stars. It was the earliest means of telling time on the face of the celestial horologe which had been already figured for the use of the primitive observers of its 'hands.'' (p. 125) The first observations were based on astronomical phenomena. 'The imagery was astronomical before it became eschatological and was adopted to convey a later doctrine.' (p. 127) 'The beginning was Sabean, and, as it will now be shown, dependent on the revolution of the seven stars about the pole.' (p. 131) The stellar cult was the cult of the female, the mother. 'We shall find that all beginning is founded on the female, the Genetrix, not on the Generator.' (p. 131) The lunar cult was of the son; the solar, the last cult, was of the father. She, godless, was first, without the husband and father, which gave rise to the devil. 'The origin of the Devil is the result of beginning with the goddess without the god,' (p. 162) 'who as genetrix and feminine divinity without begettal is the great whore, whether of Babylon, Egypt, Israel, or Rome, because she was husbandless and bore her child, her branch, without the fatherhood.' (p. 164) This would later be converted into the Immaculate Virgin of Rome. 'Going up to Jerusalem was going up to heaven, and the idea of heaven being founded on sexual intercourse, this ascent to the high place, and yoni of the earth, at the time of the phallic festival was a primitive mode of going to heaven in the worship of the motherhood.' (p. 171) The source of her worship was her seat, a euphemism for her vulva, for when a woman sits down it is in connection with the seat, so the two are correlated as one. As in Isis, her glyph is the seat, for literally she is the seat, the source. 'The lady of the seat is extant in heaven tonight as Cassiopeia seated in her chair.' (p. 172)  'Thus Cassiopeia would be the seat of Kefa, and not the lady herself, who was represented by the seven stars.' (p. 172) 'The Sabean heaven had seven gates; the lunar, twenty-eight; the solar, twelve, thirty-six, or seventy-two, according to the divisions of the zodiac.' (p. 174)

Section 15

Continuing on, he now discusses the origins of Exodus and myths connected with exodes as featured in the Old Testament, and that they are based on the manes exiting out of Hades in the Ritual. Again, he repeats that to understand the ancient Hebrew writings we have to understand the basis of mythology which in turn cannot be 'fathomed until we have found its natural meanings directly derived from the phenomena of nature.' (p. 176) 'The Hebrew miracles are Egyptian myths, and as such can be explained in accordance with nature.' (p. 176) Everything falls into place once this has been established, for 'the myths of Egypt supplied the mysteries of the world. The myths of Egypt are the miracles of the Hebrew writings, and a true explanation of the one must inevitably explode the false pretensions of the other. Half my labour has to be spent in reducing the Jewish mythology from the status of divine revelation and establishing its relative importance by the comparative method, which will be applied incessantly and remorselessly. The key of these writings was lost, and is found in Egypt.' (p. 177) These writings are based on myths, and it is only through the myths that their true meaning is then recoverable. 'It is in the mythical we shall find the true, and the literal version is the false.' (p. 182) The Hebrew miracles do not make sense in isolation, but through the Egyptian wisdom we can see they are essentially a misinterpretation of the mysteries upon which they are based. 'Misinterpretation of the original Egyptian necessitates the Hebrew miracle, which is accepted by those in whom a sense of natural law has never yet asserted itself. In this matter, however, the true way of proving what the Hebrew writings do not mean, will be to show what they do, or originally did, mean.' (p. 184) Like layers of an onion, we have to peel back each layer to get to the origins. 'We shall find the Hebrew records are invested with their supremest value in enabling us to see through them and get beyond them to identify their Egyptian origins, and then the myths will abolish the miracles. The exodus is no less mythical than the genesis; no less verifiably mythical.' (p. 185) Such Hebrew miracles as the exodus should not be taken literally for they are based on what was once mythical. 'The original matter and meaning of the exodus is found in fragments of the Egyptian Ritual or Gospel. In this the solar allegory of the lower world of darkness and the ascent into the world of light is so ancient that it had become mainly eschatological. Still the allegory of the exodus is there, although charged with a spiritual or theological significance, and the course of the sun is identified with the journey of the soul through the nether northern region where the place of bondage was located.' (p. 193) But for those who cannot move out of their myopic vision they will never truly understand the meaning and always confuse the mythical with the literal. 'How idle is it to point out that this Rameses was a contemporary of Moses, and call the scene on the monuments an illustration of the biblical narrative!' (p. 203) He traces myths of the exodus occurring in various parts of the world to one source: 'There is one origin for both, only we have not hitherto been able to get beyond the Hebrew as the original.' (p. 209) He discusses the Book of Enoch and how it relates to purely phenomena of an astronomical nature. 'This is written in the book of the revolutions of the luminaries of heaven, and belongs solely and absolutely to the astronomical mythology.' (p. 225) 'The earliest of all the manifestors of time in the mythologies were the genetrix (Great Bear) and her son Sut-Anush, or Anup, the Sabean Bar or Baal, who preceded the lunar and solar reckonings.' (p. 225)

Section 16

Massey now discusses the possible derivation of the two persons featured in the Old Testament known as Moses and Joshua and demonstrates their connection to the two lion gods of Egypt known as Aker.

Section 17

The Hebrew deities are identified with Egyptian type-names as found on the monuments. 'The Jewish rite of circumcision by excising the prepuce-cover belongs to the later phase of the solar religion. With the worshippers of the sun or star as the child of the virgin mother, which preceded the cult of the fatherhood, the circumcision was by castration or by the longitudinal slit of the Maori and Fijian rite, rather than by cutting off the foreskin.' (p. 324) The Egyptian language is more sacred than the Hebrew, for the former was based on natural facts as representative of things, the latter borrowing from the former. 'It has now been shown that Egyptian was the Jews' language, and held on that account to be the sacred language, the language of the hieroglyphics, symbolism, the myths and the gods. The symbols go with the vocabulary, the myths with the symbols, the deities with the myths. There is no new creation to be found in the most ancient Hebrew writings, language, imagery, allegories, or divinities. They are wholly of Egyptian origin, to be read by Egyptian, to be interpreted and valued as Egyptian of the Typhonian Cult. The Jewish new departure and development were made with the oldest of all material.' (p. 361)

Section 18

The origins of the Jews can now be traced to the land of Egypt by an examination of the historical records and monuments. 'It was useless seeking for the Israelites on the monuments until we could get somewhat clear of the astronomical allegory, with its Egyptian myths turned into Hebrew miracles; its gods and leaders of the wars in heaven converted into historic personages.' (p. 363) In fact, the Hebrews are essentially Egyptian in character. 'There is evidence enough to prove the types are Egyptian, and the people who brought them out of Egypt must have been more or less Egyptian in race, and of a religion that was Egyptian of the earliest and oldest kind.' (p. 363) They formed the cult of the female, 'who were Yonias as worshippers of the genetrix, whatsoever their race.' (p. 376)

'These types persisted when the feeling to be expressed belonged to the earliest form of religion, and they were the external images, answering to the internal feeling which was a desire for the Great Mother, to be consummated in sexual union at times with the aid of her living representatives, which were of necessity earlier than the woman-image of the divinity set up for later worship. Nothing can be more natural, however, than that the sexual feeling, being earliest, should be first directed and the object set forth should be the female. This worship, whether the type was animal or human, was continued by the Typhonians and Yonias of various races who were one in their religion.' (p. 378) But much later, when the fatherhood was understood, the type was converted and Set (Satan) was no longer the god, but the devil-god who was ousted in place of the father. 'The ancient divinity, the god Sut, was converted into the apostate Satan, the adversary of souls. Nevertheless, Sut and Satan, deity and demon, were originally one and the same.' (p. 382) And the worshippers of Set were Sabean, a stellar cult who had a better understanding of astronomy than Egyptologists would have us believe. They knew the earth revolved around the sun, that it rotated on an oblique axis causing the phenomena of precession. 'The whole subject has to be considered in a chapter on the 'Great Year,' but to my mind the present aspect of the cycle of 400 years at least suggests that the Sut-Typhoniansthe people, so to say, of the Great Bear and the Dog-starwho were the most learned astronomers of Egypt, and the builders of the Great Pyramid, were acquainted with the real length of the cycle of precession, and calculated it, as a period of fifty-two phoenixes of 500 years each, and that they also discovered the motion of the apsides, or longer axis of the earth's orbit, which reduces the actual period of precession to some 21,000 years, or in round numbers, fifty-two phoenix cycles of 400 years each.' (p. 397)

Section 19

In this section Massey demonstrates the possible derivation of the Akkadian and Assyrian languages from the more ancient Egyptian language, and compares the similarities between the two.

Section 20

Continuing his researches from the previous section, Massey now elaborates on the comparative method by demonstrating not only an affinity between the languages of Akkadia and Assyria with that of the Egyptian, but also, and extending it, the mythology as well, and that the one was derived from the other.

By looking to the Egyptian many of the words in other languages can be better understood, and the myths begin to resume a recognisable shape in their cognate cultures. 'Language still retains the typology, and the typology reflects the mental condition of the early children of the night, who were putting forth their feelers through the gloom in search of the absent light.' (p. 492) Again, there is nothing mysterious about the mysteries, it is only our ignorance that makes them appear to be. 'The ancient mysteries are very simple in their nature, when understood; our ignorance has made them appear profound, whereas they are only profoundly simple.' (p. 509) And again, the Hebrew language can largely be proved to be Egyptian in origin. 'The laws of language tend to show us that the so-called Semitic origins are Kamitic, and we have to take that step backwards which language took forwards when the k of Kam was transformed into the s of Sam, and the Kamite became known as the Semite or Sumerian.' (p. 514)

Section 21

Another comparative tabulation of Maori and Egyptian words reveals close similarities between the two. This, personally speaking, being far more convincing.

Section 22

Another comparative study of words derived from the Maori language with an examination of their possible origins in African type-words. Because 'language is tenfold less worn down in Maori.' (p. 536) It is therefore more likely to be able to trace a connection. 'Now, as here maintained, the first son of the ancient genetrix Typhon was Bar-Sut of the Dog-star, and he was the primordial god, or male divinity of fire.' (p. 542) 'By degrees we shall discover certain test-types of the unity of origin in mythology.' (p. 559)

'Every diverse line of development continued in the worldwide radii, every modification of form and feature, every colour and complexion, may be more or less recognized in the African races themselves. All the various divergences were begun in the primeval land, and are visibly continued there to this day. No distinct type in form or colour is found elsewhere, but some incipient or initial likeness of it is extant in Africa. The 'promise and the potency' of all that has been evolved in other countries were first manifested there.' (p. 596)

'These types apparently mark the different stages of the migrations and possibly indicate the starting-points from the coasts on the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Atlantic, and the outlet of the Nile. The present quest, however, is mainly limited to the evidence of language, mythology, folklore, and ceremonial customs.' (p. 596)

Section 23

In this last section, Massey now gets to grips with the core of his thesis, and its crux; that Africa was the birthplace, Egypt the mouthpiece, is now fully explored, with ideas here that will run throughout the entire gamut of his later work. 'It is intended in this last section to establish a few links between Egypt and the Africa beyond.' (p. 600) Much emphasis is given to the derivation of Africa as the primary source, and Massey goes a long way to prove it, and this is repeated again and again, as well as being resumed in his next work, and his last but with greater emphasis. Africa was the first country to establish a mythology, and it is only through Africa that the rest of the myths of the world make sense. 'This has now to be sought for in Africa, the birthplace of the black race, the land of the oldest known human types, and of those which preceded and most nearly approach the human.' (p. 599) 'Ethiopia and Egypt produced the earliest civilization in the world and it was indigenous. So far as the records of language and mythology can offer us guidance, there is nothing beyond Egypt and Ethiopia but Africa, of this the present writer is satisfied. Although unable to give all the results in these two volumes, he has applied the same comparative process to language and mythology in China, India, Europe, and America, with a like result. All the evidence cries aloud its proclamation that Africa was the birthplace of the non-articulate, and Egypt the mouthpiece of articulate man.' (p. 599) 'At least the same namers who came down into Ethiopia, Nubia, and the two Egypts, to carry the origins of the myths and mysteries, types and symbols, religion and language over the world, may be traced by the names and by the mould of thought and expression throughout central or equatorial Africa.' (p. 600)

'In the opening section it was suggested that the black race was first, and that equatorial Africa was the birthplace, not only of the human being, but of the original modes and types of expression which have more or less persisted from the beginnings of human utterance to the present time. Inner Africa, the writer maintains, was the land of the earliest namers of things and acts, who were therefore the creators of nouns and verbs which constituted the main stock of language before the descent into Egypt and the dispersion, on the way to developing the thousand dialects of the world from the one mode and form of speech evolved at starting.' (p. 600)

By retroversion we get closer to the truth. 'The older the types, the more do they become inner African.' (p. 619) 'In various parts of Africa it is related that in former times men knew the language of animals, and they could converse together.' (p. 650) The 'ancient language is not lost: the types have been translated or were continued in pictographs and hieroglyphics.' (p. 651) 'Egypt remains the mouthpiece to Africa, and renders the language of animals intelligible to us. Many of the animal prototypes are still identifiable in the fables with the ideographic types extant in the monuments and mythology of Egypt.' (p. 651)

'Here it may be pointed out that the African mythology survives among the American Indians in a far ruder form than is to be found in monumental Egypt. Egypt was the developer and perfecter of the African typology, and remains its interpreter; but the earliest likeness to the origins is to be found with the Indians, Maori and other of the decaying races who probably migrated before the valley of the Nile was inhabited.' (p. 652) In other words, before they found their fullest expression in Egyptian culture. For 'it will be demonstrated that much of the outfit and wardrobe of our current theology was primarily furnished through Egypt by the naked races of Africa, and that we, in common with them, have been the ignorant victims of misinterpreted typology.' (p. 673) 'There is nothing mystical in mythology.' (p. 674) 'It remains to be shown how the 'types' originated in phenomena, of necessity and for use; how they became the symbols of expression in mythology and language, and how theology by its perversions and misinterpretations has established a reign of error through the whole domain of religion.' (p. 674) 'The writer hopes to be able to furnish a not altogether inadequate representation of the primitive system of thought and its expression in types and myths, so far as it has been possible for him to recover the broken moulds and piece together the scattered remains.' (p. 674)

The Natural Genesis

This followed two years later in 1883. Again, voluminous and wordy, this work explores the typology of world cultures and attempts to demonstrate connective links between these cultures and Egypt, the myths, customs, symbols, rituals, language, religion all influenced by the migration from this source. This work follows on directly from A Book of the Beginnings, and should be considered indeed the second part to that work.

In the 'Explanation' Massey name-checks the likes of Darwin, Huxley, Tylor, Lubbock, etc., thus aligning himself with these authorities, describing himself as an evolutionist. The work will proceed by demonstrating a doctrine of development recoverable through types, and a study of types. Here he concentrates on the language of gesture-signs, so often ignored or dismissed by early anthropologists. This would develop much later in the study of body language in psychology and sociology.

'My further contention is that both issued from inner Africa as the human birthplace, and that Egypt itself is old enough to be the mouthpiece of the first articulate language, the oldest intelligible witness to the natural genesis of ideas, and the sole adequate interpreter of the primary types of thought.' (p. ix) In BB he had 'applied to the type-names of places, waters, hills, and caves in Britain. The result is to show that the most ancient names and words are Kamite, not Aryan nor Semite.' (p. ix) The crux of his work 'includes the Kamite origin of the pre-Aryan matter extant in language and mythology found in the British Isles,the origin of the Hebrew and Christian theology in the mythology of Egyptthe unity of origin for all mythology, as demonstrated by a worldwide comparison of the great primary types, and the Kamite origin of that unitythe common origin of the mythical genetrix and her brood of seven elementary forces, found in Egypt, Akkad, India, Britain, and New Zealand, who became kronotypes in their secondary, and spirits or gods in their final psychotheistic phasethe Egyptian genesis of the chief celestial signs, zodiacal and extra-zodiacalthe origin of all mythology in the Kamite typologythe origin of typology in gesture-signsand the origin of language in African onomatopoeia.' (p. x) 'One object aimed at in these and the previous volumes is to demonstrate that the true subject-matter of 'Holy Writ' belongs to astronomical mythology; the history first written in the book above, that was sacred because celestial; and that this has been converted into human history in both the Old Testament and the New.' (p. xi) Again reiterating that 'mythology as the mirror of prehistoric sociology,' (p. xi) and that it is 'a system of typology, a primitive mode of expression, a means of representation.' (p. xii) The types had their origins in the remotest antiquity because they acted as natural representations; 'Such types were adopted for use, and became sacred in the course of time, the fetishtic or religious being their final phase.' (p. xii) As the mechanics of sex was not understood 'the oldest types, like the serpent, tree, or water, were feminine at first, not because the female was then worshipped, but because the motherhood was known before paternity could be identified.' (p. xii) And with much modesty, Massey states matter-of-factly, 'Much of my matter has been fetched from far, and may be proportionately long in obtaining recognition,' (p. xii) after 'years of intense brooding had to be spent in living back to enter the conditions and apprehend the primary phases of the nascent mind of man, so as to trace the first laying hold of things by the earliest human thought of which the cave-dwellers of the human mind have left us any record,' (p. xii) and with 'great patience may be needed to reach the root of the matter, or to perceive the author's drift through all the mass of details. Each section is complete in itself, but the serious student will find the whole of them correlative and cumulative. They are called sections to denote that they have not the continuity of narrative; but they are parts of a whole.' (p. xiii) Mythology came first, then theology, the latter being based on the former; 'The writer has not only shown that the current theology is, but also how it has been, falsely founded on a misinterpretation of mythology by unconsciously inheriting the leavings of primitive or archaic man and ignorantly mistaking these for divine revelations.' (p. xiv) And the thrust of NG is 'tracing the transformation of astronomical mythology into the system of Equinoctial Christolatry called Christianity, and demonstrating the non-historic nature of the canonical gospels by means of the original mythos in which the messianic mystery, the virgin motherhood, the incarnation and birth, the miraculous life and character, the crucifixion and resurrection, of the saviour son who was the Word of all Ages, were altogether allegorical.' (p. xiv) With considerable foresight he says, 'But the work is warranted to wait, and the author does not doubt that its comparatively few friends at first will be continually increased from many generations of genuine men and women.' (p. xiv)

Section 1

Massey first demonstrates the genesis of types, that they have a kamitic origin, i.e. their derivation is from the ancient land of Khem (Egypt) where they became fully realised and expressed. (See p. 1) 'Nothing but the application of the evolutionary method can rescue us from the traditions we have inherited as survivals of the primitive system of mythical interpretation.' (p. 2) What he means is by using the typological method of interpretation it is possible to bottom everything, for typology formed the basis of myth which in turn forms the basis of religion (or theology); 'mythology arose out of typology, and religion was developed from the mythology.' (p. 3) Again, matriarchy was first: 'The mother is everywhere first and foremost, as she was in nature where the bringer-forth was observed and typified long before the human mind could enter into the realm of creative cause, or the fatherhood had been established.' (p. 4) And the first powers to be recognised were numerated as seven: 'It will be demonstrated that Egyptian mythology began with the typifying of seven elements or seven elemental forces, such as fire and water, earth and air, born of the typhonian genetrix, as the Abyss.' (p. 5) The many principles (neters) of nature that were later deified means that the 'Egyptian religion was based on polytheism originally from observation of  external phenomena, the principles which seemed to govern the forces of the creative world, these later being invested with divine names as deities, the many becoming the one when usurped by monotheism. This parallels the shift in reckoning from the stellar (i.e. the many stars) to the solar (the one) as in sun-disk worship, the Atenism of Akhenaton.' (p. 6) But there must be no mistaking that 'Egyptian polytheism was not monotheism intentionally disguised with various masks for one face, and equally sure that the image of the one god and supreme being was evolved from many preceding gods.' (p. 7) Despite all the numerous gods, there was an underlying unity, and we 'must seek the primitive unity in the original matter of human thought, and in the earliest modes of expression; and the further we go back the nearer we shall find ourselves approaching to the origin in unity, for the bole of the tree is extant as well as the branches above and the roots below.' (p. 9) And this can only be possible by getting back to the pristine state which is 'the most perfect, that is the most primitive, forms of the myths and symbols out of Africa are those which for thousands of years have been kept by living memory alone.' (p. 10) NG he refers to indirectly as 'the only work of value left to be written on mythology or typology is one that will account for the facts upon which the myths and religions are founded by relating them once more to the phenomena in which they originated.' (p. 15) The origin of the types was the most natural because it was due to 'Necessity, the mother of invention,' 'as the creator of types and symbols.' (p. 16) This laid the foundation for all that was to follow: 'The earliest signs that were made and adopted for current usage were continued as the primary types which had to serve for several later applications.' (p. 16) 'Things were portrayed before thoughts by those who were thingers rather than thinkers. ...The figure of an eye directly represents sight and seeing, but the eye as reflector of the image becomes a symbol.' (p. 16) 'Egypt can help us to enter the primordial domain of human thought. Egypt or Kam is the parent of all primitive typology, and she alone can adequately explain it, as she was the great conscious recorder of that which had been unconsciously created for the commonest use in the inner African birthplace.' (p. 19) The 'typology had its origin in gesture-language,' (p. 19) and the 'origins of mythology, symbolism, and numbers have all to be sought in the stage of gesture-language.' (p. 19) As things became symbols, so too did words, or rather, glyphs: 'The most ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics are those which convey their meaning by direct representation or imitation.' (p. 19) It is only by analysis and by comparison that we can get to the beginnings, 'A comparison of certain Egyptian signs with those of the North American Indians tends to the conclusion that they had a common origin.' (p. 20) If all came out of a common origin, then this can be proved because 'tradition, customs, and language in many lands, still preserve the ancient types, where their meaning is no longer understood.' (p. 35) 'Animals were the living hieroglyphics, among the first figures of speech, and means of thinging thoughts; pictures painted by nature to illustrate the primary language.' (p. 36) 'How the primitive man observed the works and ways and on-goings of the intelligence thus manifested around him; how he copied where he could, and gradually found a line of his own in the scheme of development; how he honoured these his early teachers and instructors, and made their forms the pictures of the primal thoughts which they had evoked from his mind, is at length recorded in the system of hieroglyphic symbols and mythology; and the illustrative proofs are extant to this day.' (p. 39) Animals provided the primary types. 'Egypt, who brought on certain types of things in the simplest condition from inner Africa to develop and send them forth into the whole world at different stages in her own development, can still give the sole intelligible account of their origin and significance.' (p. 56)

Section 2

In this section Massey attempts to recover fragments of the gnosis through a study of the primitive customs existing around the world, particularly in Africa. He hopes that some tribes, untainted by outside influences, will retain enough fragments to be traceable via his preferred method of typological interpretation. As they are primitive they are more likely to be closer to the source, and 'inner Africa was the birthplace of the animal typology, which is at the base of the hieroglyphics, of heraldry, totemism, and of the so-called beast-epic of the Red Indian, Australian, and Aryan folklore.' (p. 59) Man learnt from the animals. 'The animals, reptiles, birds, and insects, which talk in the tales of the Bushmen ... were adopted amongst the earliest means of expression for the primitive man, because they had been his tutors.' (p. 59) If we can understand what they were saying, or rather what they signified, then it is possible to trace their significance back to the original source. So 'we have but to learn this language of animals to know that the same system of typology which has spread all over the world and been eternized in the stars of heaven, must have had one origin and emanated from one centre, now claimed to have been African.' (p. 59) The system of heraldry retains the animal-types of typology. 'Descent was first traced from the mother, then from the sister; the 'two women' from whom the Kamilaroi tribes claim to descend then from the uncle, and finally the father.' (p. 61)

He discusses familial relationships within tribes. 'In this way mythology becomes a mirror that reflects the primitive sociology.' (p. 62) 'So far from the patriarchal family being first, it is the last but one the monogamic being last of all. It was preceded by the gregarious horde, undistinguished by name or totem or law of sexual intercourse. Next by the organization on the basis of sex, with later rules for the checking of incest; then by the family in which marriage was by single pairs, pairing at pleasure, or cohabiting until the child was born; then followed the patriarchal or polygamic family, with property in cattle and wives; and finally the monogamic family founded on the individualised fatherhood, and the polyandry of less civilized societies.' (p. 63) Clothing was a gesture, a ritual re-enactment of the beginnings. 'Men and women still clothe themselves in the wool, fur, and feather of beast and bird. Earlier races wore the skins with the hair on. The still earlier clothed themselves as it were in the figures of birds and beasts. They dressed like them in their symbolical dances, and imitated their cries, by which they would be identified still further with their totemic sign; and this typology is continued in the personal names derived from the same mould of thought.' (p. 63) The primitive sociology was based on the mother. 'Totemism began long before the male progenitor was known. The tribe was the progenitor, with descent only on the mother's side; and the animal was the type of the whole group.' (p. 63) The totem of a clan denotes the sanguine descent of a tribe and the especial relationship between family members. Each clan is signified by an animal. 'The tem is maintained by keeping in its membership the children of all its female members, and each tem is made up theoretically of the descendants of the 'two women' of the most primitive sociology; the two sisters of mythology who were two forms of the mother, whose children were first divided and distinguished from those that lived in the state of primal promiscuity.' (p. 69) As an example, 'teb or apt, the birthplace, and the mother of birth, first personified in the abyss; next in the heaven of the Great Bear, and lastly as Apta in the solar zodiac.' (p. 71) Typology came first, 'Fetishism began with typology, and both mythology and religion were the outcome, not the origin.' (p. 71) 'The Kamite typology can also be traced into the domain of primitive practices which are symbolical, to be read by the hieroglyphics. Some of these strange customs and consequent superstitions originated in zoological typology, and the acting of a primitive drama according to the animal or totemic characters. Specimens of them were extant to a late period in British plays and pastimes, and survive at present in the 'pantomime.' (p. 73) 'In these customs the symbolism is acted, and becomes a drama of typology, scattered fragments of which are now found in the form of inexplicable superstitions and beliefs.' (p. 73) He discusses ceremonial customs like kissing, rubbing noses, etc. 'Smelling and breathing were primitive means of knowing, and the language of the animal was continued, and is traceable in human language, as well as in human customs.' (p. 80) Marriage ceremonies are the continuation of the original typology. He also discusses primitive customs of tattooing and piercing, now popular with our so-called modern primitives who do not see, or fail to recognise, the significance of such customs. 'Nature herself wrote the first rubric; and her red was blood.' (p. 112) The female was first and her letting of blood in menstruation was followed by the boy in his blood-letting during the act of young-man-making.

He discusses the significance of the couvade, a much misunderstood custom among primitive tribes. 'The act of couvade is a ceremony typical of the transformation of the father into the child, which can be read by the doctrine of Khepra, the scarab-god, who was the creator by transformation.' (p. 118) 'Doubtless the act of couvade did imply an attempt to individualise the ancestral spirit believed in before it could be personally recognised, and was a mode of fathering the child, and demonstrating the line of continuity and renewal by the transformation of the parent into his own child. So far Bachofen's suggestion was right. It belonged to a very primitive interpretation of phenomena. The act of couvade was a representation of the creative process, not by the father incarnating himself in his seed, but as transforming into his own seed or other self, like the beetle, said to procreate without the female. It was the transformation of that which was recognised as the ancestral spirit before the individual fatherhood was known!' (p. 118)

Section 3

In this section Massey discusses the typology of the Two Truths, the most natural of observable phenomena, based on the reality of the two vital ingredients of life; water and air, or blood and breath, represented in many types throughout Egypt and its mythology. 'It is now intended to show that mythology is at root the science of the Two Truths or Mâti, which are at the foundations of Egyptian thought and expression.' (p. 137) 'Mâti may denote water and breath, decay and renewal, a pair of feet, the two waters, the two solstices, the double lunation, the twin lion-gods, light and shade, menstruation and gestation, wet and heat, the circle and cross (in the knot or ankh), the collar and counterpoise, the house of the Two Truths, or any other type of twinship in which the beginning at first bifurcated.' (p. 137) In the beginning words were neuter, asexual, but with the establishment of the Two Truths words took on gender. 'When words become sex-denoting in themselves we are out of the thicket of mythology or typology, and the 'Two Truths' of Egypt relate to this primary phase, short of which there is no beginning. ... The 'Two Truths' may be said to commence with the natural antithesis of the positive and negative. As day and night embrace the whole world in two halves, so do 'yes' and 'no' cover the two hemispheres of the world of language; and these may be indicated even by the nod and shake of the head in gesture-language.' (p. 144) The snake, on account of it movement, is always identified with blood, for it flows, and was the flow-er, again identifying itself with feminine characteristics, and also 'on account of its sloughing became a pre-eminent type of the Twin Truths, or two manifestations of the one, especially in the two phases of the female.' (p. 145) For life to occur there were two recognisable factors involved: 'Water and breath were the two elements of life earliest identified; and water, having to be sought for and supplied as drink, whereas the air came of itself, would make the earliest appeal and first demand for recognition. Hence, in mythology, water is the primal element. All begins with or issues from the water, the first of our Two Truths.' (p. 148) 'The Hindu nabhi-yoni was a dual type of the Two Truths of the breath and the waters of life; the navel being an image of breath in the waters of the womb.' (p. 153) Again, once we bottom truths we find that the 'profoundest mysteries are the simplest.' (p. 154) 'The Two Truths of the water and the breath are especially operant in certain primitive and traceable customs, some of which are universal.' (p. 155) They were originally feminine. 'Both truths of the water and breath were at first represented by the Great Mother of mythology in accordance with the earliest appearances.' (p. 174) 'The Two Truths of water and breath were likewise represented by the god Num or Khnef.' (p. 175) Mythology was first. It was only later when it was written over with metaphysical speculation that it appeared to change, or become something else. 'There was no new point of departure in phenomena, nothing added to nature or human knowledge in these later views of the Metaphysicians and Theosophists. It was but the transformation of mythology into metaphysics, philosophy, and theology, in which the supposed revelation of a newer truth was largely founded on a falsification of the old.' (p. 185)

Section 4

In this section Massey discusses the typology of numbers, that they were based on universal facts and phenomena. Numbers are the universal language; nowhere in the cosmos can they differ since they are ruled by natural laws: 1 + 1 will always = 2 wherever you are in the universe. Mathematics is the language of the cosmos.

'Numbers constitute a true connecting link between the earliest gesture-signs and spoken language. Hand-reckoning with digital numerals is one of the primitive customs found to be universal.' (p. 185) 'The mother was first; darkness was first; water was first; the left hand was first.' (p. 192) 'The female was the first known reproducer of the particular child, and therefore was recognised and named as the primal parent.' (p. 196) 'All beginning in language and typology is bound up with the one becoming twain, in accordance with the doctrine of the 'Two Truths.' (p. 206) 'The typology of the Two Truths has now been applied to numbers, and it has been demonstrated that number was a prime factor in naming, which constitutes a link between gesture-signs and the words of later language.' (p. 234)

Section 5

In this section, Massey demonstrates that the particles of speech, which constitute the spoken language of any nation, have their beginnings in the sounds uttered by animals and that primal onomatopoeia arose naturally from those sounds; they repeated things that were similar in sound to the thing represented, later speech being abraded over time and worn down from the original onomatopoeia  'The duplicated sound was first, because, as will be maintained, language originated in the conscious duplication and repetition of sounds.' (p. 236) That is, man imitated what he heard. 'This serves to show how the primitive thinkers thought in things when distinguishing properties, qualities, or appearances how things first suggested the ideas that were afterwards conveyed by words; and how the more abstract forms of phenomena took names in language by means of the concretethe unknown being expressed in typology by means of the known.' (p. 238) Things came before words. 'There is no way of attaining the early standpoint and getting back to an origin for words except by learning once more to think in things, images, ideographs, hieroglyphics, and gesture-signs.' (p. 238) In discussing the origins of language, he discusses the validity of Grimm's Law, and proves that it is not applicable in discovering the origin of words. 'But it is only by the aid of what is here designated as 'comparative typology' that we could ever reach the stages of language in which the unity of origin can be recoverable. Gesture-signs and ideographic symbols alone preserve the early language in visible figures. We are unable to get to the roots of all that has been pictured, printed, or written, except by deciphering the signs made primally by the early man.' (p. 242) Again, it is a matter of going back as far as possible so we can get to the truth; 'the farther we go back the nearer is our approach toward some central unity.' (p. 243) That is, retrovertive thinking will enable us to bottom all truths, and as man came out of Africa, so did these truths. 'Nothing short of inner Africa is of primary importance in the origins of language.' (p. 246) 'Conscious repetition of the same sound by imitation would constitute the earliest application of mind (or even the sense of want) to the primary matter of language.' (p. 251) It is instructive to note here the converse effect; conscious repetition of a word will empty it of meaning, as used in mantra. The clicking cynocephalus ape taught man the rudiments of speech, and by imitation and repetition he learnt to develop his own sounds for articulate speech. 'The clicking kaf or cynocephalus of inner Africa preceded the clicking Kaffir, Hottentot, and Bushman.' (p. 284)

Section 6

The tree and serpent myth is met with throughout the world and must have an origin in the very remote past. Here, Massey attempts to elucidate such origins and connects the serpent with the dragon in the typology of elementaries.

The serpent has always fascinated the most primitive minds, with its coiling, winding movement, its sloughing periodically, and the way it lures its prey as if through hypnosis. Is it any wonder that this creature exerts such a fascination on man in whatever shape or form it appears. It is at once bewitching, beguiling, subtle, cunning, deadly, reclusive, slithery, and most importantly of all, very beautiful to behold. It has been championed as king of the forest and most evil of all creatures, connoting in the imagination something wicked and sinful. But this fear of man must have a more deep-rooted cause. 'The serpent is one of those few great primitive types that constitute the earliest objective castings of human thought when it groped in the underground condition of its far-off past.' (p. 292) 'The serpent slays with a dexterity that human destroyers might look upon as divine.' (p. 293) 'There is a startling fascination in the sight of that image of self-emanation proceeding from itself, the young, repristinated, larger life issuing of itself from the mask of its old dead self like a spiritual body coming forth from the natural body, the unparalleled type of self-emanation, of transformation, of a resurrection to new life.' (p. 293) The serpent typifies darkness. 'Here the lightnings are identified with serpents because the serpent in the earliest coinage of human expression was a type of the lightning; (p. 298) 'The serpent having made its mark on the mind of man by the exercise of its fatal force became an ideograph of death.' (p. 298) 'The serpent is the mesmerist and magician of the animal world, who evoked the earliest idea of magic power.' (p. 299) Next, Massey recapitulates pretty much the same thing in his 8th lecture, which see, that the serpent was used for inducing trance in mediums: 'The Africans tell of women being 'possessed,' seized with hysteria, and made insane by contact with the serpent. That is, the serpent by the fear of its touch and fascination of its look, produced the abnormal phase, in which the medium raved, and talked eloquently, or was divinely inspired by the serpent, as the phenomena were interpreted. In this way the sensitives were put to the test, and the serpent chose its own human oracle. Those who were found to be greatly affected by the serpent were selected to become fetish women, Pythonesses, or Priestesses. They were secluded in training hospitals, and prepared to become the oracles of the serpent-wisdom, and mouthpieces of supernatural utterance. This was in Africa, the dark birthplace of that Obeah cult which survives wherever the black race migrated. The stupor caused by the serpent's sorcery inspired a primary form of religious awe; and the abnormal effects produced upon the sensitives were attributed to supernatural power possessed by the serpent.' (p. 299) Again, 'mythology is a most ancient record of natural facts.' (p. 301) Because man could not see the power, only a manifestation of it, he had to give a face, a semblance of order, and by so doing, believing he could now control it. But, 'According to the laws of evolution, cognition of the unapparent power as cause of phenomena must have belonged to the latest perception, not the primary; and it is an axiom of the present work that religious feeling originated in awe and admiration of powers superior to those possessed by the human being, but that the nearest and most apparent were the earliest.' (p. 313) It is only by getting to the roots of mythology that we can understand it. 'The most perplexing elements of mythology and language originate in this the primary stage of typology, the elementary and elemental.' (p. 314) 'Primitive man did not begin with concepts of cause beyond the visible phenomena. He did not postulate a devil that made the darkness.' (p. 315) The Typhonians were the earliest worshippers of the goddess. 'The allusions to these 'gods' of the beginning are obscure and obscured; but they were the birth of Chaos, they were primary, and they were typhonian. They are denounced as the betsh, the 'children of revolt' and of inertness, corresponding in the latter phase to what Taliesin terms the 'sluggish animals of Satan.' (p. 322) If woman was seen to manifest an object (i.e. give birth) then it is reasonable to assume that the primal powers were given a feminine gender because early man's thinking was based on natural facts. 'If the early men had commenced with a concept of cause behind phenomena, they would never have personified it as female at all. This mould of creation, or rather of evolution, was only possible because they began with the simplest observation of natural phenomena. If they had conceived a god it would assuredly have been in their own image, not in that of womankind, whether typified by the dragon, serpent, water-horse, or cow.' (p. 324) We can can see that the migrators were of the north, for their astral symbolism was based on the northern constellations, not the southern. 'The paucity of ancient constellations around the southern pole would be an inevitable result of the few observations that were made at first, which were increased as the observers came farther north into Ethiopia on their way towards Egypt. This offers good evidence that the beginnings were equatorial or tropical, and that the northern heaven was crowded only as the observations increased in the course of ages by a people looking northward, who first named Khepsh (Kush or Habesh) as their north.' (p. 345) 'The dragon revolving round the pole supplied the natural genesis of the serpent coiling and twining round the tree. The serpent and tree are twin, and inseparable.' (p. 355)

In mythology, the Tree signifies the Pole, or the axis of the earth, whereas the Serpent (or the dragon) about the pole, signifies its rotation. 'Now, in the original mythos, there are in fact three forms of the dragon or beast. The first of all is the genetrix Typhon of the seven stars. The second is her son Sevekh, the dragon or crocodile, also of the seven stars and of the seventh planet, Saturn. The third is the same dragon (beast) in his final character, as Sebek-Ra, the solar god of the Typhonians, who was worshipped especially at Ombos and Selseleh in Egypt.' (p. 365) Massey naturally identifies the beast of Revelation with the dragon and the pole.

Section 7

Following on from the previous section, he now discusses other prominent figures of myths, like the tree, cross, four corners and the mount, the latter perhaps having a relation to the mound of Venus as source. The tree is the sustainer of life as the bearer of edible fruit. The cross is the place of crossing—over to the other side. The four corners represent the place of stability, the four corners of the world, the points of the compass, etc. 'The Mount and the Tree were primordial types of the genetrix, of Khepsh, of Ri (Ishtar) Hathor, Kêd, Parvati, and others. Primally it was the mount of the north, the birthplace of beginning. (p. 372) In another phase ...'Hence the tree represented the nursing mother,' (p. 380) 'the book and food were both found in the papyrus plant, as they were in the tree,' (p. 383) 'just as in English the pudendum femine is called a plum-tree.' (p. 384)

He now discusses the reason why some plants and trees have attained ritual significance. The tree would be worshipped because it had properties held to be sacred like the intoxicating plant soma which gives knowledge through inebriation. 'The makers of language and moulders of typology were not metaphysicians.' (p. 399) That is, they relied on phenomena that could be observed. 'Hence the triangle is feminine at the base and masculine at the apex. These two were represented in the Great Pyramid with its well of the water-source, the birthplace below, and the 'ben-ben,' or pyramid of fire above.' (p. 403) You can't help talking about the cross without talking about Christ. 'The supposed emblem and proof of a crucified Christ is purely Egyptian, and has no relation either direct or typical to the crucifixion, which has been all along ignorantly assumed to give its significance to the cross.' (p. 436) 'The most mystical signs are the most simple, i.e., fundamental; they can only be explained by the natural genesis, and according to gesture-language.' (p. 438) 'Except in a dark void of human ignorance there was no place left in this world for the cross to become the symbol of salvation and the type of immortality by man or god being sacrificed upon it.' (p. 439) 'It was already the image of immortality in Egypt, in Chaldea, Britain, India, America, and the Southern Isles, because it was the cross of life and not a cross of death. And it was the cross of life because it represented the fourfold foundation of the world, the four corners of the human abode; because it was an emblem of reproduction, an image of duration, a type of the eternal.' (p. 439) The symbolism of twelve would be zodiacal; 'the 'Twelve Apostles' are nothing more than the twelve signs the zodiac personified as companions of the solar god, just as the original twelve of the round table were the companions of the mythical Arthur in Britain.' (p. 449)

Section 8

Here, after many years of research, Massey discusses his theory that 'mythology is the mirror in which the prehistoric sociology is reflected,' (p. 456) and it can best be expressed by an examination of archetypes appearing in those myths, such as the Great Mother, the two sisters, the twins, triad, etc., as personages representing certain types.

He then proceeds to discuss the different types and names of the Great Mother existing in different cultures and their cross-correlations to one another, such as Ta-urt, Typhon, etc., she being the mother of beginnings, revolutions, cycles, and thus of time, periods, etc., and can be allied to the Tarot as the wheel of Time. Rota, rotate, Torah, law, etc., following on from this.

'But mythology begins with and reckons from the female, as in the totemic system of the oldest races. We can only begin at the beginning; the god could only be born as the child of the mother.' (p. 457) 'Descent in the female line was universal in the earliest times and most archaic condition of society.' (p. 457) 'We never shall, except on the evolutionary theory, and also on the theory propounded in the present work, of Egypt's being the mouthpiece and inner Africa the birthplace of all such archaic and primitive customs.' (p. 458) Everything came out of Africa and found its fullest expression in Egypt, which is the only place that can provide the 'missing link between the inner African origins and the rest of the world.' (p. 459) Earliest mythology was based on the mother. 'Woman was the first known parent, and her priority in mythology and sociology was the natural result.' (p. 459) 'Wife, woman and mother are three personifications of the womb, the earliest house of life,' (p. 460) or the abode; the hut is the womb. 'The first interior, or inn, was feminine.' (p. 461) 'The earliest myth-makers knew of no one principle, or abstract spiritual entity in the Greek or still more modern sense. They observed phenomena and represented objective manifestations.' (p. 465) 'The two heavens, or Heaven and Earth, were represented by the two divine sisters as Neith and Seti (or Nephthys), or Isis and Nupe.' (p. 467) 'It is the most ancient and most primitive myths that are the most universal; and one of the most universal is that of the twin-brothers, born of the genetrix either in her single or her dual character.' (p. 472)

The ultimate twins are Horus and Set, representing the primal duality of the natural laws. It is a law of the universe that anything that manifests on this plane automatically evokes its opposite, thus you have duality for you cannot have the one without the other. Hence if you have Light you have to have Darkness. Likewise, Good evokes Evil, Day evokes Night, Hot evokes Cold, Male evokes Female, etc., and these polarities are represented by the twins. One is usually Good, equated with the white dove, for example, the other Evil, represented by the black bird, or the bird of Night. 'These, the typical dividers, are said to have been begotten when the intercourse between the sexes was so promiscuous that women accompanied with any man they might chance to meet, and men with their own mothers.' (p. 479) 'The two birds of Sut and Horus are the black vulture (Neh) and the gold hawk.' (p. 490) 'How is it that in some of its traits the Bechuana story embodies those of that earliest of all popular tales recently published from an Egyptian papyrus? My reply is, because the origin was inner African and Egypt is the connecting-link with the outside world.' (p. 495) 'The twin brothers are Egyptian in every phase, whether elementary, stellar, lunar, or solar, beginning with the Sut-Horus (elementary), the twin lion-gods of light and darkness which the lunar genetrix boasts that she bears in her womb.' (p. 495) 'Here the beginning in the typology is identical with that of language when it had no sex-denoting words.' (p. 516) 'The AΩ in Revelation denotes the biune being, or hermaphrodite deity, who is described as a man with female paps, and he does not differ in nature from the two-sexed Bacchus, or the Etruscan Priapus, with the male member and feminine breasts.' (p. 516) This biune being is representative of the perfected soul, that is neither masculine nor feminine, but both at the same time.

Section 9

In this section Massey discusses the recurrent themes of various creation myths, arguing that if they are based on the same typology then they must be derived from the same origin. Myths are metaphors for things, being based on world experience, therefore the same mindset would operate in the same way and come up with the same myth, the act of creation, in whatever guise, being one of the most prevalent in all cultures.

All myths have as their basis an astronomical feature. 'Chaos precedes creation in mythology.' (p. 3) 'It is not in the Hebrew, Assyrian, Greek or Hindu scriptures that we shall find the most archaic forms, the bare skeleton of the mythos, but in the traditions of races which are now almost extinct.' (p. 5) 'As goddess of the Great Bear, and the hinder-part north she was the thigh, the backside, and her type is the tail.' (p. 9) 'The first and oldest types of the Kamite beginnings went to the bottom, as sediment deposited in the underworld of eschatology.' (p. 12) 'In various mythologies and forms of the mythos the birthplace of creation is in the north. It was so in India as in Egypt.' (p. 21) 'Speaking generally the creations are stellar, lunar and solar; the series corresponds to that of the heavenly bodies which in the Avesta, for instance, is invariably given in the order of stars, moon, and sun, where we should say sun, moon, and stars.' (p. 47) The bastard was not an opprobrious term, it simply denoted the son who was born of the mother before the fatherhood was individualised, as in 'sons of the bitch, born without souls because they descended from the mother alone, before the individual fatherhood was known.' (p. 71) 'The typology is one in all the principal myths.' (p. 92)

Section 10

In this section he discusses the typology of the Fall in heaven and earth. He demonstrates that they have as their origin the founding of cycles, and therefore of time, and that the Fall represents a falling away from the proper timekeeping or reckoning, as it was noticed they were less accurate, or losing time. A fall could also account for the slipping back observable in the phenomenon of precession. 'The various mythical creations then were the result of establishing certain periods of time and season, and the 'Fall' was a consequence of the failure in keeping time faithfully, and of observing periodicity sacredly this being also mystically applied in a human phase.' (p. 94) The dragon of Revelation was an embodiment of darkness or time gone awry, or an eclipse, and in human terms is identical with menstruation. The seven powers as chronometers fell because 'they were discovered to be losing time all together in the course of precession,' (p. 105) 'The seven are the watchers who in the beginning were high in heaven, but who together with their fellows failed to keep time, and were cast out until the end of the secret or great year of precession, when the heavens were to be renewed.' (p. 107) The same symbolism can be found in the Book of Enoch with its seven mountains symbolising the seven poles, or the seven stars.

The Fall also relates to the forbidden time of sex during menstruation. It would denote the wrong time. That is the probable origin of the myth of Lilith. 'She was the serpent-woman, because the serpent typified the first form of feminine periodicity,' (p. 122) i.e., the menses. He gives the probable origin for Christ. 'The Christ or karast (the embalmed and anointed mummy) is the greased, and the glory of the anointed was represented as the grease or oil upon his face.' (p. 131) Again, menstrual sex is attributed to disease. 'There is plenty of evidence to show that the origin of syphilis and other venereal forms of disease was attributed to the non-observance of periodicity; and some of the ways in which the fact was implied are startling indeed.' (p. 139) He next gives the probable origin of the gnostic-platonistic stance. 'When the idea had been evolved that the soul of man was an enduring essence, his most permanent part, that lived beyond the world and the cycles of time into which it had to be born, then its birth in time and the sphere of matter might be represented as an imprisonment, the result of a fall from spirit-world.' (p. 142) The Fall would thus, philosophically speaking, represent the descent into flesh which would denote the original sin. 'The original gnosis is determined by the number.' (p. 151) 'The Fall cannot be mythical and the redemption historical.' (p. 162) He localizes the garden of Eden in Tanganyika. 'They had gone from the north, or north-east of Africa, but we have now to follow those who went northward from the centre, through the tropical regions into Ethiopia. This was named the north as Khepsh (Eg.), that is Habesh and Kûsh (שׁוכ), by a people who must have dwelt to the south of it to name it as their north. Khepsh (Eg.) is the north pole, and the constellation of the Great Bear, i.e., the water-cow. As they descended the Nile, the pole and the seven stars rose higher and higher.' (p. 168)

Section 11

In this section he discusses the myths relating to the flood and the ark, examining the typology behind such myths.

'When the news came that the legend of the deluge had also been found on the cuneiform tablets, there was great rejoicing at first over this further proof that bible history was true. There was a reaction, however, when it was understood that the deluge in this case only lasted six or seven days!' (p. 171) Versions of the deluge can be found the world over, as in the Middle East where the 'eleventh tablet of the Izdubar series contains the Assyrian form of the deluge legend.' (p. 171) Once the template was set the myth became part of folklore. 'This is neither mythos nor history, but a romance of mythology on its way towards becoming Hebrew history.' (p. 173) 'Such a literalization of the ancient typology proved to him [Celsus] what ignorant idiotes were these promulgators of the newest superstition.' (p. 174)

The origins of the flood have their beginnings in a change in the pole, or shift from one constellation to another. 'In keeping with this reckoning the next great deluge is due in the year 1900, when the colure of the vernal equinox will pass into the sign of Aquarius; and from now till then there will probably be rumours and prophecies of great changes, which will be remotely related to the fact, the gnosis or tradition not being absolutely lost although dateless.' (p. 175) 'The deluge was a break in time, a solution of continuity, during which men were all at sea.' (p. 206) 'Mythology was a science founded on the observation of phenomena, not a farrago of fable and foolishness as it has been made to appear.' (p. 209) The deluge marks a point of commencement. 'The Dog-star was found at length to be losing time when judged by the inundation of the Nile, which never varies during thousands of years. It was fabled to have let in the deluge as an untrue timekeeper; and this bequeathed a type of the mythical deluge of all times, and for all time. Egypt alone supplies the natural genesis for the mythos of the Dog-star letting in the deluge in consequence of its losing time as an indicator of the inundation.' (p. 241) 'No reason for this has been assigned, but the red deluge is menstrual; it is still known as a flooding. This will explain the flood which is not in certain myths.' (p. 259) 'The last deluge and the final form of the celestial ark are represented in the Book of Revelation, together with the chief characters and scenery of the mythological allegory.' (p. 264) 'It conjures up a vision of the most illusory and deluding beauty when looked upon as prophecy in the modern sense. It was astronomical prophecy.' (p. 265)

Section 12

He now speaks of time, its origins and reckoning, and of the Word or Logos that manifested in the Christ.

It is difficult to conceive of this very ancient period when there was no time as such, or rather there was no measure of time, for there were no clocks, digital watches, calendars, etc., 'there was no time until it was measured by means of recurring phenomena each length of time was inseparable from its determinative type.' (p. 267) He believes that the origin of the word time has its roots in the kamitic language, signifying a total, or complete cycle, which could only have come about through observation of celestial phenomena. 'The time to eat, the time of plenty, the time of fruits, the time to couple sexually, would be the earliest form of the spontaneous manifestation made by nature, which appealed to the sense that finally developed a perception of time.' (p. 268) Stars rising on the horizon marked periods of time, so did the rains or rainy season, as this signified the time for sowing, then harvesting and reaping. And if there was a cross-correspondence between the two, then naturally it would follow as a significant event that would be memorialised in the memory of man out of which myths and allegories would develop. 'The first period observed and memorialized was that of puberty, the period when the human being was divided into the two sexes, that for ever after sought to become united again.' (p. 269) And the most important time thereafter was the girl becoming a woman signified by her menses, which would mean that she was now ripe for sex, the time being the rite time, or time of ritual intercourse. The 'Kaffirs have no Sabbath, and keep none of the sacred seasons of periodic recurrence, commonly celebrated by a festival. But, from time immemorial, they have preserved the primitive custom of rejoicing at the first appearance of the menstrual period of the female.' (p. 269) 'It is here we have to seek not only the genesis of time itself, but the origin of the so-called phallic cult or worship of the generative powers, which did not commence as a religion but with the sexual typology as a mode of expression, and of keeping time as well as other forms of law.' (p. 270) 'It was on account of her own dual manifestation in periodic time that the female was personified as goddess of the Two Truths, and made the earliest representative of the logos,' (p. 272) 'According to the extant typology, female influence on the sexual sense was the earliest human power acknowledged by the male.' (p. 272) With the physical distinction of pubes, the sexless child now became differentiated, and 'it was the feminine manifestation that first taught the need of cover.' (p. 277) That is, out of modesty the loincloth was put on, then much later this would develop into full clothing, the loincloth acting as a sanitary towel. 'Religious rites and ceremonies were instituted as memorial teachings, and these were impressed so indelibly that the stamp remains and the customs survive when they are no longer understood.' (p. 294) 'Noah's ark was thus a receptacle of life for nine solar months.' (p. 317)

The Great Year consisted of 26,000 years. That is, seven polestar changes took place in that space of time, which was held sacred by the Egyptians. 'The seven timekeepers of the seven constellations that performed their first revolution in the ark of the sphere became seven celestial personages in an ark that voyaged round the cycle of precession once in 25,868 years, which period they were fabled to fulfil by being continually reborn as men whose lifetime was reckoned at seventy-one or seventy-two years each.' (p. 323) 'The time-reckonings then culminated in the Great Year of 25,868 years, or in round numbers of 26,000 years, containing 52 weeks of 500 years, with 7 days of 71 to 72 years in each.' (p. 326) 'The Great Year was not only the fulfilment of all time, but the end of it was the culmination of mythology, and the cause of its conversion into equinoctial Christolatry.' (p. 327) 'It was during the course of precession that the great catastrophes represented in the astronomical allegory had occurred. We can now see how one deluge was caused, by the reeling motion of the world making the movement of precession; and how the reckonings, figured as the writings, were actually lost in the overwhelming waters.' (p. 335)

The sayers were originally the animals who would become the zootypes. 'The primitive typology and symbolism consists of the signs made by the earliest 'sayers' in external nature; and these sayers, as the zootypes, were the primordial logoi of the elemental powers.' (p. 338) Early man used these zootypes to describe the world, borrowing from them and other external phenomena to paint a picture of the world as he saw it. 'Primitive man had to think in external things, distinguish the sexes and describe characters by means of phenomena before this could be done by the aid of verbal language.' (p. 350) Again, the mysteries were based on the most natural of facts. 'Here we have to recognize the fact that the profoundest mysteries were biological, and most sacred because sexual.' (p. 365) The logos was at first female, then was usurped as male, later developed into the Christ. 'The Christ of the gnosis could no more become man than Sophia have been incarnated in a woman.' (p. 367) 'Theology is everywhere the final phase of mythology.' (p. 370) 'The drama which the idiotes mistook for human history was performed in another world.' (p. 371)

Section 13

In this final section, Massey now concentrates on what the whole work has been leading up to; the mistaken notion that a personal or historical Christ ever existed, proving that the Christ of the Gnostics, the Christ  (or Messiah) of the Egyptians was based on astrotheological phenomena not fact, that the myth was, and always had been, allegorical, not actual. The perpetrators of this mistaken notion were the ignorant purveyors of fiction who wove the fiction from the cloth of the gnosis, and what he calls Equinoctial Christolatry.

'The knowing ones kept back the esoteric explanation of the mythos, to let the untutored belief in the real history take root.' (p. 378) The Christ of the gospels was preceded by the symbolic Christ; 'the gospel of equinoctial Christolatry was written before, with a totally different rendering, and that the sayings, dogmas, doctrines, types, and symbols, including both the cross and the Christ, did not originate where we may have first made acquaintance with them.' (p. 378) 'The truth is that the real origins of the cult, here called 'Equinoctial Christolatry,' rather than Christianity, have never yet been reached, however suspected, because of the supposed new beginning in human history, which was taken for granted by those who knew no farther, and who had no desire to know.' (p. 379) It is only through our understanding of Egyptian mythology that we can understand how the cult of Christ came about. 'The lost language of the celestial allegory can now be restored, chiefly through the resurrection of ancient Egypt.' (p. 379) 'Those who adopted it [the Christ] as one of the natural bases for the new beginning were too ignorant to know the origin and significance of the subject-matter.' (p. 379) Ignorance was the cause of error which led to the confusion of types. 'But those who continued the cult of equinoctial Christolatry in its final phase were the men who did not know.' (p. 383) 'The cult of equinoctial Christolatry is founded on the mythical types, however interpreted.' (p. 385) 'The actual birthplace of the carnalized Christ was neither Bethlehem nor Nazareth, but Rome.' (p. 395) He then gives a good derivation of the name of Lazarus. 'Thus Lazarus is the typical mummy-figure which would be signified if the name were derived from laz (or ras, Eg), to be raised up, and aru (Eg), the mummy shape; which, with the Greek terminal s, would be Lazarus, the risen mummy.' (p. 405) Horus can be identified with Jesus. 'Now the iconography of the catacombs continually furnishes a bridge from Egypt to Rome, by which we can pass over independently of the alleged history.' (p. 409)

Various epithets of Jesus can be applied to the Egyptian gods like Osiris, Horus, Ra. It is therefore possible that they are derived from the sayings and phrases of the Egyptian mythology. Jesus' mother Mary can be identified with Isis in certain aspects. 'In fact, the three hundred sects of Christians who are today engaged in formulating and defining the theology of their assumed founder and denying each other's interpretation, do but inevitably represent the organic disunity from the beginning, and reflect the fragmentary nature of the origins.' (p. 410)

Jesus' assumption of Messiah occurred at the age of 30, coinciding with that of Horus. 'Thus from the time when the child-Christ was about twelve years of age until that of the typical homme fait of Egypt, which was the age assigned to Horus when he became the adult god, there is no history.' (p. 413) 'The mythical record, founded on nature, went no further, and there the history consequently halts within the prescribed limits, to re-begin with the anointed and regenerated Christ at the age of Khem-Horus, the adult of thirty years.' (p. 413)

Jesus, as caster-out, is equivalent to the caster-out in the tale of the possessed princess. 'This character of Khunsu the exorcizer of evil spirits is especially reproduced in the Christ of Luke's gospel.' (p. 414) Jesus wrestling with the devil parallels Horus' battle with Set. 'Whether fought yearly or monthly, the battle was between the Lord of Light and the devil of darkness, as it had gone on ever since the twins were born.' (p. 417) The feeding of the 5000 with loaves and fishes has parallels in the Ritual, especially the chapter of celestial diet. 'The Gnostics professed to be the men who knew, and the mythos and typology now recovered vouch for their knowledge of the mysteries that lurk beneath the parables, events, and teachings that have been gathered up in the gospels, and at the same time show that those who collected them for reissue in an historic narrative were unaware of their real nature.' (p. 430) Orion was the star in east where Horus was reborn. Mythology set the template for the false history to be shaped, because 'the product called historic was the outcome determined by the mould of the mythos, and the foundations thus traceable in natural phenomena leave no room for the supernatural any more than for the human or historical.' (p. 443) Most of the biblical narrative of Jesus can be viewed as a solar allegory. 'The fact of John and Jesus being born six months apart shows a solar phase of the mythos, like that found in the annual combination of sun and moon at Easter, the moon of the year which was represented by the god Khunsu, as it is by Christ.' (p. 452) 'In many legends Sut is the genuine messiah. .... The same stories are told of him as of the Christ. He was instructed by angels. He was carried up into the wilderness during the typical forty days. He was the earliest astronomer, and father of all the prophets. He was also credited with being the author of a book about the star in the East which was to announce the nativity of Christ, that is, as the starry Sut-Horus of the pyramid who was the announcer of the Christ in the decans of the Ram. Sut as messiah remained supreme in the Typhonian Cult, whether in Egypt, Chaldea, Judea, Italy, or Britain.' (p. 453) 'Sut as the messiah was identified in Rome with the ass whose name in Egyptian is Iu or Aiu, the plural representative of lunar phenomena.' (p. 454) As I have said in Point Twelve, everything in the Bible can be traced back to an anterior source; Jesus to Horus, Mary and Martha to Isis and Nephthys, etc. 'The two sisters, Mary and Martha, who dwelt together at Bethany with their brother Lazarus, correspond perfectly to the two divine sisters, called at times the two dear sisters, Isis and Nephthys, with their brother Osiris, in the House of Annu.' (p. 460) And the worse culprits of the myth of Christ were those who mistook the symbolic for the actual, like Papias. 'He did not know that the utterer of these sayings was the logos of mythology, who had been previously personified as Iu-em-hept, the sayer in Egypt, at least 3,000 years earlier, and whom the present writer identifies as the Jesus (or Iusu) of the Apocrypha.' (p. 469) Taht-Aan was the announcer, who can be identified with John as speaker of the Lord, preparer of the way of Christ. 'It is to the Gnostics that we must turn for the missing link between the oral and the written word; between the Egyptian Ritual and the canonical gospels; between the Matthew who wrote the Hebrew or Aramaic gospel of the sayings.' (p. 473) 'All that was foundational, all that was substantial in the past has been held to be the foreshadow of that which was to come.' (p. 475) Christianity, as represented by the gospels, is a complete and utter reversal of the facts and relative positions of the main characters in the mythology. 'The alleged heresy of the Gnostics, which is supposed and assumed to have originated in the second century, the first being carefully avoided, only proves that the agnostics, who had literally adopted the pre-Christian types, and believed they had been historically fulfilled, were then for the first time becoming conscious of the cult that preceded theirs, and face to face with those who held them to be the heretics.' (p. 484) The Gnostics had to be denounced because they were a threat to the Church. 'Gnosticism was no birth or new thing in the second century; it was no perverter or corrupter of Christian doctrines divinely revealed, but the voice of an older cult growing more audible in its protest against a superstition as degrading and debasing.' (p. 484) He now points out the ridiculousness of the whole story of Christ. 'For what could be more shocking to any sense really religious, than the belief that the very God himself had descended on earth as an embryo in a Virgin's womb, to run the risk of abortion and universal miscarriage during nine months in utero, and then dying on a cross to save his own created world or a portion of its people from eternal perdition?' (p. 484) 'The natural genesis of equinoctial Christolatry, or Christianity, and the initial point of an embryonic unity, are not to be discovered in the life and teaching of a personal founder or historical Christ.' (p. 487) Again, the reason Mary was portrayed as being virginal was because she was based on a primitive type when sex was not understood. 'Mary had to be a virgin for the mechanics of sex were not understood when the mythos was created, which was perpetuated in Rome as the Immaculate conception many centuries later.' (p. 487)

Christ does not exist outside of the Bible. Of all the Greek and Latin writers known to exist around the time of Christ, or shortly after his death, there is no account of him in any of their pages; a remarkable fact considering how widespread his fame was said to be and how popular he was in his own time. The mention of Christ in the Josephus text is known to be an interpolation, the mention of a Christ by other writers is indirect and refers to the burgeoning cult of Christ rather than the man himself (and well after his demise), and all other attempts to prove the validity of his existence through actual testimony outside of the gospels have failed. 'This reading will account for the total absence of contemporary testimony or recognition, and explain how it is that no voice breaks the blank silence outside the gospel narrative, save one or two forgeries that may be laughed into oblivion. The existence of the passage in Tacitus concerning the name of Christ was obviously unknown to the Christian Fathers, and therefore non-extant. The allusion in Josephus's history is manifestly interpolated between the two calamities that befell the Jews. Besides which, Photius states explicitly that Josephus made no mention of Jesus Christ. Another Jewish historian, Justus of Tiberias, 'does not make the least mention of the appearance of Christ, nor say anything whatever of his miracles.' Philo, who was an Essene, born in the year 20 BC, and who lived to the year 50 AD, knew nothing of Jesus or his works. The Mishna, a collection of writings ranging from BC 400 to AD 200, which were edited by the Rabbi Jehuda, AD 219, at Tiberias, beside the sea of Galilee, where the patriarch lived, contains no allusion to the gospel Jesus or his works, his life or his death.' (p. 493) The 'other Jesus' of the gospels preached by the sarkolatae, were worshippers of Christ in the flesh. 'Paul was a Hebrew Gnostic learned in the Kabbalah, a master in the mysteries, one who spoke wisdom among the perfected. He knew the nature of the typical Christ from the genesis, as the anointed one of puberty, whose symbol was the stone or rock.' (p. 495) 'Paul passed away and his writings remained with the enemy, to be withheld, tampered with, re-indoctrinated, and turned to account by his old opponents who preached the gospel of Christ carnalized.' (p. 496) There were two religions vying for supremacy in the ancient world; Mithraism and Christianity. 'The Mithraic mysteries were so like those of the Christians that Justin Martyr declared the devil had stolen them to deceive the human race.' (p. 499) 'In the same writings Peter asserts the existence of a secret doctrine or gnosis, and states that Christ had given instructions for the true gospel, that of the hidden mysteries, not to be proclaimed until after the destruction of Jerusalem; and then it was only to be taught covertly' (p. 499) 'The cult of equinoctial Christolatry substituted faith for knowledge as the guiding principle.' (p. 500) 'The cult of equinoctial Christolatry is responsible for enthroning the cross of death in heaven with a deity on it doing public penance for a private failure in the commencement of creation.' (p. 501) He ends with a long tirade against the falseness and barrenness of Christianity. 'Our national religion is the fetishism of primitive man in the last stage of perversion.' (p. 501) 'False believing is ever the worst enemy of true doing; and every Sunday the teaching of these legalized kidnappers of the children, for compulsory inoculation of their minds with the old theological virus, tends to nullify the good done by education during the other six days of the week.' (p. 502) 'Seas of human blood have been spilt to keep the bark of Peter afloat. Earth has been honey­combed with the graves of the martyrs of free thought. Heaven has been filled with a horror of great darkness in the name of God.' (p. 503) 'And at length the long delusion based on misinterpreted mythology is drawing near its end,' (p. 503) i.e. with the publication of his work.

The Lectures

In these lectures, which were read in the UK and USA, Massey attempts to summarise his findings so far and put in a more succinct manner what had already gone before in the previous volumes. They were spawned by various questions being posed by his readers and critics who wanted greater clarification of what he was really saying, allowing him the opportunity to elaborate on themes previously touched on, especially in the Natural Genesis. Giving these lectures was also an opportunity to respond to his harshest critics and most fierce opposers, in turn allowing him to demonstrate the ignorance of their own subject matter. One, Archibald Sayce, professor of Assyriology at Oxford, had criticised Massey in his Hibbert Lectures for his reckless abandonment of the principles of comparative philology. Massey, ever the one to take up the gauntlet, could not let Sayce's remarks go unnoticed, and indeed challenges the professor in a retort. It is a remarkable piece of writing from one who was autodidactic and who had no academic training, to take on Sayce, a man who was recognised as an authority in his field. His vociferous attack makes for vibrant reading. And it is through these lectures you can feel his hatred for Christianity. I suggest, as long as the first-time reader has a priori knowledge of Egyptian symbolism and mythology, as well as a grounding in gnostic thought, that these lectures be read first before attempting to plunge into his trilogy.

Lastly, the whole point of the lectures was to further his conclusions by concentrating on certain aspects. This gave him scope to express his ideas better, and in a public forum; he was well suited to this role. His stance is defensive in some cases, attempting to convince his critics that what he was saying was correct and rebuts adversity with aplomb. Having given the lectures he could see where the gaps needed to be filled, omissions in his previous works having escaped him, thus enabling him to re-assess and start over again. This revision of his ideas would culminate in his last work nearly twenty years later.

Lecture 1

The first of the published lectures in this collection focuses on the main crux of the Masseian thesis as a whole: the recondite knowledge of a mythical Christ as opposed to the real, historical one as portrayed in the New Testament, that the latter is a fraudulent claim based on the total misinterpretation of the original gnosis, and a complete misunderstanding of the primary source from whence it was derived.

'The transcription and literal rendering of the hieroglyphic texts herein employed are by scholars of indisputable authority.' (p. 1) One thing that mars his work is his claim that Jesus can be attributed to an historical figure which is unnecessary and a distraction. 'The personal existence of Jesus as Jehoshua Ben-Pandira can be established beyond a doubt.' (p. 2) 'Jesus of Nazareth (and of the canonical gospels) was unknown to Justus, to the Jew of Celsus, and to Josephus, the supposed reference to him by the latter being an undoubted forgery.' (p. 3, and see my essay on this.)

There are two Jesuses, that of the gospels and Ben-Pandira. 'The Jews know nothing of Jesus, the Christ of the gospels, as an historical character; and when the Christians of the fourth century trace his pedigree, by the hand of Epiphanius, they are forced to derive their Jesus from Pandira!' (p. 3) 'It is not the Jews, then, but the Christians, who fuse two supposed historic characters into one! There being but one history acknowledged or known on either side, it follows that the Jesus of the gospels is the Jehoshua of the Talmud, or is not at all, as a person. This shifts the historic basis altogether; it antedates the human history by more than a hundred years, and it at once destroys the historic character of the gospels, together with that of any other personal Jesus than Ben-Pandira.' (p. 4) 'The mythical messiah was always born of a Virgin Mothera factor unknown in natural phenomena, and one that cannot be historical, one that can only be explained by means of the mythos, and those conditions of primitive sociology which are mirrored in mythology and preserved in theology.' (p. 4)

He discusses the scenes on the wall of Luxor, as he has done previously in NG, and will do again in AE. 'In human sociology the son of the mother preceded the father, as son of the woman who was a mother, but not a wife.' (p. 5) 'All that is non-natural and impossible as human history, is possible, natural and explicable as mythos.' (p. 5) Christ is based on astrotheology. 'The birth of Christ is astronomical.' (p. 6) The whole of the Christ mythos is astronomical. Christ and Mithras are confused. 'Nothing is more certain, according to honest evidence, than that the Christian scheme of redemption is founded on a fable misinterpreted; that the prophecy of fulfilment was solely astronomical, and the Coming One as the Christ who came in the end of an age, or of the world, was but a metaphorical figure, a type of Time, from the first, which never could take form in historic personality, any more than Time in person could come out of a clock-case when the hour strikes; that no Jesus could become a Nazarene by being born at, or taken to, Nazareth; and that the history in our gospels is from beginning to end the identifiable story of the sun-god, and the gnostic Christ who never could be made flesh. When we did not know the one it was possible to believe the other; but when once we truly know, then the false belief is no longer possible.' (p. 9)

Christ = Horus in the Osirian mythos. Christ = Khepra of the creation mythos. 'The character and teachings of the canonical Christ are composed of contradictions which cannot be harmonised as those of a human being, whereas they are always true to the mythos.' (p. 10) 'In this way it can be proved that the history of Christ in the gospels is one long and complete catalogue of likenesses to the mythical messiah, the solar or luni-solar god.' (p. 12) There are parallels between Horus of twelve years, and Horus of thirty years with that of Christ. 'I could keep on all day, and all night, or give a dozen lectures, without exhausting my evidence that the canonical gospels are only a later literalised réchauffé of the Egyptian writings.' (p. 21) 'From beginning to end the history is not human but divine, and the divine is the mythical.' (p. 22) The mire of delusion that has befogged the minds of men is like the 'facts reversed, perverted and falsified, makes one feel as if under a nightmare which has lasted for eighteen centuries, knowing the truth to have been buried alive and made dumb all that time; and believing that it has only to get voice and make itself heard to end the lying once for all, and bring down the curtain of oblivion at last upon the most pitiful drama of delusion ever witnessed on the human stage.' (p. 23) 'It is impossible to establish the existence of an historical character, even as an impostor. For such an one the two witnessesastronomical mythology and Gnosticismcompletely prove an alibi for ever!' (p. 24) The original symbolism was taken for an actuality, 'the figures of the celestial allegory were ignorantly mistaken for matters of fact.' (p. 24) 'The Christian theology was responsible for substituting faith instead of knowledge.' (p. 24) 'The Christian cult has fanatically fought for its false theory, and waged incessant warfare against Nature and Evolution.' (p. 25)

2nd Lecture

In the next lecture Massey discusses Paul's involvement with the Church, opining that he was essentially a Gnostic and opposed to the orthodox stance of the Church. Elaine Pagels, many years later, in her book The Gnostic Paul (1975), presented a similar theory, and that there was a great division in its formation, the two opposing sides being roughly identified with Paul (who wanted to lay a gnostic foundation in the belief of Jesus) and Peter (who wanted to base the Church on that of divine authority), so that the dichotomy would be between knowledge and faith. Massey argued for Paul as a Gnostic in that Paul knew, his knowledge being based on a better understanding of the mythos than Peter, the latter substituting faith for fact.

The gnosis, which had been lost sight of, was Egyptian and 'was carried into other lands by the underground passage of the Mysteries, to emerge at last as the literalised legend of historic Christianity.' (p. 27) The dichotomy was between the spiritual Christ and the historical. 'The two doctrines are those of the gnostic, or spiritual Christ, and the historic Jesus.' (p. 28) 'Paul was not a supporter of the system known as historical Christianity, which was founded on a belief in the Christ carnalized; an assumption that the Christ had been made flesh; but that he was its unceasing and deadly opponent during his lifetime; and that after his death his writings were tampered with, interpolated, and re-indoctrinated by his old enemies, the forgers and falsifiers, who first began to weave the web of the papacy in Rome.' (p. 28) 'His Christ within was not the corpus of Christian belief, but the Christ of the gnosis.' (p. 29) 'He makes no mention of a Jesus of Nazareth.' (p. 29) Marcion held the same view as Paul. 'Marcion, the man who knew, recognised his fellow-gnostic in Paul, but rejected the literalisations and the spurious doctrines which had been surreptitiously interpolated by the founders, who were the forgers, of historic Christianity.' (p. 29) 'Paul was converted to Christianity in the year 27 of our era.' (p. 30) i.e. prior to the death of Christ by 3 years when he was supposed to have been converted by it.

All difficulties of the texts of Paul can be ruled out by 'The double-dealing of the interpolators and forgers would be cause enough to account for all the difference and the difficulty.' (p. 32) 'This they did because their Christ was spiritual, not an historic Jesus; and the same reason holds good as an explanation for Paul. He repudiated the vain genealogies employed in vain by those who sought to establish a human line of descent for the Christ, because he rejected the flesh-and-blood Jesus who was preached by the advocates of historic Christianity.' (p. 32) 'Of course, either an historic Jesus could become the Christ, as Saviour of the world, or he could not; and, as the world never was lost in any such sense as the ignorant have derived from a fable misinterpreted, why he could not, and as he could not, then he did not, and Paul who was an adept in the Mysteries, a Master of the Hidden Wisdom, could never have mistaken the fable for a fact on which to build his system of Christology.' (p. 33) 'The Gnostics were Christians in an esoteric sense, but not because they explained a human history esoterically. There was no history to explain until the myth had been made exoteric by those who were ignorant, or who cunningly converted the gnosis into history.' (p. 33) 'He openly promulgated the gnosis which had always been kept secret.' (p. 39) 'The root of the Messiah's name is mesi in Egyptian. One meaning, like that of the christ in Greek and messiach in Hebrew, is to anoint. But the fundamental signification is rebirth.' (p. 39) 'When typified and made doctrinal, this mother, as quickener of the soul, this mother of the Horus, or Christ, may be said to be virgin in a region beyond that of physical contact in the fleshly human phase. In a final form, the messiah was the immortal spirit in man, or the Christ within, according to the language of Paul.' (p. 40) 'This complete reversal of the Christian belief is to be found in the Hidden Wisdom' (p. 40) 'Paul, in his epistles, is speaking allegorically, not literally, yet the christolaters have followed his words implicitly and replaced the allegorical with the literal.' (p. 40) 'But, we have not yet completely mastered the entire mystery of Paul for modern use; and it is not possible for any one but the phenomenal Spiritualist, who knows that the conditions of trance and clairvoyance are facts in nature; only those who have evidence that the other world can open and lighten with revelations, and prove its palpable presence, visibly and audibly; only those who except the teaching that the human consciousness continues in death, and emerges in a personality that persists beyond the grave; only such, I say, are qualified to comprehend the mystery, or receive the message, once truly delivered to men by the Spiritualist Paul, but which was thoroughly perverted by the Sarkolators, the founders of the fleshly faith.' (p. 43) 'He was a perfected adept. He knew the nature of the kronian Christ, and of the Spiritual Christ, according to the gnosis.' (p. 43) Paul was like a shaman, and his conversion on the road to Damascus can be seen as a trance-induced vision, for he 'was an abnormal seer, subject to the conditions of trance. He could not remember if certain experiences occurred to him in the body or out of it! This trance condition was the origin and source of his revelations, the heart of his mystery, his infirmity in which he gloried,' (p. 43) and possibly the same can be applied to Massey himself. Or we could say 'that to be in Christ is to be in the condition of trance, in the spirit, as they phrased it, in the state that is common to what is now termed mediumship.' (p. 44) 'Paul was both a seer and a knower. He became one of the public demonstrators of the facts, just like any itinerant medium of our time.' (p. 44) Man's progress, spiritual and evolutionary, has been hampered by the acceptance of the teachings of the Church, that a man came into this world as the son of God to redeem mankind. It is like page of history that has been completely re-written, 'and historical Christianity itself is but a vast interpolation, the greatest of all obstacles to mental development and the unity of the human race.' (p. 45)

'The subject-matter here is the nature of the time-cycles, and the mythical destruction by flood and fire, which Paul as an adept knew to be typical and allegorical. Peter mistakes them for literal realities.' (p. 45) 'Paul is treated as the arch-enemy of the Christ crucifiedhe is the very Anti-Christ.' (p. 47)  'The gulf, however, cannot be completely fathomed, except on the grounds that there was no personal Christ, and that Paul was the natural opponent of the men who were setting up the Christ made flesh for the salvation of the world that never was lost.' (p. 47) The Church has no foundation in the real world, for 'fabricated evidence is the sole support of historic Christianity.' (p. 47) 'But there was a great gulf forever fixed between the gnostic Christology and historic Christianity. It was a gulf that never could be soundly bridged, and never has been plumbed, or bottomed, or filled in. The bodies of two million martyrs of free-thought, put to death as heretics, in Europe alone, and all the blood that has ever been shed in Christian wars, have failed to fill that gulf, which waits as ever wide-jawed for its prey.' (p. 48)

3rd Lecture

In this lecture Massey discusses the supposed sayings of Christ. This lecture was delivered well before the discovery of the papyri at Oxyrhynchus in Egypt, published by Grenfell and Hunt in 1897 and 1904. Instead, he is left to look only at the apocrypha or lost books of the Bible, especially those that deal with the new religion of Christianity prior to the compilation of the New Testament. And the problem, as he explains, is that 'It would take almost a lifetime of original research to fathom or approximately gauge the depths of ignorance in which the beginnings of historic Christianity lie sunken out of sight.' (p. 49) As I have said in one of my essays, the problem is mainly to do with the fact that the early formulators of Christianity did as much as possible to destroy all records of the real origins of their religion, and the real culprit was the Church Father Eusebius. 'He and his co-conspirators did their worst in destroying documents and effacing the telltale records of the past, to prevent the future from learning what the bygone ages could have said directly for themselves. They made dumb all pagan voices that would have cried aloud their testimony against the unparalleled imposture then being perfected in Rome. They had almost reduced the first four centuries to silence on all matters of the most vital importance for any proper understanding of the true origins of the Christian superstition.' (p. 49) It is only when you do get to the bottom of things is it possible to see that the Christian history is 'spurious, because they are opposed to the received history; whereas, they contain the secret gnosis by which alone we can identify the genuine scripture.' (p. 50) When the Councils were assembled to determine which books to include in the Bible and which ones to exclude, it is evident that there was a good reason for some to be omitted altogether for they 'are not included among the canonical scriptures, because they prove too much; because they are historical in the wrong sensei.e., they are not and could not be made humanly historical; their Jesus Christ is entirely mythicalis the kronian Christ; and his future coming therein announced was only the subject of astronomical prophecy.' (p. 50) The original Christ, that is the symbolic, mystical Christ, symbolised both sexes as an androgynous being because he was the 'mystical Christ of the gnosis and of the pre-Christian types was a being of both sexes, as was the Egyptian Horus and other of the messiahs; because the mystical Christ typified the spirit or soul which belongs to the female as well as to the male, and represents that which could only be a human reality in the spiritual domain or the Pleroma of the Gnostics.' (p. 50) Compared with how much the Christians know of their own religion, it is quite obvious that the real, true possessors of the gnosis which formed the beginnings of the Christian superstition were the Essenes, Gnostics and other pre-Christian sects. Traces of the real spiritual Christ can be found in the remnants of the Gnostics as summarised and exhorted by the Church Fathers, these Gnostics being revitalisers of what was already by then an ancient doctrine that has its connection with the remote past and is fathomable only in Egypt. Again, any supposed messiah was not going to be a real historical person of the flesh, but a symbolic saviour, a spiritual messiah; 'the light that dawned within, and could not come without in any form of flesh or historic personality.' (p. 52) There was no real, historical Christ, as there is no proof or evidence to confirm the fact of his existence. 'Historic Christianity can furnish no sufficient reason why the biography of its personal founder should have been held back; why the facts of its origin should have been kept dark; and why there should have been no authorised record made known earlier. The conversion of the mythos, and of the Docetic doctrines of the gnosis into human history, alone will account for the fatal fact.' (p. 52) A misunderstanding of the gnosis led to a misinterpretation of the myth which the Gnostics had tried to convey in parables or sayings, for 'primary nucleus of our canonical gospels was not a life of Jesus at all, but a collection of the logia, oracles, or sayings, the Logia Kuriaka, which were written down in Hebrew or Aramaic, by one Matthew, as the scribe of the Lord.' (p. 53) Massey roundly condemns the early followers of the Christ because of their own ignorance, like Papias for example. 'He wrote a work on the subject, entitled Logion Kuriakon Exegesis, a commentary on the 'sayings of the Lord'. A surviving fragment of this last work, quoted by Eusebius, tells us that Matthew wrote the sayings in the Hebrew dialect, and each one of the believers interpreted them as he was best able.' (p. 54) And these sayings came to shape the early religion. 'Thus, the beginning of the earliest gospel was not biographical. It was no record of the life and doings of Jesus; it contained no actual historic element, nothing more than the sayings of the Lord.' (p. 54) These sayings of Christ were not wholly fabricated, but had their origins in ancient doctrine. And 'many of them were pre-extant, pre-historic, and pre-Christian.' (p. 54) Now we come to the crux of the matter, the proof that there was no real, historical Christ. 'And if it can be proved that these oracles of God and logia of the Lord are not original, if they can be identified as a collection, an olla podrida of Egyptian, Hebrew, and Gnostic sayings, they can afford no evidence that the Jesus of the gospels ever lived as an historic teacher.' (p. 54) As in much earlier times, the sayer or mouthpiece, the oracle, the utterer, who gave out these pieces of wisdom was never embodied but simply that, an oracle, well before the emergence of Christianity. 'Wisdom was the sayer personified long anterior to the Christ.' (p. 54) In Egypt the oracle of wisdom would have been represented by Maat. 'It was one of the sayings, or true words, called the 'logia,' which had been the dark sayings and parables of the pre-Christian mysteries from of old, and which in Egypt were the sayings of Truth herself.' (p. 55) These sayings would be rediscovered much later after Massey's death, but his prescience here is proof enough that what he was saying was correct for he believed it was 'only to be a matter of time and research to prove that the sayings in general assigned to Jesus, which are taken to demonstrate his historic existence as a personal teacher, were preextant, prehistoric, and pre-Christian.' (p. 56) As in other writers who had sought to prove other cultures had a Christ of their own well before the advent of Christianity, the sayings were so old that they could be found anywhere. 'Some of them are so ancient as to be the common property of several nations.' (p. 56) Remember, this was well before writing existed, when everything was passed on orally; before the written word there was the oral tradition. And it is the oral tradition which informs the gnosis. 'The mode of communicating them in the Mysteries, as in Masonry, was from mouth to ear; and, in passing, it may be remarked that the war of the papacy against Masonry is because it is a survival of the pre-Christian Mysteries, and a living, however imperfect, witness against historic Christianity.' (p. 58) It was simply a matter of the early Christians to take these sayings and put them in the mouth of another. 'Thus in the Apocrypha, as in other gnostic books, the sayings of Wisdom are found which have been made counterfeit in the mouth of the Christ made historic.' (p. 58) Wisdom, or Sophia, was essentially personified as feminine who brought forth the Word, as the mother brought forth the Child. 'The logia as Wisdom was originally feminine as utterer, whence uterus, who gave forth the word, that was later incarnated as flesh, the embodiment of soul.' (p. 58) 'Thus, on the ground of natural phenomena, the logia were first uttered by the Lady, and not by the Lord.' (p. 58) In the Egyptian mysteries the sayer was the Horus-Christ. 'Horus, the Lord, is the divine sayer.' (p. 59) 'He is the Lord by name, and therefore his are the original sayings, or logia of the Lord.' (p. 59) Astronomical mythology informs the texts of the Bible, especially the books of prophecy. 'The compiler was too uninstructed to know that the prophecies themselves belonged entirely to the astronomical allegory, and never did or could relate to forthcoming events that were to be fulfilled in human history.' (p. 60) It was these sayings that were passed off as gospel history. 'In the first place the sayings are not original, not personal to any historical Jesus, and yet they are the acknowledged foundations of the four gospels. Therefore in them we have the foundations laid independently of any supposed founder of Christianity.' (p. 61) Horus, through corruption, became the Christ of the Christians. 'This mythical Christ, as Horus, was continued in the more mystical phase as the Horus of the Gnostics.' (p. 62) As the possessors of the gnosis, they 'supply the missing links between the oral sayings and the written word; between the Egyptian and the canonical gospels; between the Matthew who wrote down the sayings of the Lord in Hebrew or Aramaic, and the Matiu who is said to have written the Ritual in hieroglyphics with the very finger of Hermes himself.' (p. 63) The discovery of the gnostic texts at Nag Hammadi have helped to qualify Massey's next statement. 'Thus, the Gnostics enable us to double the proof which can be derived directly and independently from Egypt.' (p. 63) And if there was a Christ, then there had to be a devil. 'If the Christ had been historical in this transaction, the devil must be historical too.' (p. 64) In Egyptian mythology they were Horus and Set. 'The sayings themselves, selected in a last assortment, have not even the consistency of a kaleidoscope. They will not fall into any set form of themselves, or reflect any mental unity anywhere.' (p. 70) Some of the sayings of Jesus are so lame that it is hard to believe they can be taken as coming from an oracular mouthpiece supposed to be divinely inspired or direct from God. Massey makes a valid point when he says, 'Nor is there a single word uttered on behalf of subjugated, downtrodden womankind. Not a saying that will aid in lifting woman to an equality with man.' (p. 72) He would say this as he himself came from an impoverished background and humble beginnings, and a time when women did not have the right to vote or any rights. 'Neither the slaves, nor the women, nor the children, nor the animals, owe their deliverance from inhuman thraldom to him. He had nothing to say about these pitifully-human interests. And it is a foolish farce to go on attributing the emancipation of humanity to the teachings of Jesus the great reformer.' (p. 72)

4th Lecture

Continuing on from the previous lectures, Massey now discusses the discrepancies between gnostic Christianity and its historical counterpart. He attempts to draw further conclusions already outlined in NG. 'My contention is, that the original mythos and gnosis of Christianity were primarily derived from Egypt on various lines of descent, Hebrew, Persian, and Greek, Alexandrian, Essenian, and Nazarene, and that these converged in Rome, where the history was manufactured mainly from the identifiable matter of the mythos recorded in the ancient Books of Wisdom, illustrated by gnostic art, and orally preserved amongst the secrets of the Mysteries.' (p. 73) Christ becomes the agent between God and Man. 'The supreme role assigned to the Christ of the gospels, as of the Gnostics, is that of manifestor and revealer of the Father in heaven.' (p. 75) The Essenes were a pre-Christian sect, possibly forerunners of Christians as healers of the sick. 'As Spiritualists they could not, and did not, believe in the resurrection of the body, consequently a corporeal resurrection of the Christ was a fundamental fallacy upon which no Essene or Gnostic could found at any time.' (p. 80) They believed in a purely spiritual resurrection. 'The Essenes as Gnostics held that every man must be his own Christ. Their Christ came withinthe Christ that could not become historical without......consequently those Gnostics who had been ante-Christians beforehand were of necessity anti-Christians afterwards.' (p. 80) Because the Gnostics were the true possessors of the gnosis, they had to be largely condemned by the Church Fathers in order to put the supposed history in place. Thus the Gnostics were a threat to the Church. 'They were the jealous preservers of the hidden gnosis, and qualified expounders of the ancient mysteries by means of the secret tradition. The initiate was sworn to keep secret the scriptures of the hidden wisdom and not to communicate the gnosis to others, not even to a new member except in the same way in which it had been communicated to him.' (p. 81) The Essenes. like the Gnostics, were also the possessors of the gnosis, and the discovery of the Qumran texts is further proof that 'the Essenic communities always had been composed of those who were in possession of the gnosis, and had already obtained and sacredly preserved the knowledge of the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, which they had taught only in parables.' (p. 83) Historic Christianity took hold of the gnosis and turned it inside out to give it a new appearance and went on to fool the world. 'It may be said more justly of historic Christianity, than of anything else within the compass of my knowledge, that what is true in it was not new, and that which was new in it is not true! It is not new, because it represents the ancient mythos under an intended disguise. It is not true, because it is not a genuine history.' (p. 84) And anyone who tried to oppose the Christian doctrine would be roundly condemned as a heretic. 'To be a Gnostic then a Christian and turning against the official teaching of the Christ, repudiating it, and then denouncing it, and falling back into the Gnostic stance was called backsliding by the Fathers who wished to impose their doctrine, and nobody else's.' (p. 84) The early Christians were counterfeiters trying to pass off dud notes based on the original imprint. 'The work of the early Christians was the work of forgery, pretending to present a human history that never occurred.' (p. 84) As in a palimpsest (a small board covered with a film coated in carbon underneath so that when scratched on the surface the writing would show through, and disappear when the film was rolled back so it could be written on anew), the Christians did the same thing by over-writing everything in order to formulate a gospel history. 'Our canonical gospels are a palimpsest, with one writing so elaborated over another that the first is almost crossed out, and the rest are thoroughly confused.' (p. 89) Some of the writings of the Gnostics can furnish proof of the mythical origins of Christianity. 'When once we know that the origins were mythical, that the Christ was mystical, and the teachings in the mysteries were typical, we shall be able to utilise the Gospel of Marcion as a connecting link between the Egyptian mythos, the epistle of the Word of Truth, and the canonical history according to Luke.' (p. 89) The Gnostic Marcion, for example, was not referring to a real Christ, but a symbolic one. 'But it is certain that the Lord or Christ of Marcion is entirely nonhistorical.' (p. 90) Like a judgement scene in court, the claimants now become the defendants. 'Hitherto the forgers and falsifiers have been believed, and now the accusers and accused are about to change places in the witness-box and the dock. Everywhere the gnosis was first; the history was last.' (p. 90) In a salient point, the Gnostics base their belief on knowledge, the Christians base theirs on faith. 'With the Gnostics knowledge was the foundation of their faith; but the historic Christians made faith the basis of knowledge, and the first demand of the new faith was for the convert to believe that all the mythical typology of the past had been made literally true in the present.' (p. 92)

'When the soul of man came to be considered as a divine principle of celestial origin, it was figured as being entirely opposed to the evil nature of matter; therefore, birth or manifestation in matter was a descent of the soul from the heaven of pristine condition into a lower state of impurity and impermanence; of disease, decay, and death, where it was bound to bear or struggle to get out of it again as soon as possible.' (p. 93) This is akin to the philosophy of Platonism. And in the next statement Massey shows that he is a true humanitarian and anti-vivisectionist. 'His [the Christian] brutalising belief, and baseless assumption, that animals have no souls, are guilty before God and responsible for most of the cruelties suffered by them throughout all Christendom today.' (p. 94) It is only in the spiritual reality that anything Christian makes sense. 'The historical was an impossible mode of realising that which could only be a spiritual possibility; and thus the truth according to the gnosis has been refracted in the falsehood according to the history.' (p. 94) As I said elsewhere, Christianity is a pernicious religion, a cancerous  growth that needs to be sterilised or cauterised at its source before it wreaks any further damage. It emasculates man, turning him into a slave, and not a god. 'Here the movement of historic Christianity was a direct and deliberate shunting of the human mind from off the main line, the highway of its natural development, and running it head first into all sorts of byways and blind alleys, from which we have had to turn back and grope out again as best we could for any progress to be made.' (p. 97) And, as I previously pointed out, the Christian founders turned everything on its head. 'Historic Christianity originated with turning the gnostic and esoteric teachings inside out and externalising the mythical allegory in a personal human history.' (p. 97) Over time, the original gnosis became lost, sunken beneath a debris of dead beliefs that have no validity in the real world, and the more Christianity grows, the more the light of wisdom is blotted out, for 'the waning light of ancient knowledge has been mistaken for the dawning of the  new belief.' (p. 99) In the next statement Massey's hatred for Christianity really shows through. 'The terrible craze that was caused by this perversion of the ancient wisdom has sown the germs of insanity broadcast, and half-filled the world with pious lunatics for whom it offers no cure, and who are still told to look forward for an asylum in the world to come.' (p. 102)

5th Lecture

Massey now looks at how creation myths could have evolved, and the most fundamentally to be explained would be the Hebrew as they are most evidently derived from some primary source. It has to be borne in mind that the myths themselves have become corrupted over time. 'All the falsity lies in their having been falsified through ignorantly mistaking mythology for divine revelation and allegory for historic truth.' (p. 105) Again and again, he is confident in his belief that the false has been mistaken for the true, and the true perverted into the false. 'Such doctrines as the Fall of Man, the failure of God, and all that bankrupt business in the commencement of creation, the consequent genesis of evil and original sin, the depravity of matter, the filthy nature of the flesh have no other basis or beginning than in the perversion of ancient typology, and the literalization of mythology.' (p. 105) Again, 'The literal version is the false; and it is in the mythical that we shall find the true.' (p. 106) The gnosis was transmitted orally first, then given credence by being encapsulated in myth. 'Mythology is an ancient system of knowledge, with its own mode of expression, which enshrined the science of the past in what looks to us at times like foolish and unmeaning fables. It is entirely useless to speculate on such a subject, or try to read one's own interpretation into the myths, with no clue whatever to their primordial meaning. Anybody can make an allegory go on all-fours, and read some sort of history into a myth.' (p. 106) And the gnosis was based on natural facts. This formed the foundation of mythology which in turn led to the beginnings of religion. 'The natural or physical must come first, because they were first; the eschatological is last.' (p. 108) Mythology is a means of conveying truths based on observation. 'You may believe me when I affirm, and you can prove it for yourselves, that mythology was a primitive method of teaching natural facts, and not an esoteric mode of misinterpreting them!' (p. 108) Mythology is little understood. 'In all these orthodox attempts to rationalize mythology, writers and preachers are dealing with matters which they have not yet understood, and which never can be understood on their plane of thought, or within their narrow limits.' (p. 111) Without the typology upon which all mythologies are based, it can only lead to error, or erroneous assumptions; 'the literalization of mythology is the fountainhead of all our false belief, mystification being the secondary source.' (p. 111)

As an example, Massey attacks Gladstone's view of Genesis. It is quite clear that Gladstone as a writer belongs to the old school who believe in the literal meaning of Genesis. And Massey is out to prove that Gladstone and his fellowmen are wholly ignorant of the subject-matter because they do not take into account the importance of typology and the types upon which mythology is based. 'To begin with, the legend of Eden is one of those primeval traditions that must have been the common property of the undivided human race, carried out into all lands as they dispersed in various directions from one centre, which I hold to have been African.' (p. 112) The gnosis, being based on natural facts and observation, did not have a mystical source; it was physiological, and the most obvious and immediately to hand were the physiological processes of the body. 'Water was the first element of life recognized by the primitive perception. Water was considered to be the mother, or maternal source, personified.' (p. 115) This recognition of the importance of water, and breath, in order to sustain life and give birth to it, formed the Two Truths which inform all mythologies. And this can be confirmed by an examination of other creation beliefs outside of the Bible. The Parsee version of creation, for example, is a more accurate rendering as found in the Bundahish. Such myths as the Fall have their origins in astronomy. Certain stars were seen to lose their place in the heavens, or slide back over time, and thus became unreliable. This gave rise to the notion of the Fall. 'The seven kronidae were ousted later as they were found to be unreliable timekeepers, and fell, or fell out of favour, with the incursion of the lunar worshippers and sank. So it is with the myth of the Fall, because the phenomenal workings were not understood properly, nor the phenomena of precession.' (p. 115) Again, the only way we can make sense of mythology is by understanding the gnosis that informs it. 'On the Hebrew line of descent or development, these Elohim are identified for us by the Kabbalists and Gnostics, who retained the hidden wisdom or gnosis, the clue of which is absolutely essential to any proper understanding of mythology or theology.' (p. 125) 'But the seven cronies, as we may now call them, were found to be telling time somewhat vaguely by the year, in accordance with the annual revolution of the starry sphere; and, being found inexact and unfaithful to their trust, they were dispossessed and supersededor, as it was fabled, they fell from heaven.' (p. 125)

The Elohim are based on the Egyptian seven primary powers. 'They were the seven fathers who preceded the father in heaven, because they were earlier than the individualized fatherhood on earth. Mythology reflects the primitive sociology, as in a mirror, and we could not comprehend the reflection in the divine dynasties above until we knew something fundamental about the human relationships on the earth beneath.' (p. 127) When the role of the father in intercourse was understood, he was exalted to heaven as a primary power, superseding the mother and her child. 'The human family exalted to heaven as the divine father, mother and child followed the recognition of the personal fatherhood in sociology, and the knowledge that the lunar light was derived from the sun. Just as this institution superseded the mother and the brotherhood of the totemic stage on earth, so was it in heaven.' (p. 130) Ignorance pervades the Church just like a child is riddled with it because he lacks the experience to countermeasure it, Massey almost gives up in despair the fight that needs to be won to win over those who refuse to believe the truth and cocoon themselves in clouds of disbelief. 'The older I grow the faster I am losing my faith in all lovely unrealities. Consider the effects of such false teaching! Only the other day a child who had been taught that God made man out of the dust of the earth was watching an eddying cloud of dust being whirled into shape by the wind, when she cried, 'Oh, mother, come here! Look! I think God is creating another baby!'' (p. 131)

5th Lecture Continued.

Here Massey responds to Sayce's remarks in his Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian religion, and states that Sayce is ignorant of the original gnosis from whence such material was derived, a rather remarkable statement coming from a man who had little education and no academic stance to speak of, to support his own findings. 'I have amply demonstrated the fact that the myths were no mere products of ancient ignorance, but are the deposited results of a primitive knowledge; that they were founded upon natural phenomena and remain the register of the earliest scientific observation.' (p. 133) It is only through the typological method of interpretation that myths can be understood and by comparing the results. 'The comparative method is as the bringing together of flint and steel to strike the first spark for the necessary light.' (p. 133) But he humbly recognises that he has no authority or claim to academe. 'I am not an acknowledged authority. I can only plead that my facts may have a hearing. Without knowing the facts we cannot attain the truth, and short of the fullest truth there is no final authority.' (p. 133) Most myths are astronomical and can relate to either of the three phases depending on how early they were formulated. The first phase, the earliest, would relate to stellar phenomena, the second to lunar, and the third to solar mythology. 'Ishtar (and Isis) descending into the underworld for 14 days represents the disappearing of the lunar light, overcoming darkness, and the new moon to full moon, her re-ascension.' (p. 133) The stellar phase would relate to time. 'The kronian gods were only types of time in a world without clocks and watches.' (p. 139) There was no real proper study of tribal customs. Anthropology was in its beginnings, and therefore shamanism had not really come into its own until many years after Massey's death with such studies as Mircea Eliade's Shamanism in 1964 (which also cites the same material as Massey does) or the work of Claude Levi Strauss (The Raw and the Cooked), although Tylor's slim volume Anthropology in 1881 was a step in the right direction but fails to even mention the word. Shamanism is probably the earliest religion ever evolved, and like Gnosticism, it is based on direct knowledge of other worlds, or planes of existence available to man through the transformation of consciousness. 'Now shamanism is the most primitive kind of spiritualism, but it includes human spirits as well as the elementals.' (p. 139)

6th Lecture

Massey now discusses the origins of the dragon or serpent as a type of evil and how it could have evolved from the two primary patterns of nature first recognised by man; light and darkness, and their constant, eternal struggle and opposition. On an other level, Massey uses these two polarities to assess the difference between the darkness of ignorance and the light of knowledge, this light being the illuminated gnosis.

'Generation after generation we learn, unlearn, and relearn the same lying, legendary lore, and it takes the latter half of all one's lifetime to throw off the mass of corrupting error instilled into us during the earlier half, even when we do break out and slough it off in a mental eruption, and have to find ourselves in utter rebellion against things as they are.' (p. 142) The same could be said of any youngster dragged to Sunday School or church and made to believe in things that never happened in the first place. As a youngster, I too was indoctrinated with this rubbish, of the Catholic variety, and it took me many years to throw off the shackles and find the truth. 'The Hebrew Devil, or Satan, means the opponent or adversary, and the first great natural adversary recognised by primitive man was darknesssimply darkness, the constant and eternal enemy of the lightthat is, the power of darkness was literal before it became metaphorical, moral, or spiritual.' (p. 143) In primitive times there were no electric lights, no neon tubes, no method of deterring the darkness of night, or keeping it at bay. Man was essentially afraid of darkness because he could not see in it, and his blindness made him fearful, conjuring up all sorts of demons that were prey to his fancy and imagination. Therefore darkness would have been a powerful type of the enemy, the first that needed to be defeated at the close of each day. 'We know this was identified as the primary power, because the primitive or early man reckoned time by nights, and the years by eclipses. This mode of reckoning was first and universal. So many darks preceded so many days. The dark power is primarily in all the oldest traditions and cults of the human race.' (p. 144) The darkness gave rise to the notion of a devil. 'The darkness then, in natural phenomena, was the original devil that put out the light by swallowing it incessantly, as the subtle enemy, the obstructor, deluder, and general adversary of man.' (p. 144) Darkness was made into a type and given a theriomorphic face. 'Hence the crocodile was an ideograph of the swallowing darknessand of earth, or the waters below, called the Abyss; and the tail of the crocodile remained in the Egyptian hieroglyphics as the sign of kamthat is, of blackness or darkness.' (p. 144) This, along with the light, would later be personified in anthropomorphic disguise as the warring brothers or twins who forever did battle with each other. 'The earliest mode of representing the eternal alternation of external phenomena called night and day, or darkness and light, the good and bad, is to be found in the universal myth of the two brothers, who are born twinsvery imperfect versions of which may be found in the legends of Cain and Abel, and of Esau and Jacob.' (p. 145) The one representing darkness came first because it was the first to be recognised as a phenomena of nature. The light one came second. 'The dark one was born first, because darkness was first cognised; but they both continued to struggle for supremacy after birth, as they had done before it, because they dramatised the ceaseless and endless alternation of night and day, of dark and light, seen in the heavens at eve and dawn, in the orb of the moon, and the lengthening of darkness, or of light, in autumn and in spring.' (p. 145) This gave birth to the notion of opposites; the primary powers would then become the secondary powers of good and bad, male and female, etc. 'Such was the natural origin of that doctrine of duality, which is discussed nowadays as a metaphysical mystery, and as if it were a reality from the root of it, made known to the world by direct revelation!' (p. 147)

Massey gives a moral lesson in the flagrant redundancy of institutionalised religions; that the most pious cannot be saved by a God who is not interested in the poor, and that poverty is not relieved by a God of false theology, or of any theology for that matter, but as part of the human race he feels compelled to help them and do what he must, not by making them believe in a false Christ, but by showing them  a way out of the poverty trap and state of destitution they have fallen into. The rest of the lecture is given up to his moralising on the lessons that need to be learnt from the mistakes of the past, and the insidious imparting of false belief into the minds of men and women based on incorrect data. Massey demonstrates that throughout this lecture he is nothing but a humanist. 'And these false beliefs have from the beginning been bitterly opposed to every truth revealed by science; and every advance made for humanity has had to be made in spite of them.' (p. 162)

7th Lecture

Massey discusses the myths connected with the moon and its influence upon time reckoning, starting with a harsh criticism of Muller's statement that mythology is the disease of language.

As an evolutionist Massey attacks this view as he sees mythology as an important and integral stage of human development, not a mental aberration. This can be proved by bottoming the truths contained in lunar myths. And people like Muller fail to understand the place of mythology in man's development. 'They have misrepresented primitive or archaic man as having been idiotically misled from the first by an active but untutored imagination into believing all sorts of fallacies, which were directly and constantly contradicted by his own daily experience; a fool of fancy in the midst of those grim realities that were grinding his experience into him, like the grinding icebergs making their imprints upon the rocks submerged beneath the sea.' (p. 165) It is a means of conveyance, a medium for making the unspeakable speakable. 'Mythology was a primitive mode of thinging the early thought. It was founded on natural facts, and is still verifiable in phenomena.....when considered in the light of evolution, and when its mode of expression by sign-language is thoroughly understood....Mythology is the repository of man's most ancient science.' (p. 165) He now gives a good example of how a myth would have been created. 'For example, when the Egyptians portrayed the moon as a cat, they were not ignorant enough to suppose that the moon was a cat; nor did their wandering fancies see any likeness in the moon to a cat; nor was a cat-myth any mere expansion of verbal metaphor; nor had they any intention of making puzzles or riddles to mislead others by means of such enigmatical sign-language, at a time when they could not help themselves, having no choice in the matter. They had observed the simple fact that the cat saw in the dark, and that her eyes became full-orbed and grew most luminous by night. The moon was the seer by night in heaven, and the cat was its equivalent on the earth; and so the familiar cat was adopted as a representative, a natural sign, a living pictograph of the lunar orb.' (p. 166) Therefore, the moon symbolises change, transformation, etc. So does the frog, a natural type of change. 'The frog is a natural transformer from the tadpole phase in the water to the four-legged stage on land! The moon likewise transforms, and the metamorphosis of the lunar orb could be typified by the change in the frog, and so the frog as picture-object, natural type and living demonstrator for the moon, ultimately became the frog in the moon.' (p. 168) As was the beetle. 'So the beetle was adopted as a type of transformation, whether of the old moon into the new one, of the sun out of the lower into the upper heaven, or, in the latter times, of the dead mummy into a living soul.' (p. 168) The moon symbolised resurrection for it was seen to disappear from the heavens and re-arise a few days later. 'There was a time also when it was not known, and could not be divined, that the moon which dwindled and died down visibly was the same moon that rose again from the dead.' (p. 170) It was an observable fact, but its disappearance was not fully understood, so the gaps were filled in. 'Naturally, the primary conditions of existence observed by primitive men were those that were most observable, and, foremost amongst these, were the phenomena of the day and the dark, which followed each other in ceaseless change. Mythology begins with this vague and merely elemental phase of external phenomena, alternating in night and day. In a secondary stage, it was observed that the battlefield of this never ending warfare of day and dark was focussed and brought to a definite point in the orb of the moon, where the struggle between the two personified powers of light and darkness went on and on for ever, each power having its triumph over the other in its turnthese being depicted in one representation as the solar light and the serpent of darkness, in another by the lion and the unicorn.' (p. 170) This was the basis of the gnosis. 'This mode of representation was known when these sacred stories were first told of mythical characters; it was afterwards continued and taught in the so-called 'mysteries' by means of the gnosis. When the art or gnosis was lost to the world outside, the ancient histories were ignorantly supposed to be human in their origin; mythology was euhemerized (that is, the ideal was mistaken for the real), and Egyptian mythology was converted into Hebrew miracles and Christian history.' (p. 171) The mythology of Egypt can only be understood by means of the gnosis, as in Plutarch's story of Isis desperately searching for the missing parts of Osiris. 'These fourteen parts typify the fourteen days of the lessening light, during which the devil of darkness had the upper hand.' (p. 172) Mythology is the crux of religion. 'Mythology is the groundwork of all our theology and Christology, and it is only by mastering the plan that we can learn how the superstructure has been built.' (p. 174) Misunderstanding has led to the grossest errors. 'Through ignorance of the symbolism, the simple representation of early time has become the most profound religious mystery in modern luniolatry.' (p. 187)

8th lecture

This is a largely philosophical lecture in that Massey proposes that man lost his soul thousands of years ago when he lost the gnosis. Now that he is beginning to regain this knowledge, he is no longer bereft of his soul, and being back on the straight and narrow, his future is more self-assured.

To demonstrate this we have to look at things from a different perspective to see the whole picture, viewing things askance, side-on, rather than at face value. 'The records of primitive and archaic men are only to be read in the things they did, and by aid of the signs they made, from before the time of written language and literature.' (p. 193) 'Gesture-language and fetish images originated in this primitive mode of representation; and we have now to penetrate the significance of the actions, and interpret the types employed in a font indefinitely earlier than that of letters.' (p. 193) Before there was language the only means of communication that man had at his disposal were signs and gestures. 'Egypt, which I look upon as the living consciousness of Africa, continued to remember, and has left a written record of what was meant by these primitive practices and fetish figures.' (p. 194) Even the simplest and most rudimentary signs have been misunderstood. Phallic worship, and its study, which was very popular in his day, is probably the most misunderstood. 'It is here, then, at the outset, that we should have to seek for the true origin of those phallic symbols or sexual images which are found scattered the world over, the types of production having been adopted from nature and perpetuated by the primitive builders in all lands as symbols of reproduction for a future life.' (p. 196) It had its origins in the thing it represented, not the thing in itself, and its symbolic value has been ignored, in the same way that the Christian ignored the symbolic Christ, substituting a personal man for the symbol. 'In support of my theory that the phallic imagery was perpetuated for symbolic uses, and not for direct worship, I would point to the umbilicus or navel type, which, for aught we know to the contrary, may be earlier than the phallic or sexual images, because the navel unites both sexes under one sign.' (p. 196) Primitive man did not make metaphysical judgements about a life after death for he knew there was such a thing, having seen, whether as objective fact, or through clairvoyance, the existence of consciousness beyond death, which would much later in the stages of man's evolution be called ghosts, spirits, etc. 'This conclusion that there was a door on the other side of the graveas proved by the types and customshad been reached by the men of the bone-caves in all probability more than 50,000 years ago!' (p. 198) 'Primitive man was not a theorist or dealer in ideal notions, not the kind of man to whom ideas are realities, but a stubborn positivist, limited as a limpet, and holding on as hard and fast to the hard rock of his facts.' (p. 199) It must also be remembered that Massey was a spiritualist. Whether or not it provides a legitimate frame of reference, it certainly pervades his beliefs. 'My contention is that the invisible world first demonstrated its existence to the early cave-dwellers of the human mind by becoming visible to them. It did not dawn on them from any sudden illumination within, nor waken to consciousness as a memory of immortality. Conception did not precede the act of begettal. Nor did they evolve the ghost-idea without the ghost itself .... prehistoric man was a Gnostic; and the Gnostics founded their religion from the first upon knowledge' (p. 199) As I said in Point 1, man knew these things, he knew because he had direct knowledge of life beyond death. And this would be conveyed in the mysteries which in themselves imparted the fact of life beyond death as a mystery drama; all mysteries have as their aim to make man know that he can live beyond bodily death by an  intimation of spiritual resurrection, or a near-death experience if the drama is enacted properly. And once awareness of life beyond death was known, death could in a sense be defeated because it was no longer seen to be a finality to one's own personal consciousness. 'The immortal nature of the Soul having been demonstrated in the Mysteries, a knowledge of those Mysteries was sufficient to ensure a safe passage through the dark of death, and a sure triumph over all opposing powers, to those who had not the vision.' (p. 200) Those who have direct access to the gnosis are considered to be gifted. 'In our day such persons are sometimes called mediums or sensitives; in India they are the adepts in the most hidden mysteries.' (p. 200)

The Gnostics did not need faith like the Christians for they knew, that is why they were called Gnostics. The gnosis had its beginnings in direct first hand experience of the otherworld through trance, or transformation of consciousness, as in witch doctors, fetish-priests, or what we now refer to as the shaman, for shamanism is a direct method of contacting the other world, of knowing how the world really works, seeing the wiring under the boards, communicating with disembodied entities and connecting with power animals. That is why the shaman is always highly regarded in the tribe, and why when he is young and is seen to fall into catalepsy, or an illness, he is believed to be the chosen one, the next shaman who will help the tribe and be their doctor against all ills and catastrophes. Many years after Massey's death field studies have been conducted into the ingestion of psychoactive drugs and hallucinogens in order to experience the same thing as the shaman. Carlos Castenada's books spring to mind, regardless of their fictitious origin. Michael Harner, Neville Drury, Terence McKenna, etc., are all neo-shamans exploring this mystical path in modern times. They have induced altered states to enter the otherworld. 'This is the supreme secret of all secrets in the gnosis of the most hidden mysteriesonly to be fathomed by those who could enter the abnormal conditions, and be as spirits among spirits.' (p. 202) Through direct experience of the gnosis, which can also be considered as a condition of mind, a reality in itself, is it possible to know all things because one becomes awakened, illuminated, enlightened. It is a spiritual awakening, a self-realisation, that transforms consciousness and promotes personal growth. 'It was by this transformation that our predecessors of thousands of years ago discovered their immortal soul, or link of continuity, through spirit-awakenment, produced consciously by various methods of attaining the trance conditions.' (p. 202) The shaman can be found in all cultures under whatever name. 'The earliest known form of the priest and the prophet was the medium, or seer.' (p. 202) And he could still be found in (and after) Massey's time in Siberia amongst the Tungus tribe. (See Eliade, op. cit.) 'Siberian shamanism is a survival of the most primitive kind of Spiritualism, based on mediumship and abnormal phenomena. It has no system of religion or ethics; no ritual, precepts, or dogmas; and no definite theology. The shaman can visit spiritworld, and the spirits can come to him, speak through him, or become visible at times through his presence.' (p. 203) That is a large claim but is relatively true, the spirits coming through in visions. 'We can adduce proof positive that immortality or continuity was originally demonstrated by means of these phenomena, and that in this way prehistoric man first found his enduring soul, because it was a common article of faith that only the chiefs, the seers, prophets, and kings of men, could or did obtain immortalitythat is, the men who demonstrated it.' (p. 204) These men were gifted because they had passed through the mysteries, had confronted death head on, and lived to tell the tale. The mysteries are a means of immortalising the human spirit. Having attained the gnosis, they knew. All of this was symbolised by the serpent as a type of elemental power, the giver of wisdom, the bestower of knowledge. Ophiolatreia, or worship of the serpent, had its beginnings in the dark continent. It is there that the ophite cults can be traced which would later find a new home in the West Indies and the cult of the obeah, or voodoo. 'Africa is the primordial home of the serpent-wisdom, and the serpent was there made use of to produce the abnormal condition in sensitives.' (p. 207) See the Typhonian Trilogy of Kenneth Grant on this. 'We are told that Cassandra and Helenus were prepared for seeing into the future by means of serpents that cleansed the passages of their sense by licking them.' (p. 207) Grant suggests that the serpent induced trance by licking the genitals of the pythoness or priestess, sending her into a form of magnetic sleep or somnambulism, occasioning the utterance of oracles. Whether this is correct or not, we are not told whereabouts they licked them in the mysteries. There are certain parts of the female anatomy which indeed are most susceptible to the tongue of the serpent, but Grant does not offer proof for his claim. He, like Massey, believes this knowledge was carried to the West Indies and forms part of the voodoo rites. 'This obeah cult still survives wherever the black race has migrated, and the root of the matter, which travellers have found so difficult to get at, is unearthed at last, as a most primitive kind of Spiritualism, in which the serpent acted the part of the mesmerist or magnetizer to the natural somnambules. This I personally learned from an initiate in the voodoo mysteries.' (p. 208) But he does not say who this was.

The tree that gives knowledge is a tree that bears fruit containing hallucinogens or trance inducing properties, and aids in spiritual illumination. Many accounts have now been written about the properties of certain plants, and even a whole book has been written about the Christ being a symbol of the sacred mushroom whose flesh when eaten induces trance. See The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross by John Allegro (1970), and also  Strange Fruit by Clark Heinrich (1995), amongst others. 'The serpent informs the woman that if she will eat of the fruit of the tree their eyes shall be opened, and they shall be as gods, knowing good from evil. And when the woman saw that it was a tree to be desired to make one wise, she did eat of it.' (p. 209) To be awakened means to reach spiritual illumination, a condition that could be induced by the ingestion of psychoactive plants. Through this illumination one experiences gnosis and becomes aware of the possibilities of immortality. This fact was represented by the Egyptians as the mummy, a type of immortality to which the deceased aspired. The making of the mummy would become the making of the Christ, for the anointing of the mummy with oils and balms is the same as the anointing of the Christ, from whence we get the word in Greek karast, which simply means anointed. This, over time, was corrupted as the karast or Christ 'in order that a delusive fiction might be forced upon the world.' (p. 217) To rid ourselves of this delusive fiction, Massey believes that we need a new form of Gnosticism or 'a new and more comprehensive and inclusive kind of Gnosticism, which shall be quite free and above board and open all round, is one of the crying wants of our age.' (p. 218)

9th lecture

This lecture is probably the most difficult to understand by Massey, but is largely a criticism of Sinnett's book, Esoteric Buddhism, attacking his stance as a Theosophist. Sinnett's view of himself is that he is the one who has been imparted with the mission to spread the word of the Mahatmas regarding the gnosis; it is a total misunderstanding of what had gone before. As Massey points out, this is not new, the knowledge is not sacred; it is as old as time itself, but due to its transmission being fumbled by many ignorant people, it has become convoluted and diluted, the original meaning lost. This is quite evident in the knowledge that man has seven souls, as can be substantiated by a brief perusal of ancient doctrines. 'The seven souls of man were not metaphysical 'concepts' at any time in the past. The doctrine belongs to primitive biology, or the physiology of the soul, which preceded the later psychology.' (p. 219) The souls, or parts of the soul, were known to ancient man, for he had seen them for himself. 'These were founded on facts of common perception, verifiable in nature; and we do not need those faculties of the occult adept 'which mankind at large has not yet evolved' in order that they may be apprehended.' (p. 219) This division into seven is a natural step for it is based on the seven elementary powers, as analogues, just as there are seven stars in Ursa Major, seven polestar changes, etc. This constituted the primordial seven and became established as the seven souls. 'The earliest forces recognised in Nature were reckoned as seven in number.' (p. 220) Seven became the mystical number par excellence. 'A principle of sevening, so to say, was introduced, and the number seven supplied a sacred type that could be used for manifold future purposes.' (p. 220) Thus seven souls will be found mapped out in any religion or primitive culture, as can be testified by an examination of the correlation between the seven souls listed in Egyptian eschatology and that of the Indian. These seven constitute an eighth because each one subsumes the other culminating in an eighth which can be compared to Christ as a type, or symbol, of unity on the spiritual plane; 'the seven souls are all summed up in an eighth.' (p. 234). To be Christ is to be perfect, or rather perfected, for all the souls or principles have been balanced out and unified in the eighth. The eighth is the whole man, and Christ is symbolised in some systems, like the modern Kabbalah, as number Eight. The parts of the soul are based on original types drawn from the outer environment; that which seems similar in the outer environment is used to symbolise an inner fact. Thus the shade (khaba) would be represented by that which covers or causes a shadow, as in the Egyptian sunshade, in a land that was hot, dry, and baked by the sun. The soul (ba) would be represented by a human-headed bird, for the bird signifies flight, freedom of movement, coupled with intellect.

The soul is sexless, neither male nor female, yet both at the same time, for it has not divided itself into opposites. This only happens upon descent into the material world, for there is an occult law that states whatever manifests on this plane automatically evokes its opposite. For example, you cannot have light without darkness, dry without wet, hot without cold, etc. Christ, as a symbol of a supreme soul, is essentially sexless, biune, for he has absorbed his projecting selves and risen above the plane of duality to become one. To become like Christ, his followers totally misinterpreted this doctrine and sought to unsex themselves like going for castration or celibacy rather than spiritual development. The mystical process of transformation is a re-absorption of the projecting selves and cancelling them out through the annihilation of opposites, and in some mysteries a bisexualising agent is used to perfect the body as a perfect complement to the unified soul.

Seven souls 'were identified in Egypt, and may be formulated as(1) the Soul of Blood, (2) the Soul of Breath, (3) the Shade or Covering Soul, (4) the Soul of Perception, (5) the Soul of Pubescence, (6) the Intellectual Soul, (7) the Spiritual Soul. .... But because the primitive and archaic man recognised and laid hold of seven elements, one after another, in the shape of form, breath, corporeal soul, perception, pubescent soul, intellectual soul, and an enduring soul, as a mode of identifying his physical elements and mental qualitiesthat does not make him resolvable into a number of elementary spirits after death, as if falsely imagined and maintained by the esoteric Buddhists.' (p. 231)

The  Christians are not the only ones who misinterpreted the types. 'The esoteric Buddhists, like the primitive Christians, have been beguiled by the typology which they have failed to interpret.' (p. 232) Man has never lost all of his souls. 'There never was a time when the adult male did not possess at least five of the seven principles or soulsthose of blood, breath, shade, perception, and the animal soulhowsoever small his intellect may have been.' (p. 232) As Christ was symbolised by the eighth so also was the Buddha; the 'eighth is also represented by the Buddha, who is the manifestor for the seven Buddhas, or Manus, and by the gnostic Christ ...the gnostic account of the Christ as the eighth one, in whom the seven souls culminated.' (p. 234) Whether Christ or Buddha, both have their origins in Horus. 'It is positively provable that the Christ is but a type identical with the Horus, the Iao-Heptaktis, the Buddha or Pan of the prior cultus.' (p. 237) As Christ was a symbol of Perfection, so was the esoteric Buddha. 'The Christ or Buddha of the Gnostics could not become flesh once for all, as he was the supreme outcome and consummate flower of all flesh, in the culminating stage of spiritual attainment in life, and spiritual apparition after death.' (p. 237) Both represent an immortal principle, a principle that can be projected beyond the body. 'The art of leaving the body was common to the old dark races, and is practised by the rudest indigenes of many lands.' (p. 238)

Astral projection is proof enough that the soul lives beyond the death of the physical body. If consciousness can be projected out of the body, then the body is nothing but an anchor in which the soul is housed, or enfleshed. Out of the body experiences are not delusions or hallucinations. They do not happen to the mentally ill, the sick, or mad: they happen to normal, sane, rational people. It is a veritable fact that everyone experiences this so-called supernatural phenomenon, the only problem is most of us are asleep at the time when it happens and therefore are not conscious of it. This is because the psychic censor shuts down consciousness in order for the astral body to leave the physical and move into its own realm to be recharged. This process feeds the body with subtle energy as a revitalising principle, especially to the subtle centres of the body that cannot get nourishment from physical food. This transference of energy from the astral plane to the physical is like a stream (of images) flowing into the body through the brain which interprets it subconsciously as dreams, for the energy transference is processed through the mind, stimulating and activating certain parts of the brain, and likewise having an affect on the cerebral cortex which controls sight. Thus the eyes are seen to be moving rapidly during these deep-dream states when the astral body is fully projected. If you should wake somebody when they are in this state of REM they will jolt like they have been given an electric shock. This is because the astral body is suddenly forced back into the physical, causing the physical body to shudder. Try it on your partner when he or she is dreaming and see it for yourself.

It has been clinically proved in test cases that subjects deprived of the deep dream state of sleep over several nights will start to hallucinate, and if continued indefinitely they will show all the signs of insanity. Thus this stage of sleep is essential to our well being. Why? because the astral needs to project and be recharged. There is another proof of this necessity: A man can survive without food for several weeks until eventually dying of starvation. But if you deprive him of sleep for ten consecutive days he will die. Again, because the astral needs to project. And lucid dreams, dreams of flying, of experiencing rich and wondrous landscapes, is exactly due to this. The Egyptians were the masters of astral projection. They practised mummification on the living as well as the dead. Mummification on the living is akin to sensory deprivation; it induces a trance state conducive for projection.

The trick with astral projection is to bypass the psychic censor so that you remain conscious during the projection. Then you will see for yourself, albeit from a different perspective, it is possible to be outside of the body like a soul or ghost; then you will know that death is but an illusion. 'In comparison with those who know because they see that there is a continuity of existence beyond the change called death, because they have the faculty to perceive the dead as living phantasms embodied in a rarer form, we are all of us on the blind side of things! They know because they see; and we deny because we do not know.' (p. 239) As we have seven souls, or parts of the soul, so there were seven stages in the development of the gnosis, 'because the gnosis of the Mysteries was at least sevenfold in its natureit was elemental, biological, elementary (human), stellar, lunar, solar, and spiritual.' (p. 239)

'The Egyptian Ritual represents the drama of the doctrinal developments relating to the passage of the deceased, with his trials and transformations in the underworld, which furnished the matter of the later mysteries, including the Greek, Mithraic, and Christian.' (p. 239) The Book of the Dead is a manual for the deceased, a guide of the ways of the Duat, so that he may find his way through the maze of consciousness towards the light and attain immortality. 'Seven zootypes having been adopted to represent seven elements in external nature, these or their equivalents were continued to express the seven elements or souls in man.' (p. 241) But this fact was literalised. 'That is, the mode or representation, which was only true as fable, has been moralized and made false in fact. An ancient mode of expression has become a modern mould of thought.' (p. 245) 'I began to see how the primary 'types' of thought were originated of necessity, and for use; how they became the signs of expression in language and mythology; and how theology, by its perversions and misrepresentations, has instituted a reign of error throughout the whole domain of religion,' (p. 246) and continues his tirade against such misrepresentations, 'I am opposed to all manmade mystery, and all kinds of false belief.' (p. 248) Such fabrications as Christianity can no longer be tolerated. 'Mystery has been called the mother of abominations, but the abominations themselves are the superstitions, the rites and ceremonies, the dogmas, doctrines, delusive idealisms, and unjust laws that have been falsely founded on the ancient mysteries by ignorant literalization and esoteric misinterpretation!' (p. 248)

9th lecture (continued)

In response to more criticism, Massey continues his lecture with a rebuttal of the claims made against him by eminent Egyptologists and Assyriologists who deem his work as a mass of ignorance and crude speculation. That Massey has the effrontery to take on the likes of Sayce and Coleman, who are noted authorities in their fields, goes to show how firm he is in his own convictions. He does not mince words when it comes to pointing out their intellectual defects and the misunderstanding of their own source material.

It is another point in Massey's favour that he does not shirk from quoting directly such heavy-handed remarks against himself; this is indeed ammunition for which he is more than capable of throwing back. He even has the temerity to accuse Renouf, a noted authority connected with the British Museum, for making such remarks, but wisely leaves it up to the reader's own judgement to decide. A central tenet of his own philosophy is summed up in the following sentence; 'They must find it hard to take Truth for authority who have so long mistaken Authority for Truth.' (p. 250) And attacks them for their Christian stance because they cannot rid themselves of their adherence to biblical doctrines which cloud their own judgement. 'I had already warned my readers that they must expect little help from those Egyptologists and Assyriologists who are bibliolaters first and scholars afterwards. Bibliolatry puts out the eye of scholarship or causes confirmed strabismus.' (p. 250) He continues to demonstrate that most people who read his work misunderstand it, or tend to get hold of the wrong end of the stick, and proves how futile and shallow his critics' understanding really is.

As I stated in one of my essays, Massey sought to use whatever texts were available, and tried to rely on the best versions, including the Book of the Dead; not only Birch's translation, but also Renouf's and others. And to prove it, I have provided these so that Massey's reader's can see for themselves that he has not deviated from the text or misconstrued it to suit his own purposes. He also shows that he can be self-effacing. 'He has an irritating itch for recognition, or notoriety, but has shown no sign of possessing, or being possessed by, the genuine passion for truth. Like an incipient Herostratus or Guiteauthe fellow who culminated as a fool gone insane with vanityhe would do anything to be talked about, or written toeven commit Massey-creif he were only able.' (p. 256) He is able to laugh in the face of adversity, showing that he can take criticism without bitter recriminations. 'You may transcribe texts and decipher inscriptions, but with the light shut out all round by non-application of the comparative method, and from lack of illumination within, you cannot touch the Egyptian origins in mythology or language, time or space, or interpret the mystery of Egypt to her own forgetful self.' (p. 257) That is a very bold statement for Massey to make against such authorities, but it also goes to show that he is illuminated from within and this light pervades his work. Lastly, he repeats something that is essential to understanding his work; 'Mythology was a primitive mode of thinging the early thought; the beginnings of its sign-language being earlier than words.' (p. 258)

10th Lecture

In this, the last of his lectures, Massey attempts to adumbrate a new religion based on Truth. It is not the easiest of his lectures to read for it is verbose and prolix, and glimpses of his poetical self cannot help but hinder what he is really saying, for he does go on somewhat.

Basically, he is saying he now has greater clarity of perception, enabling him to bottom the most obscure truths, and we need the same clarity of perception in order to see Truth. 'And what we do find is that the so-called 'Revealed Religion' is simply unrevealed mythology, and that a spurious system of salvation was proffered to those who would accept the ancient mythology transmogrified into historic Christianity, and be bribed into changing their old lamps for new ones.' (p. 262) Faith substituted for knowledge has hindered man's progress ever since. 'Eighteen centuries since the religion of faith, the 'good old faith,' began to take the place of knowledge. Its history is one long and gory record of the battles of Belief versus Knowledge, of Faith at war with Facts.' (p. 265) Even today, when science refutes the biblical dogmas, men still cling to faith, refusing to believe what their eyes see or their ears hear.

He believes in a world rid of Christianity, where women have equal rights as men, where the poor are no longer downtrodden and oppressed, a world in which Truth reigns. What rankles Massey is clearly borne out in this lecture, delivery calumny upon calumny against the false belief which has for so long held the world in check, a bondage to slavish ideas and beliefs, now to be set free with the light of reason and truth, and through proper understanding.

The Christian uses fear to immobilise his listener by preaching the consequences of sin; the sinner will be punished in hell if he does not come over to the side of Christ. The Christian utters caveats of wrath, woe betidings, misery to those too poor or too weak to argue back or question authority. The weak are vulnerable and easy to placate, believing in faith rather than knowledge. And this is how the Church has grown over the last 2000 odd years. And so he ends up a weakened, cowering wreck of a man whose only hope is that he has a good death and will be blessed in the hereafter. Christianity does not teach a man how to live in this life, but rather how to prepare for death, for life is a disease that can only be cured by a good death (i.e., dying with remission of sins). 'Religion, for ages, has been a reign of terror, under the oppression of which it was impossible for so tender a flower as love to flourish.' (p. 267) Christianity sought to thwart all that was natural, instinctual. 'The founders of historic Christianity began with an utterly false theory of life. They mistook the anti-physical for the spiritual; the anti-natural for the divine.' (p. 267) The rest of this lecture is a rant, a tirade against Christianity. 'The religion, founded on misunderstood and perverted mythology, has made everything wrong, and nothing short of an utter reversal, with all Nature for our guide and on our side, can set us right.' (p. 270) 'Whereas Nature says, be happy here and now, by learning the laws of healthindividual, social, political, universal; by getting rid of all opposing falsehood, and establishing the true conditions for evolving health and happiness everywhere for all .... The Christ of the Gnostics was a true ideal, possible to all men. But an historic Christ is a false ideal.....The god-man of the Gnostics was not a man-god, but the god or divine nature in man, which represented the spiritual image of the Invisible God, the formless in our human form; not in our human form of individual personality as an historical Christ, or Horus, or Buddha.' (p. 271) 'Meanwhile, the Church that continues to put forth this scheme of salvation and impose it on the public at the expense of the nation (some eight or ten millions annually!) ought not only to be disestablished and disendowed, it ought to be prosecuted for obtaining money on demonstrably false pretences!' (p. 273)

Massey does not give an alternative to Christianity or a replacement that could be called a new religion. But he does suggest that we align ourselves with Nature, for it is only through understanding Nature that we can understand ourselves and therefore progress. The ruling principle in Nature is Intelligence, and it to this we should appeal.

Spiritualism may point the way. Also, his religion, or idea of a religion, would consist in the rights granted to all workers, an end to poverty and slave wages, an equality for women in all matters, whether political or social, and a democracy for all those who have the power to vote. This sounds like nothing new, but it has to be borne in mind the time when it was written, when there was plenty of social injustice, poverty, squalor, disease, no proper health care system, and the repression of women which would result in the suffragettes a couple of decades later. (For a glimpse of the kind of world he lived in, see any documentary on Jack the Ripper, who was committing his crimes around the time Massey was giving these lectures.) This is Massey at his most humane, knowing that he comes from a meek and humble background, what we could call working class. He does not attempt to be rebellious by overthrowing the whole state or smashing the system; he puts man at the centre of the universe for man is ultimately responsible for the state of it.

'The religion of the future has got to include not only spiritualism, but the salvation of humanity for this lifeany other may be left to follow hereafter. It has to be a sincerity of life, in place of pretended belief. A religion of science, in place of superstition. Of joy, instead of sorrow. Of man's ascent, instead of his fall. A religion of fact in the present, and not of mere faith for the future. A religion in which the temple reared to God will be in human form, instead of being built of brick or stone. A religion of work, rather than worship; and, in place of the deathly creeds, with all their hungry parasites of prey, a religion of lifelife actual, life here, life now, as well as the promise of life everlasting.' (p. 286)

Massey, if anything, lived in hope. And it is this hope that drove him to prove conclusively throughout his tireless work the cancerous growth of Christianity was malignant and not benign, that it would thwart our growth if it was not rooted out once and for all.

Ancient Egypt, the Light of the World

This, his last work, was written over a long and protracted period of time during which Massey suffered many difficulties, personal and financial afflictions, suffering from ill-health and decrepitude; it was published shortly before his death. Despite that, it is a magnificent work because here he is able to demonstrate that what he was groping for in the previous works are now fully in his grasp, and he can thus write with clarity and deeper understanding. It is a book that every man, woman, or child should read, and be forced to read, for it makes you realise how shallow most people's knowledge really is, how deeply wrong are their convictions, how false the beliefs paraded as facts are, how utterly contemptible the Christian religion really is.

Like the previous works, Massey in this one continues to examine the possibility that everything we believe in has roots in the far-off remote past, and that ancient Egypt is the source of all our knowledge. It is a work of reclamation, an attempt to bring back to the surface that which was lost, hidden, converted, corrupted over time, which in turn led to erroneous beliefs, false assertions and a complete misinterpretation through the lost language of symbolism. Again, his focus is on types, and their correlations in various cultures.

The restitution spoken of in the subtitle is the restoring of this lost knowledge or gnosis. But this can only come about through a proper analysis of all the fragmentary data, and a tabulation of the results. It was an enormous task he set himself, and it is no wonder that it took him so long to write, hardly scratching the surface by the time he finished. It is the exceptional labour that not only made his life worth living, but also the one for which he will be justly regarded, credited by those who fully appreciate his work.

Book 1

This first book can be seen as a continuation of the article he originally published in the National Review nearly twenty years previously, Myth and Totemism as Primitive Modes of Representation. He starts with an anecdote about a boy's fascination for the waves of the sea and how, or who, creates them. In an infantile manner he sees the manifestation of a cause, but does not understand the cause, hence his incomprehension. Massey uses this as an example because children are not innocent, they are simply ignorant, and like the primitive folk, they reveal their lack of understanding cause and effect by the wrong application, instead substituting a hidden power to the cause, which, in the primitive mind, could be personalised and given a name, an arbitrary power endowed with a supernatural force and thus divinized as a god.

Massey is not so small-minded as to suggest primitive man was simple like the child in his story, but posits it here as an example of how the mind of primitive man has been misunderstood. The earliest thinkers, groping in the dark, did not give a human shape, to such phenomena, as anthropologists believe. He cites several authorities who start off with this misassumption and demonstrates how they have not comprehended why the rise of types came about. ''Myth-making man' did not create the gods in his own image.' (p. 2) The original types were based on animals as can be evinced by the animal types preponderating in the Egyptian mythology. 'They are the likenesses of powers that were superhuman, not human.' (p. 2) Because animals seemed to possess powers man did not have; they were symbolised as super-human. 'A huge mistake has hitherto been made in assuming that the myth-makers began by fashioning the nature-powers in their own human likeness. Totemism was formulated by myth-making man with types that were the very opposite of human, and in mythology the anthropomorphic representation was preceded by the whole menagerie of totemic zootypes.' (p. 2)  'The force of the element was equated by the power of the animal.' (p. 2) 'And in this way the gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt were at first portrayed as superhuman powers by means of living superhuman types.' (p. 2) Early man did not have the intellectual apparatus to formulate elaborate concepts, suffering from mental poverty and a poverty of language. He simply used what was at hand. 'Primitive or Palaeolithic man was too beggarly poor in possessions to dream of shaping the superhuman powers of nature in the human likeness.' (p. 3) Animals provided him with a means of communication; 'the zoomorphic mode of representation as the sign-language of totemism and mythology. On every line of research we discover that the representation of nature was preanthropomorphic at first, as we see on going back far enough, and on every line of descent the zoomorphic passes ultimately into the human representation.' (p. 3) Primitive man did not pontificate on absolutes, he did not have to to conjure up a god, or make vague philosophical fancies; he simply based his ideas on his perceptions and what he saw, using the comparative method in the process to formulate a theory. The gods came about later, animals came first for they were there with the eyes to see, the ears to hear. 'They could only apprehend the nature-forces by their effects, and try to represent these by means of other powers that were present in nature, but which were also necessarily superior to the human and were not the human faculties indefinitely magnified.' (p. 4) He was informed by his natural surroundings. 'The tree, for example, is a type, but the type is not necessarily an object of worship, as misunderstood by those who do not read the types when these are rooted in the ground of natural fact.' (p. 4) And this is traceable through the tribes of Africa who still have fragments of the gnosis in their possession. 'The same mythical mode of representing nature that was probably extant in Africa 100,000 years ago survives today amongst races who are no longer the producers of the myths and märchen than they are of language itself. Egyptian mythology is the oldest in the world, and it did not begin as an explanation of natural phenomena, but as a representation by such primitive means as were available at the time.' (p. 5) Mythology was based on natural facts, on a like for like basis, or a ''representation on the ground of likeness,' which led to all the forms of sign-language that could ever be employed.' (p. 5) This was the origin of types. 'It was the same here as in external nature the animals came first, and the predecessors of man are primary in sign-language, mythology, and totemism.' (p. 5) This was long anterior to patriarchy, probably in the stellar phase of man's development when 'there could be no divine father in heaven until the fatherhood was individualised on earth.' (p. 6) That came much later. This was even before the division of sexes. 'The elements of air, earth, water, fire, darkness and light are of no sex, and the powers first recognised in them, whether as destructive or beneficent, are consequently without sex.' (p. 6) As man could not see the powers that moved the world he had to give them an appearance. 'Masks were applied to the face of nature in the endeavour to feature and visibly present some likeness of the operative elemental forces and manifesting powers of air, fire, water, earth, thunder and lightning, darkness and dawn, eclipse and earthquake, sandstorm or the drowning waters of the dark. But these masks were zoomorphic, not human.' (p. 6) The powers were pictorialised. 'They were adopted as primitive ideographs. They were adopted for use and consciously stamped for their representative value, not ignorantly worshipped; and thus they became the coins as it were in the current medium of exchange for the expression of primitive thought or feeling.' (p. 6) 'Sign-language includes the gesture-signs by which the mysteries were danced or otherwise dramatised in Africa by the pygmies and bushmen; in totemism, in fetishism, and in hieroglyphic symbols; very little of which language has been read by those who are continually treading water in the shallows of the subject without ever touching bottom or attaining foothold in the depths..' (p. 6) The best example of this fact is the writing of the Egyptians as symbols of things. 'The Egyptian hieroglyphics show us the connection between words and things, also between sounds and words, in a very primitive range of human thought.' (p. 6) Most of the glyphs are made up of animals for they represent powers; the power to transform would be ascribed to a frog for it changes from tadpole to frog; anger would be ascribed to the aggressive ape; the crocodile with its wide gaping maw would represent darkness as swallower of the sun, etc. 'The original records still suffice to show that the physical agencies or forces first perceived were not conceived or mentally embodied in the human likeness, and that external nature offered no looking-glass for the human face.' (p. 8)

'It has now to be shown how the mythical mode of representing natural phenomena was based upon this primitive system of thought and expression, and how the things that were thought and expressed of old in this language constitute the primary stratum of what is called 'mythology' today.' (p. 9) The gnosis had its fullest expression in ancient Egypt. 'It is the present writer's contention that the wisdom of the Ancients was the wisdom of Egypt, and that her explanation of the zootypes employed in sign-language, totemism, and mythology holds good wherever the zootypes survive.' (p. 10) Sign-language represented things and 'was from the beginning a substitution of similars for the purpose of expression by primitive or preverbal man, who followed the animals in making audible sounds accompanied and emphasised by human gestures.' (p. 10) Man, being awe-struck by natural phenomena, would naturally represent them by types that were zoomorphic. 'Mythical representation did not begin with 'stories of human adventure,' nor with human figures at all, but with the phenomena of external nature, that were represented by means of animals, birds, reptiles and insects, which had demonstrated the possession of superhuman faculties and powers.' (p. 14) 'Modern popular superstition to a large extent is the ancient symbolism in its second childhood.' (p. 15)

Massey believes that even corrupt fables and tales could yield the gnosis if interpreted correctly. 'Folklore in many lands is the final fragmentary form in which the ancient wisdomthe wisdom of old Egyptstill survives as old wives fables, parables, riddles, allegorical sayings, and superstitious beliefs, consecrated by the ignorance which has taken the place of primitive knowledge concerning the mythical mode of representation.' (p. 17) He goes on to discuss types found in various mythologies, and their universal relevance to the originating source, like the frog, in another phase, being a type of darkness, drought, etc. 'Egyptian mythology, and all it signifies, lies between the Aryan or other folktales and primitive man.' (p. 23) It is only through the Egyptian lens that these folktales of other nations make sense. 'Whereas in the Ritual the representation is still preserved and repeated accurately according to knowledge. The mythos passes into the folktale, not the folktale into the mythos.' (p. 23) Much later, when the informing spark of light that informed the tales was lost 'the wisdom was no longer taught in the mysteries' and 'the gnosis naturally lapsed. The myth became a folktale or a legend of the nursery.' (p. 24)

'It is a cardinal tenet of the present work that the Aryan märchen and European folklore were derived from the Egyptian mythology.' (p. 24) And he attempts to prove this throughout the rest of his work. 'Again and again the Egyptian mythos furnishes a prototype that will suffice to account for a hundred folktales.' (p. 26) Again, primitive peoples did not understand the mechanics of sex. 'This [the bastard] is a phrase in later language to describe the boy whose birth was matriarchal when the father was unknown individually.' (p. 26) 'This origin of our folklore may be found a hundred times over in the 'wisdom' of old Egypt.' (p. 27) They 'preserved for us and bequeathed the means of interpreting this typology of the early sign-language. The primitive consciousness or knowledge which has lapsed or got confused in inner Africa, or Australia, India, or Greece, lived on and left its record in their system of signs,' (p. 33) and 'also preserved the primitive consciousness together with the clue to this most ancient knowledge, with its symbolic methods of communication, and that they converted the living types into the later lithographs and hieroglyphics.' (p. 33) The same could be said of the aborigines 'who do not mistake the facts of nature as we have mistaken the primitive method of representing them. It is we, not they, who are the most deluded victims of false belief.' (p. 33) Again, speculation formed little of primitive man's thinking. He 'was not a metaphysician, but a man of common sense.' (p. 34)

'Modern ignorance of the mythical mode of representation has led to the ascribing of innumerable false beliefs not only to primitive men and present day savages, but also to the most learned, enlightened, and highly civilized people of antiquity, the Egyptian; for had these natural impossibilities been believed the Egyptians must have shared the same mental confusion, the same manifest delusion concerning nature, the same incapacity for distinguishing one thing from another, as the pygmy or the Papuan.' (p. 34) And again, it 'is in such ways as this the wisdom of old Egypt will enable us to read the most primitive sign-language and to explicate the most ancient typical customs, because it contains the gnosis or science of the earliest wisdom in the world .... This type of language, speech, the word, the mouth, the tongue, carries us back to the pre-lingual clickers, and establishes the link between them and the clicking ape in tracing the origin and line of descent for human speech.' (p. 39)

Primitive man imitated the sounds of animals, with later adaptations this evolved into recognisable speech. 'Such were two of the sayers in the language of animals, as zootypes, as pictographs of ideas; as likenesses of nature-powers; as words, syllables, and letters; and what they said is to be read in totemism, astronomy, and mythology: in the primitive symbolism of the aborigines, and in the mystical types and symbols now ignorantly claimed to be Christian.' (p. 40) Man was not first. He 'was preceded by the animals, birds, and reptiles, who were the utterers of pre-verbal sounds that were repeated and continued by him for his cries and calls, his interjections and exclamations, which were afterwards worked up and developed as the constituents of later words in human speech into a thousand forms of language..' (p. 40) Borrowing these sounds he began to utter by way of imitation. 'The shaping of primary into fully developed sounds, and continuing these in words, was the work of the dawning human intelligence.' (p. 42) The Egyptian hieroglyphs were originally based on primitive zootypes, hence the abundance of animals in the phonetic alphabet.

Book 2

In the second book Massey discusses the origins and significance of totemism and fetishism, and their relation to tattooing and other forms of bodily adornment, being based on the primitive types. The tattoo served as a mark of identification for a tribe or clan, and was used extensively by primitive man in the ceremony of young-man-making, the ceremonial marks or tattoos signifying that the lad had come of age and could now be considered a man. It was a rite of passage.

Today, of course, tattooing has lost such significance and is used mainly for bodily decoration. The so-called modern primitives who do go for tattoos are not doing it as a mark of distinction; the tattooist is not doing it for ceremony but for profit and commercial gain. Body piercing, now very common among our younger folk, is again purely for decoration, mostly upon the upper body; piercings in the lower body parts serving also perhaps to enhance sexual pleasure. All forms of piercing without pain and ceremonial initiation are redundant and bear little relation to the primitive mode of representation.

'Ceremonial rites were established as the means of memorizing facts in sign-language when there were no written records of the human past.' (p. 46) This was at the early stage. He discusses the rites and ceremonies of initiation as exhibited by the Arunta of Central Australia because they have so faithfully preserved the primitive mode, and understanding these rites helps us to understand the significance of the earlier types upon which they are based. 'They tend to show that the shapes and sounds and movements of the totemic animals were imitated in the primeval pantomime by way of proclaiming the clan to which the particular group belonged. The totemic type was thus figured to sight in gesture-language before it could be known by name.' (p. 48) 'Thus, sign-language, totemism and mythology were not merely modes of representation. They were also the primitive means of preserving the human experience in the remoter past of which there could be no written record.' (p. 49) The best example of body language is dancing as 'being one of the earliest modes of primitive sign-language.' (p. 49) Going back to what he said previously, 'It is now quite certain that speech was preceded by a language of animal cries, accompanied by human gestures because, like the language of the clickers, it is yet extant with the aborigines, amongst whom the language-makers may yet be heard and seen at work in the prehuman way.' (p. 49) The clicks, which are barely audible, are remnants of the primitive means of communication.

Totemism was, in Massey's time, a fairly new science, with few actually understanding its real significance. Freud even wrote about it in his work Totem and Taboo, and Frazer's Totemism was a very early attempt in 1900. 'The earliest formation of human society which can be distinguished from the gregarious horde with its general promiscuity of intercourse between the sexes is now beginning to be known by the name of totemism, a word only heard the other day.' (p. 51) But Massey believed it could yield the gnosis. 'It is in totemism only that we can trace the natural genesis of various doctrines and dogmas that have survived to be looked upon as a divine revelation especially vouchsafed to later times, in consequence of their having been continued as religious mysteries without the guidance of the primitive gnosis.' (p. 52) And by 'totemism we mean the earliest formation of society in which the human group was first discreted from the gregarious horde that grovelled together previously in animal promiscuity.' (p. 52) Thus totemism was a means of distinguishing one tribe from another, one person from another. 'Totemism originated in sign-language rather than in sociology, the signs being afterwards applied for use in sociology as they were in mythology and fetishism.' (p. 53) So ancient was totemism in Egypt that the sings of the totems passed into the names of the nomes. 'Totemism really originated in the sign-language of inner Africa.' (p. 55) Then found expression in Egypt. 'Totemism, however, does not imply any worship of animals on the part of primitive men.' (p. 58) 'How ever ancient the mythical mode of representing external nature, some sort of sociology must have preceded mythology and been expressed in sign-language.' (p. 58)

Again, he emphasises, 'At a very early stage the boys became the consorts of the mother. When of age they would enter into connubium with her, the eldest being first. Incest at the time was naturally unknown, it being the same with them as with the animals. This status is reflected in the mirror of mythology. For example, there is evidence that the eldest son was the earliest representative or outline of a father and that he cohabited with his own mother on purpose to keep pure the mother-blood.' (p. 59) And the most recognisable indicator of the girl was the onset of her menses. 'When the female had attained pubescence and become of age the opening period, as it is commonly designated, was proclaimed, and confirmation given in various modes of sign-language. The fact was tattooed on the person. A cicatrice was raised in the flesh. Down was exhibited as a sign of the pubes.' (p. 60) Her period was given mystical significance. (To help understand this, read The Wise Wound by Shuttle and Redgrove, which discusses the myths and taboos associated with menstruation.)

The totem also denoted the bloodline of the mother. 'Egyptian mythology is a mirror of totemism from the beginning with the human mother who was the primal parent. And as it was in totemism so is it in the mythology and eschatology of Egypt. In the beginning was the Great Mother, because the first person recognised in totemism was the mother.' (p. 64) Eating the flesh and drinking the blood of the mother, as a totemic type, is identical with the rite of the Last Supper. The blood and flesh of Christ has been substituted in the mysteries for the original type.

Massey supposes that the reason the swine and the cow were forbidden food by Jew and Hindu was that each animal represented a type, a zootype of the mother, who in a later phase of sociology became forbidden to eat, and this passed on as a totemic  mystery, without the original reason being fully understood. What was once natural became unnatural with the inculcation of taboos. 'Descent from the mother was represented by descent from the totem. Thus, if the totem were a cow, and it was said in a mystery, thou shalt not eat of the cow, when it was intended to repudiate the primitive practice, the command would, signify in sign-language, 'Thou shalt not eat the mother.' She was now forbidden food, whether as the cow, the sow, the emu, or the tree, the same as with the red calf, which represented the child.' (p. 82) 'The only veritable power of metamorphosis possessed by the ancient medicine men or mages, the witches or wizards, was that of inducing the condition of trance either in others or in themselves. This was and is a fact in nature with which the primitive races were profoundly well acquainted. But those who are ignorant of such phenomena will be apt to mistake a surface appearance for the underlying reality, and must find it difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish between the true cause and a false belief.' (p. 92) 'First, the men who ate the flesh of the beast had changed themselves into wolves to eat it, according to the mode of masking. Next it was said that by eating human flesh men would become werewolves, and lastly we have the werewolf as a man who is supposed to turn into the wolf on purpose to devour human flesh. Such are the tricks of typology, based on the primitive simplicity and the agnostic misinterpretation of later times when the mythos passes into the fable which deposits these types of the werewolf, the mermaid, the cockatrice, the serpent-woman, the vampire, or the ghoul.' (p. 93) The total misapplication of this transformative power would be the transubstantiation of the Christ whose flesh the eating thereof transformed the eater into Christ. 'The art of tattooing was likewise a totemic mode of sign-language.' (p. 95) But 'before the art of tattoo had been mastered it was the custom to cut the flesh and raise cicatrices to pattern.' (p. 95) And this custom can still be found in some African cultures. 'The custom of tattooing the totemic token upon the body may be traced in survival through all the later mysteries as a mode of identifying the initiates with their particular community.' (p. 95) It can also be found in Egypt. 'Even the raising of cicatrices in the flesh which preceded tattooing was an Egyptian custom.' (p. 96) 'Totemism is not derived from mythology, but it has been mixed up with it because the same sign-language was employed in both.' (p. 96) Religion was founded on the mother. 'The earliest religion, so to call it, was a cultus of the mother who was propitiated as the 'Only One' who was in the beginning. This was the primal providence or provider as the Great Mother, the Mother-earth, who was invoked with offerings of blood for food and drink. In Egypt she was given several characters. She was Abt; Khebt, or Ta-Urt, the hippopotamus-headed; Rerit, or Shaat, the many-teated sow; Hathor, the cow; Rannut, the serpent-woman, and others related to the phenomena of external nature as the source of life, of food and water.' (p. 98) 'There is 'aye a something' that shows the stage of the beginning is still extant as inner African, from which the thought and symbolism of Egypt were developed.' (p. 99)

He discusses at great length the origins of vulva-worship, or any natural object representing the feminine abode, and this would relate to the idea of the mother as giver of source, or food, and the earth, as the giver of food, would signify the mother-earth, which came first. (There is an interesting short film of a tribe impregnating mother-earth by digging a hole in the hillside with a pole, and penetrating it with their penises in the belief that this will bring forth abundant crops, making the earth more fruitful. See the clip in the film 'Savage Man, Savage Beast.')

Sexual rites have as their origin the need to supplicate the mother-earth, engaged in by women promiscuously to propitiate her and give a fruitful harvest. ''Phallic worship' originated in the cult of the motherhood. It was the mother who was honoured; her body and blood were sacredly eaten in the primitive eucharist, if not as an act of adoration, it was an act of primitive homage and affection.' (p. 109) Fetishism, like totemism, is little understood. 'By fetishism the present writer means the reverent regard for amulets, talismans, mascots, charms, and luck-tokens that were worn or otherwise employed as magical signs of protecting power. Fetishism has been classified as the primal, universal religion of mankind.' (p. 111) 'On the contrary, we consider the so-called 'fetishes' to be a residual result of sign-language and totemism, and do not look on fetishism as an organized religious cult.' (p. 111)

The transformation of the manes into different animals is a harking back to the original types and subsuming their powers in a form of atavism. (The artist-magician Austin Osman Spare called this technique 'Atavistic Resurgence,' bringing back into consciousness the power of the animals he invoked.) Animals were seen to be superhuman. They embody the powers that the deceased desires. That is because on the plastic, malleable plane (i.e. the astral), it is possible to mould the power into a beast-shape and thus absorb it into yourself. The living person does not think he will become that animal upon death, he simply knows that in the state of death the consciousness becomes plastic and thus can conform to the type of power represented by the animal. In astral projection it is possible to do this whilst still alive, although outside of the body temporarily. It is the same with the manes, now permanently out of the body. 'In this passage the deceased transforms into these zootypes of the nature powers in order that he may go where the merely human faculties would fail to carry him through. He assumes their power by wearing representative images or fetishesby impersonation of their parts and by incorporation of these potencies which are beyond the human, and therefore superhuman.' (p. 114) Magical systems employ passages of the Ritual for use on the astral to help invoke the desired god-form; the magician takes on the powers of the animal invoked. 'The fetishes acquired their sacred character, not as objects of worship, but from what they had represented in sign-language; and the meaning still continued to be acted when the language was no longer read.' (p. 119)

'Many simplicities of the early time have now become the mysteries of later ignorance, and we are made the victims of the savage customs bequeathed by primitive or prehistoric man, now clung to as sacred in our current superstition. It was a knowledge of these and kindred matters of the ancient mysteries that once made sacred the teachers of men, whereas it is the most complete ignorance of the natural beginnings that characterizes the priestly caste today concerning the primitive customs which still survive and dominate both men and women in the fetishism which has become hereditary now.' (p. 119)

Book 3

Passing on to the next stage of sociological development, Massey now discusses how elemental powers became spirits, and through religion, became ancestors or spirits of ancestors, and were worshipped. This would then lead to the much later stage of development; the birth of deities. But preliminarily totemism and fetishism would have come first.

Massey is really here taking on a theological debate about how the nature of religion could have evolved, based on his theory of the origin of natural types and their emergence from the primary source which he posits as being in the region of central Africa, or inner Africa, and then finding its fullest expression in the civilisation of Egypt which 'alone preserved the primitive gnosis, and gave expression to it in the language of signs and symbols as mouthpiece of the old dark land.' (p. 120) He enunciates the stages as: 'The first were elemental powers divinized. The second are the spirits of human ancestors, commonly called the ancestral spirits. The present object is to trace the origin of both, and to distinguish between the one and the other, so as to discriminate elsewhere between the two kinds of spirits, with the Egyptian wisdom for our guide.' (p. 120) This gnosis, as I have already discussed, is the central tenet of Massey's philosophy. Once fully understood it makes sense of everything. And it is only his detractors who refuse to acknowledge it because it would mean having to shift their paradigms, indeed their whole perspective. In fact, Massey was very perspicacious and had a greater insight into how religion really evolved compared with some so-called theologists of his time. 'The Egyptians entertained no doubt about the existence, the persistence, or the personality of the human spirit or ghost of man.' (p. 121) They did not see death as an end, only a beginning. 'The gods are superhuman powers, whether elemental or astronomical. The glorified are the souls once mortal which were propitiated as the spirit-ancestors, here called the manes of the dead.' (p. 121)

The Egyptians realised that death was just another change, and that the spirit moved on through the gate of death, and that knowing the Ritual enabled the manes to move along the right path in the otherworld. They did not worship the dead; they respected the dead because they knew they too would have to live on in the same way upon the death of the body, and wished the same respect from successive generations. The gods represented superhuman powers, not men divinized. Early man 'did not make his gods in his own image, for the human likeness is, we repeat, the latest that was applied to the gods or nature-powers.' (p. 121) 'Egyptian mythology was founded on facts which had been closely observed in the ever-recurring phenomena of external nature, and were then expressed in the primitive language of signs.' (p. 121) 'The transformation of an elemental power into a god can be traced, for example, in the deity Shu. Shu as an elemental force was representative of wind, air, or breath.' (p. 122) Seven elemental powers were designated at the beginning, and these became the seven primary types. And these seven were adopted as the Elohim of the Hebrews. 'The seven elemental powers acquired souls as gods in the astronomical mythology.' (p. 123) Six of the seven were zootypes, the seventh being imaged in human form, this being the last soul as a sign of fulfilment, perfection, etc., which would later be symbolised by the Christ.

'It follows that the gods were primary, and that worship, or extreme reverence, was first addressed to them and not to the ancestral spirits.' (p. 126) 'Such things will show how the most primitive simplicities of ancient times have supplied our modern religious mysteries.' (p. 130) 'In the primary phase the soul that takes shape in human form was derived directly from the element as source of life. In a second phase of representation the powers of the elements were imaged by the totemic zootypes. Thence arose the universal tradition, sometimes called belief, of an animal ancestry in which the beasts, birds, reptiles, fish, plants, trees, rocks, or stones were the original progenitors of the human race, through the growing ignorance of primitive sign-language.' (p. 135) Primitive man was not a mystifier but yet he 'has been portrayed in modern times as if he were a philosophic theorist. He has been charged with imagining all sorts of things which never existed, as if that were the origin of his spirits and his gods, whereas the beginning was with the elemental powers. These were external to himself. There was no need to imagine them. They were. And with this cognition his theology began.' (p. 139) In order to not make a too simplistic a statement on the origins of religion, Massey accepts there were many factors involved. 'Thus we demonstrate that the worship of human ancestors alone was not the primary phase of religious worship.' (p. 148) 'African spiritualism, which might be voluminously illustrated, culminated in the Egyptian mysteries.' (p. 151)

Massey, as a spiritualist, defends spiritualism. 'If spiritualism proper is based on phenomenal and veritable facts in nature, as it is now claimed to be, then the past history of the human race has to be rewritten, for it has hitherto been written with this the most important of all mental factors omitted, decried, derided, or falsely explained away.' (p. 151) He believed ardently in its efficaciousness. He knew, from personal experience, that the soul lives on after bodily death. 'The Egyptians were profoundly well acquainted with those abnormal phenomena which are just re-emerging within the ken of modern science, and with the hypnotic, magnetic, narcotic, and anaesthetic means of inducing the conditions of trance.' (p. 151) 'All ancestor worshippers have been spiritualists in the modern sense who had the evidence by practical demonstration that the so-called dead are still the living in a rarer, not less real form.' (p. 154) Offerings to the spirits of the dead is a universal custom and can be traced back to the Egyptian custom of food being offered to the shabti. 'The funeral custom is almost universal for the mortuary meal to be made to feed the spirits of the departed, and communion with the ancestral spirits was an object of the totemic eucharist.' (p. 159)

The sightings of phantasms of the dead, apparitions of ghosts, the belief in spiritualism, table-rapping, etc., it has to be remembered, was highly in vogue when Massey was writing this, and the Society for Psychical Research was in its prime. It collected thousands of records of such experiences, a phenomenon that was perfectly perceptible to primitive man because his consciousness was in an unevolved state and not an aberration of the mental faculties. They saw the spirits of the dead in a perfectly normal state, and it is only in an abnormal state (or condition of trance) that modern man can have the same kind of experiences. They did not worship the dead, nor the corpse of the dead, but the living spirit. 'The truth is that the Christian cult is the one and only religion in the world that was based upon the corpse instead of the resurrection in spirit.' (p. 163) 'The Christians mistook the risen mummy in Amenta for the corpse that was buried on earth, whereas the Egyptian religion was founded on the rising again of the spirit from the corpse as it was imaged in the resurrection of Amsu-Horus transforming from the mummy-Osiris, and by the human soul emerging alive from the body of dead matter.' (p. 163) The ghoul, the zombie, the risen dead, these physical resurrections after death, are the real phantasms and do not exist, and never have existed.

Each culture has its trance-mediums. 'They entered the state of trance for their transformation, and in that condition manifested super­human or spiritual powers that were looked upon as divine. Amongst all races of people such men were divinized under whatsoever name, as mediums, mediators, and links between two worlds.' (p. 166) Again, we are back to shamanism. 'The spiritualistic medium was originally revered not because he was a priest or king, not on account of his earthly office, but because of his being an intercessor with the superhuman powers on behalf of mortals.' (p. 167) He acted as an agent between this world and the next.

'The spirits of the dead are accepted as operative realities. They are dreaded or adored according to the mental status of the spiritualists, and the sorcerers, magi, the medicine-men, the witches, and witch doctors are the spirit mediums employed as the accepted and established means of communication. ' (p. 167) 'Also witches, wizards, sorcerers, shamans, and other abnormals who had the power of going out of the body in this life were feared all the more after death by many tribes because they had demonstrated the facts which caused such fear and terror; they had also been their exorcists and layers of the ghost whose protective influence was now lost to the living.' (p. 168)

The act of coating an initiate in white clay is to make her a spirit, the whiteness signifying the spirit. 'This denotes her transformation into a superior being of a spiritual order, which she would become as a spirit medium.' (p. 169) The bright world described by seers in the state of trance is the same as the land of the dead. 'Obviously this other world was entered in the state of trance as well as at the time of death.' (p. 169) The Egyptians used the same method to map out Amenta by entering it in a state of trance. 'Witchcraft is but the craft of wisdom; witches were the wise in a primitive sense and in ways considered to be magical for assignable reasons.' (p. 169) The witch was also a medium, just like the shaman, using her power to project out of the body and enter the witch-world. Her method of inducing trance has never been fully understood but it is believed it was either through the ingestion of psychoactive drugs or the application of intoxicating unguents to various parts of the body, possibly to the genitals, using the handle of a besom or broomstick as a kind of dildo, hence the misunderstood phrase, 'riding the broomstick.' It was a form of magical masturbation to enter trance and go to the sabbat, which was really an astral experience. Reports of her lying still as if dead would indicate this. The witch craze in the US in the 1600's was probably caused by the accidental ingestion of ergot of rye, the same substance used to synthesise LSD in the 1940's.

'Magic has been described as a system of superstition that preceded religion. But magical ceremonies and incantations are religious, inasmuch as they are addressed to superhuman powers. Magical ceremonies were religious rites.' (p. 175) By magic here Massey does not mean the ceremonial variety practised by modern magicians, he means the primitive kind practised by aboriginal tribes.

Horus in Amenta rises as the Lord of Resurrection, just like Christ. 'It is one of the various delusions recrudescent in our day that theology began with the self-revelation to the world of a one and only god. No delusion or mania could be a grosser birth of modern ignorance, more especially as the 'only one' of the oldest known beginning was female and not male; the mother, not the fatherthe goddess, not the god.' (p. 179) 'It has been shown that the Egyptian gods were primarily the elemental powers, and how the ancestral spirits became the glorified elect in the Egyptian eschatology. It is now possible to trace the one god of the Osirian religion as the final outcome from the original rootage, the culmination and consummate flower of all.' (p. 180) 'Thus the gods of Egypt originated in various modes of natural phenomena, but the phenomena were also spiritual as well as physical, the one god being ultimately worshipped as the holy spirit.' (p. 182) 'The one god of the Christians is a father manifesting through one historic son by means of a virgin Jewess. Whereas the father was the one god of the Egyptians in the cult of Atum-Ra which was extant before the monuments began ten thousand years ago.' (p. 184)

Book 4

This book has been reprinted as a pamphlet many times as it is very popular with Massey's admirers. In discussing the Egyptian Book of the Dead (or the Ritual) Massey touches on the key points of his theories. To understand the gnosis you have to understand the Ritual. Few people, especially so-called experts on the subject like Egyptologists, etc., really understand the texts that were buried with the dead in ancient Egypt. But Massey does, and he demonstrates this quite clearly here, because he knows, therefore he sees. And the only way to properly understand this work is by the reduction to types. In  that way you come to a greater comprehension of the symbolism used throughout the texts. Then you can see how the eschatological phase of Egyptian thinking impacted on Judeao-Christian theology.

The texts bequeathed to history are of the Osirian phase of Egyptian mythology, and therefore fairly late in its development. The earlier phase would have been the Isian phase, the phase of Isis as the Great Mother before the establishment of the Father as Osiris. But it is still possible to understand the texts once you have a firm grasp of the symbolism. 'As a key to the mysteries and the method of the book it must be understood at starting that the eschatology or doctrine of Last Things was founded in the mould of the mythology, and that the one can only be unravelled by means of the other.' (p. 186) 'The mythology repeated in the Ritual is mainly solar and Osirian, but with glimpses of the lunar and the stellar mythos from the beginning.' (p. 187) The stellar-lunar phase relates to Isis and her son, the solar phase to Osiris. 'There is no death in the Osirian religion, only decay and change, and periodic renewal; only evolution and transformation in the domain of matter and the transubstantiation into spirit.' (p. 188) 'The mythical representation was first applied to the phenomena of external nature, and this mode of representation was continued and reapplied to the human soul in the eschatology.' (p. 188) 'In the mythology the seven primordial powers that pass through various phases, elemental, stellar, or lunar, always in a group of seven, finally become the seven souls of Ra, who attained supremacy as the sun god in mythology and also as the holy spirit.' (p. 189) 'In Christianity the mysteries have been manufactured out of mist, and it has been taken for granted that the mist was impenetrable and never to be seen through, whereas the mysteries of the Ritual can be followed in the two phases of mythology and eschatology.' (p. 191) There were two earths, the 'earth of time, the other in the earth of eternity.' (p. 191) 'The Book of the Dead is the Egyptian Book of Life. It is the pre-Christian word of God.' (p. 192)

The words of the text are the words of power, the open sesame of the Ritual, the words of the father, the words of the lord, the logia, or sayings later attributed to Jesus. 'The questions confronting the manes on entering Amenta are whether he has laid sufficient hold of life to live again in death? Has he acquired consistency and strength or truth of character enough to persist in some other more permanent form of personality? Has he sufficient force to incorporate his soul anew and germinate and grow and burst the mummy bandages in the glorified body of the sahu?...etc.' (p. 195) The Ritual was held to be sacred because it was 'pre-eminently a book of knowledge or of wisdom, because it contained the gnosis of the mysteries.' (p. 196) As Bacon stated, knowledge is 'power, knowledge was the gnosis, and the gnosis was the science of the mystery teachers and the masters of sign-language  .... Better still, if these instructions and divine teachings were learned by heart, had been enacted and the word made truth in the life, then the Book of the Dead in life became the book of life in death.' (p. 196) By  knowing the ways of Amenta one in a sense defeats death.  'According to this earlier bible, death came into the world by ignorance, not by knowledge, as in the Christian travesty of the Egyptian teaching.' (p. 196) The dead had to know in order to continue their journey in the otherworld, for knowledge gives strength to the soul, and knowledge saves. They had to know how to get through to the other side in order to become a glorified spirit. 'Those who knew the real name of the god were in possession of the word that represented power over the divinity, therefore the word of power that would be efficacious if employed.' (p. 196) 'The Ritual opens with a resurrection, but this is the resurrection in the earth of Amenta, not in the heaven of eternity.' (p. 197) 'Emergence in Amenta was the coming forth of the human soul from the coffin and from the gloom of the grave in some form of personality such as is depicted in the shade, or the ba, a bird of soul with the human head, which shows that a human soul is signified.' (p. 197) The Tibetan Book of the Dead, with its various stages, or bardos, served the same purpose. Timothy Leary, the psychedelic priest, in the 1960's reproduced the text as a psychedelic manual, an aid to 'tripping' in to the unconscious (or Amenta) and reaching a mystical goal, but peremptorily confronting one's negative aspects which would be projected as shadowy figures, mostly threatening and abusive, attempting to thwart one's progress from entering and merging with the light (of mystical consciousness): God is the light at the end of the tunnel, the tunnel-effect being caused by the withdrawal of consciousness back into its source, exactly as the Egyptians aspired to achieve upon death. (See The Psychedelic Experience by Leary, Metzner, and Alpert, 1964.)

The seven souls are discussed again. Each one represents a stage of attainment. 'These are: (1) The khabit or dark shade; (2) the ba or light shade; (3) the ab or breathing heart; (4) the sekhem or power; (5) the sahu or soul; (6) the khu or spirit; (7) the ka or higher soul.' (p. 203) 'It has now to be shown how it was brought about that the final and supreme one god of the Egyptian religion was represented as a mummy in the earth of eternity, and why the mystery of the mummy is the profoundest of all the mysteries of Amenta.' (p. 211) 'Mythology was earlier than eschatology, and the human victim was preceded by the zootype; the phenomena first rendered mythically were not manifested in the human sphere. The natural genesis was in another category altogether.' (p. 211) 'Osiris in the monstrance should of itself suffice to show that the Egyptian karast (krst) is the original Christ, and that the Egyptian mysteries were continued by the Gnostics and Christianized in Rome.' (p. 213) 'The resurrection of the dead in mummy form may look at first sight as if the old dead corpse had risen from the sepulchre. But the risen is not the dead mummy, it is a type of personality in the shape of the mummy.' (p. 213) 'It was this mistake which led to a false idea that the Egyptians held the dogma of a corporeal resurrection of the dead which became one of the doctrines that were fostered into fixity by the A-Gnostic Christians.' (p. 214) 'In the Christian scheme the buried dead were to rise again in the old physical corpus for the last judgment in time at the literal ending of the world. This was another delusion based on the misrendering of the Egyptian wisdom.' (p. 214) 'The Egyptians had no doctrine of a physical resurrection of the dead. Though they retained the mummy as a type of personality, it was a changed and glorified form of the earthly body, the mummy that had attained its feet in the resurrection. It was the karast mummy, or, word for word and thing for thing, Amsu-Horus was the Kamite Christ who rose up from the mummy as a spirit.' (p. 214)

The Christians quite clearly got hold of the wrong end of the stick when they believed Christ promised a physical resurrection. The Egyptians knew what they were talking about. 'Also it is entirely false to represent the Egyptians as making the mummy and preserving it for the return of the soul into the old earthly body. That is but a shadow of the true idea cast backwards by Christianity.' (p. 215) Again, he discusses the possible derivation of the word Christ. 'The word karas, kares, or karis in Egyptian signifies embalmment, to embalm, to anoint, to make the mummy. Kreas, creas, or chros, in Greek denotes the human body, a person or carcase, more expressly the flesh of it; cras, Gaelic and Irish, the body; Latin, corpus, for a dead body; these are all preceded by the word karas or karast, in Egyptian, with the risen mummy for determinative of the meaning.' (p. 216) As the mummy was preserved, the Egyptians also believed they were preserving the soul. 'The Egyptians aimed at making the mummy imperishable and incorruptible, as an image of durability and continuity, a type of the eternal, or of Osiris-karast in the likeness of a mummy.' (p. 216) 'In the eschatological or final phase of the doctrine, to make the mummy was to make the typical anointed, also called the messu, the Messiah, and the Christ.' (p. 217) 'Thus the Egyptian krast was the pre-Christian Christ, and the pictures in the Roman Catacombs preserve the proof.' (p. 219) 'Amenta, the earth of eternity, is the land of the mysteries where Taht, the moon god, in the nether night was the great teacher of the sacred secrets together with the seven wise masters. The passage through Amenta is a series of initiations for the Osiris deceased.' (p. 226)

The Egyptian mysteries, which were essentially connected with death, were the foundation for all the others to follow. So 'we can recognize enough to know that these are the originals of all the other 'mysteries,' Gnostic, Kabbalistic, Masonic, or Christian .... These and other miracles of the Christian faith were already extant among the mysteries of Amenta.' (p. 226) 'But the meaning of the mysteries could only be known whilst the genuine gnosis was authentically taught.' (p. 226) Once this was lost the mysteries became corrupt. 'The 148th chapter of the Ritual recounts some of the most secret mysteries. It was written to furnish the gnosis or knowledge necessary for the manes to get rid of his impurities and acquire perfection in the 'bosom of Ra' the holy spirit.' (p. 226) 'The Egyptians, who were the authors of the mysteries and mythical representation, did not pervert the meaning by an ignorant literalization of mystical matters, and had no fall of man to encounter in the fallacious Christian sense.' (p. 230) The Christian doctrines only make sense in light of the gnosis. 'The incarnation which is looked upon as a central mystery of the Christian cult, had no origin and can have no adequate or proper explanation in Christianity. Its real origin, like those of the other Egyptian dogmas and doctrines, was purely natural; it was prehistorical and non-personal, and as the mystery of Horus and his virgin mother, who were equally prehistorical and non-historical,' (p. 231) 'utilized by the ancient teachers for all it ever was or could be worth, and was continued by the teachers of historic Christianity in ignorance of its origin and only true significance, or with a criminally culpable suppression of the gnosis by which alone the inexplicable latter-day mysteries could have been explained. ... Horus is not the ordinary child or khart of the hieroglyphics. He images the logos, the word of silence, the virgin's word, that gave a dumb or inarticulate utterance to the mystery of the incarnation.' (p. 231)

The gnosis had existed from time immemorial because it formed the fabric of early man's consciousness. 'It was so ancient that the source and origin had been forgotten and the direct means of proof lost sight of or obliterated except amongst the Gnostics, who sacredly preserved their fragments of the ancient wisdom, their types and symbols and no doubt, with here and there a copy of some chapters of the Book of the Dead done into Greek or Aramaic by Alexandrian scribes.' (p. 231) This was before the discovery of the fragments of texts from Nag Hammadi in 1945. It is very prescient on Massey's part. Although the texts do not incorporate fragments of the Ritual, they do however contain fragments of the gnosis that parallel the Ritual. The gnosis is based on fundamental facts. 'Procreation could not occur until the female was pubescent. Therefore blood was the sign of source as the primary creative human element.' (p. 232) The right time was signified by the menarche before conception could take place, thus blood = life. Word made flesh, or spirit born of blood, the virgin incarnating the child, etc. Menstruation is the key to the theological notion of remission of sins by the purification of blood, or the letting of blood, as a sacrifice. The 'earliest form of the purifying blood was female. It was first the blood of the virgin mother, the blood of Isis, the blood of the incarnation, the flowing blood, the element in which Horus manifested when he came by blood, the blood on which the rite of purification was founded as a natural mode of cleansing. This is the one sole origin in the whole realm of nature for the blood which cleans, and it was in this feminine phase that a doctrine of purification by blood was established for the use of later theology when the sacrificial victim had been made a male who was held to have shed the atoning, purifying, saving blood upon a tree.' (p. 233) 'Purification by means of blood then originated in the blood of Isis, the virgin mother of the human Horus, who, as the red child, calf or lamb, personated that purification by blood which became doctrinal in the eschatology.' (p. 233) 'The natural blood sacrifice was feminine.' (p. 234) That is, the bleeder, or letter of blood in sacrifices was essentially feminine because it originally related to the menses.

The Nile, as so often stated, played a very important part in the Egyptian consciousness, and was elevated to the mythic level. 'The salvation that came to Egypt in the Nile was continued in the Egyptian eschatology as salvation by water.' (p. 235) The biune being, as figured in some mummies, represents a return to unity, the two-one, combining the duality of male and female. It was also a symbol of perfection for it signified the transcendence of the plane of duality where masculine and feminine elements were combined to produce a non-sex being so that 'the manes could only enter the kingdom of heaven as a being of both sexes or of neither.' (p. 237) 'When these were united in one to form a completed manes and a perfect spirit the result was a typical creation from both sexes in which there was neither male nor female.' (p. 237) This recalls the saying in the Gospel according to the Egyptians, that when the male shall become female, and vice versa, only then could they enter heaven (the plane of unity). The mention of the garment of shame in the same text is feminine; it is the garment put on at the moment of puberty, signifying the girl is now a sexualised being.

As Christ had his origins in Egyptian mythology, so did the devil. 'The devil was of Egyptian origin, both as 'that old serpent' the Apap reptile, the devil with a long tail, and as Sut, who was Satan in an anthropomorphic guise.' (p. 240) 'In the eschatology Sut represents negation as non-existence.' (p. 241) Set, in magical terms, is the withdrawal of consciousness to its source; conversely Horus is the projection of consciousness. In that way, Set is negation for he obliterates objectivity which can only happen when the current is outwardly directed (to objects). It is the same as the Buddhist Nirvana. This can only come about through the withdrawal of objectifying existence; non-existence is in essence Nirvana. The Hindu Shiva (whose closing of his eyes nullifies the world) represents the same formula as Set.

'The Roman Church was founded on the Ritual. Possibly a version of the original may one day be found preserved in the secret archives of Rome, the text of which would explain numerous pictures in the catacombs and other works of the gnostic artists who were the actual authors of the Egypto-Christian iconography.' (p. 242) This is very dubious. It is doubtful at all whether a copy lies within the Vatican, although many texts of a controversial nature are indeed housed in its library. 'The Egyptians were the greatest realists that ever lived. For thousands and thousands of years it was their obvious endeavour at full stretch to reach the ultimate reality of eternal truth. Their interrogation of nature was like the questioning of children.' (p. 242)

He ends by discussing the parallels between the Ritual and Pilgrim's Progress. It could be viewed as the Ritual filtered through the mind of a Christian, for it 'contains an outline of the matter in the Egyptian Ritual.' (p. 243) The Ritual, on another level, is universal for it contains universal truths, so it can be found in all parts of the globe, albeit modified through each cultural mind-set. The 'same primitive wisdom was carried out from the same central birthplace in Africa to the islands of the Southern Sea, and there fossilized during long ages of isolation, which had been carried down the Nile to take living root and grow and flourish as the mythology and eschatology of ancient Egypt.' (p. 245) The aborigines likewise demonstrate parallels in their initiation ceremonies when the male is initiated at ages 12 and 30, corresponding to the same ages of Jesus and his fulfilment. 'At twelve years of age the Child-Horus makes his transformation into the adult in his baptism or other kindred mysteries. Horus as the man of thirty years is initiated in the final mystery of the resurrection.' (p. 245)

Book 5

In this book, which is divided into two parts, Massey discusses how it is possible to understand the types by an analysis of the myths relating to astronomy, and that their basis would have been in the remote antiquity of ancient Africa. It is only there that we are able to understand how the original myths were formulated and their significance in the stellar, lunar and solar modes.

Pygmies are possibly the earliest form of homo sapiens that were capable of thinking and formulating a view of the world. They are one stage up from the ape but one step down from primitive man, and yet the gnosis could be found in them as their means of communication consists of nothing but signs and gestures. 'The one sole race that can be traced among the aborigines all over the earth, above ground or below, is the dark race of a dwarf negrito-type, and the only one possible motherland on earth for these preliminary people is Africa.' (p. 250) Africa is the cradle of civilisation, its birthplace. 'And so closely were the facts of nature observed and registered by the Egyptians that the earliest divine men in their mythology are portrayed as pygmies. ... In this mode of registering the natural fact the Egyptians trace their descent from the folk who were the first in human formthat is, from the pygmies.' (p. 250) Bes is the archetypal pygmy-god. 'One might fill a volume with figures from inner Africa that were developed and made permanent in the symbolism of Egypt.' (p. 251) 'In this way we can trace some of the oldest of the folktales concerning the deluge and the lost paradise, the hero as the wonder-working child who climbs a tree or stalk and slays the monster of the dark, to inner Africa, and follow these and others in the mythology of the Egyptians on their way to becoming the universal legends of the human race.' (p. 253) 'The mythology, religious rites, totemic customs, and primitive symbolism of Egypt are crowded with survivals from identifiable inner African origins.' (p. 253) 'Egyptians always gave priority to the south over the delta in the north.' (p. 255) Set = South, Horus = North. Set came first as god of the South. 'The African legends tell us that the Egyptians, Zulus, and others looked backward to a land of the papyrus reed as the primeval country of the human race, and that on this, as we shall see, the Egyptians founded their circumpolar paradise in the astronomical mythology.' (p. 255) 'The papyrus reed, uat, was turned into a symbol of most ancient descent precisely because it had been the primeval food of the most ancient people, a totem of the most ancient mother of the race when called Uati in Egypt, and a type of the African paradise.' (p. 256) The fields of papyrus reeds suggested the land of plenty, of luscious vegetation, which indeed could indicate the equatorial forests of Africa, a paradisiacal place later converted into the biblical Eden. The 'land of the papyrus reed in equatorial Africa, the summit of our earth or, if only mythical, i.e., astronomical, to the reed field of the Aarru paradise upon the summit of the mount in heaven.' (p. 257) 'It is now proposed to seek for the birthplace of the beginnings in Central Africa, the land of the papyrus reed, around the equatorial lakes, by the aid of the Egyptian astronomical mythology and the legendary lore.' (p. 257) There is only one candidate for the possible geographical location; 'of all the lands on earth there is no reed land to be compared with the land of the reeds round the equatorial lakes, where the papyrus grows about the waters in jungles and forests so dense that a charging herd of hippopotami could hardly penetrate the bush.' (p. 258)

Massey now attempts to demonstrate the above premise: 'According to their way of registering a knowledge of the beginnings, the Egyptians were well acquainted with the equatorial regions, which they designated 'Apta,' earth.' (p. 258) The mythology found in Egypt was inner African, that is why 'much of the sign-language of astronomy which still survives on the celestial globe is interpretable on the ground and for the reason that the fundamental data of the underlying mythos was Egyptian, although the commencement in Africa may have been indefinitely earlier than the fulfilment in Egypt.' (p. 258) 'In coming down the Nile from Karua, the lake country, the migrants had to pass through parching desert sands, which made the south a synonym for Sut, as it is in Egyptian.' (p. 259) Set, as the south, is connected with scorching heat. 'The Egyptians had tracked the river to its sources 'in the recesses,' called 'the Tuat of the south,' and the inundation to the bursting forth and overflowing of the southern lakes at high flood.' (p. 260) The 'name of Tanganyika, from the African 'tanga' for 'the thigh' and 'nyika' for the water, signifies the lake of the thigh or haunch.' (p. 260) 'The northern polestar dips and disappears, and with it sinks the primal paradise of mythology in general that was configurated in the stars about the pole. On coming north again, the old lost paradise arose once more as paradise regained. At a certain point, in regions of no latitude, the polestar rests for ever on the horizon in the north, or, as the Egyptians figured it, upon the mount of earth in Apta.' (p. 261) The 'frog floating on the water in the act of breathing out of it was an arresting object to primitive man, and this became a type of earth emerging from the water of space.' (p. 265) The origins of all myths are African, hence 'the reason why this story is told in Central America, in India, and in Europe we hold to be because it was first told in Africa and rendered mythically in Egypt.' (p. 267)

All legends can be traced to their beginnings in African fables. 'Thus in astronomical mythology a fall from heaven, a sinking down in the waters called a deluge, and a lost primeval home were natural occurrences as certain stars or constellations disappeared from sight for those who travelled northward from the equatorial plain.' (p. 268) As the migrators moved north they lost sight of their star of the south, Sirius, or a 'constellation first assigned to Sut sank down into the dark abysm south, and disappeared from the ken of the observers who were on their journey of three thousand miles down into the valley of the Nile.' (p. 268)

The wisdom of the Egyptians was astronomy, or rather the foundation of their wisdom was based on astronomy which had its antecedents in African symbolism. To understand their thinking and thoughts you have to understand how they conceived of the heavens, and all of their notions can be related to the movement of the celestial sphere and the starry phenomena. That is why 'it is useless or puerile to discuss the genesis of astronomical mythology with the African originals omitted, and without allowing for the alterations that were made by Greeks and Euphrateans in the course of transmitting a celestial chart.' (p. 269) 'The principle of representation was similar to that of the modern teachers who draw their diagrams upon the blackboard.' (p. 270) As stated previously, 'the Egyptian mythology is the source of the märchen, the legends, and the folklore of the world, whilst the eschatology is the fountainhead of all the religious mysteries that lie between the earliest totemic and the latest Osirian, that were ultimately continued in the religion of ancient Rome.' (p. 271) Also, 'uranography is sign-language constellated in the stars.'  (p. 275) 'In no land or literature has the mythical mode of representation been perverted and reduced to drivelling foolishness more fatally than in some of the Hebrew legends.' (p. 276) Babylonia did not constellate the stars or found the zodiac; 'the astronomical mythology of Egypt passed into Akkad and Babylonia, with the race of Cushite 'black-heads,' to become the wisdom of the 'Chaldees' and the Persian magi in after ages.' (p. 276) 'Water in Africa was life indeed, where drought was very death.' (p. 280) 'Besides which, these uranographs of the beginning, or the first time, could not all have originated as Euphratean, because so many of the stars were too far south to be seen or constellated in Akkad or Babylonia.' (p. 282) 'The water-cow of earth was constellated in the stars of the Great Bear, the milch-cow of heaven in the group now known as Cassiopeia, or the Lady in the Chair, which was the earlier constellation of the Haunch or Meskhen as a figure of the birthplace when the birth was typical of life in water.' (p. 286) 'But, the anthropomorphic devil of the later Egyptian religion, was previously the pre-anthropomorphic representative of drought, dearth, and darkness long before the type of evil had been personalized in the figure of a satanic Mephistopheles as the tempter of womankind. Thus the representative of evil, 'that old serpent' in mythology, became the author of evil in theology, and the devil was evolved in the moral domain according to the eschatology.' (p. 286)

The dung beetle as scarab rolls it ball up on the banks of the Nile prior to the inundation and therefore was an indicator of the flood time. 'The disappearance of the water in Egypt was coincident with the sinking of the sun in the winter solstice.' (p. 299) This is paralleled in Isis' search for Osiris. 'The history of Horus the child-hero, the eternal messu who became incarnate as a typical saviour of the world, was thus portrayed and could be repeated by all who understood the mythos which was depicted in the book above.' (p. 301) 'And it is shown by the ancient legends and the primitive constellations that the beginnings of the astral mythos were in Equatoria looking south.' (p. 303) 'Inner Africa contains the prototype of the Egyptian paradise in a land of welling waters where the food came of itself and was perpetually renewed, and there was little need for labour.' (p. 304) The south, as the original home, was memorialised with nostalgic longing; 'there would be yearnings of regret for the old lost home and birth-land left behind, now glorified by distance and the glamour of tradition.' (p. 304) 'The felicity enjoyed in this primeval land of legendary lore is such as was possessed at one time on the earth, the upper paradise being a sublimated replica of a lower or terrestrial paradise.' (p. 304) 'Old First Mother who was given the Great Bear as her constellation in the northern heaven where she became the maker of the starry revolutions or cycles, and thence the mother of the earliest year in time,' (p. 306) as marker of time. 'The Great Bear goddess was portrayed in this position as the 'mother of the revolutions' and the maker of motion in a circle.' (p. 309) 'Egyptologists have been inclined to regard the female hippopotamus (our Great Bear) and the 'haunch' as one and, the same constellation. This premature guess is erroneous. They were both signs of the Great Mother, but in two separate constellations which represented two different characters.' (p. 309) The Haunch as birthplace: 'the female hippopotamus answers to our Great Bear, whereas the sign of the 'haunch' is on the far side of the Lesser Bear, in the position of Cassiopeia, the lady in the chair.' (p. 309) 'In this celestial sign-language, the oldest book of wisdom in the world was written by the mystery teachers and can still be read upon the starry scroll of ancient night.' (p. 314)

Book 6

Continuing on from the previous section, Massey continues his discussion of the sign-language of astronomical mythology. Again, he emphasises the relativity of the types found in African and Egyptian culture, which later in their development can be related to more modern cultures, and that none of them make sense unless they are related and understood in terms of astro-mythology.

The first Great Mother was configured in the starry heavens as the Great Bear revolving round the celestial pole as mother of revolutions and therefore the keeper of time which was first measured by cycles. Numbers can be understood once their importance to astral phenomena is clear. Thus the number 28, e.g., would relate to the phases of the moon on a lunar basis. Seven would relate to the number of stars in the Plough or the number of pole-changes, etc. 'In Equatoria the desert and the drought were given to the south, which was the domain of Sut. Refreshing rain and cooling breezes came from the domain of Horus in the life-giving north.' (p. 327) 'The polestar was a type of the eternal.' (p. 330) 'This was the sole point at which there seemed to be any certainty of foothold in that moving ocean of the starry infinite. And this became a standpoint in the heavens for the mind of man to rest on at the centre and radiate to the circumference. The summit was well-named the Mount of Glory. Around this island-mount the hosts of heaven appeared to wheel by night in one vast, glorious, never-ceasing march.' (p. 330) 'The power of stability fixed as the centre of the universe was the typical eternal,' (p. 330) because it was a type of fixity and remained stable for a long period, and was thought of as right and true.

'One of the profoundest secrets in the Egyptian astronomical mythology was the mystery of the twofold horizon, or, more exactly the mystery of the double equinox, and one of the earliest forms of the solar god in the zodiac was Horus of the double equinox.' (p. 332) 'Horus in the eschatology was he who died and was buried, and who rose again in spirit at his second advent. This time he was imaged in the likeness of the father as the beloved only begotten son of God,' (p. 332)

He then discusses Horus of the double horizon. 'Horus of the double horizon, or the double equinox, was the solar prototype of the double Horus in the eschatology.' (p. 333) This can only be explained by the solar phenomena and the zodiacal signs. Aker is the god of the double horizon who stands at both the entrance and the exit of the tunnel through which the sun passes at sunset and re-appears at sunrise. The tree and pillar represent the poles, the tree = south, pillar = north.

He next discusses the making of Amenta. 'In the mythology, Amenta is the subterranean country of the sun by night.' (p. 346) Ptah is the tunneller who created the path through the underworld. He is identical with Vulcan. 'The name denotes the hidden or secret (Amen) earth (ta). It is also called the earth of eternity, the land of the living; for the Egyptians call those the living whom the less spiritualistic moderns designate the dead.' (p. 355) Parallels to the Egyptian Amenta can be found in the folkloric materials of the Irish. There is in fact an Irish equivalent. 'This lovely country seen beneath the waters, the sunken city of so many märchen, is the 'beautiful Amenta' of the Ritual.' (p. 369) 'Africa, the home of the pygmies, is presumably the birthplace of the dwarf races now represented by the diminutive wee folk of the Dark Continent. The earliest emigrants who made their way out of that land and wandered over Europe would be akin to these in stature, like the Lapps who follow them at a short distance.' (p. 372) 'The märchen or folktales of the Asiatic and European races are the debris of Egyptian mythos.' (p. 372)

He next discusses the upper mount of glory, that is, the north celestial pole or home of the gods. 'Both the mount and tree were modes of ascent in thought, and physical means of reaching a little higher towards heaven in making offerings to the powers.' (p. 389) 'Thus with them, as with various other primitive races, the tree was the first natural altar and stairs that figured the way and means of ascent to heaven.' (p. 389) 'In almost every land there is a mountain known as the mount by which the souls of the dead ascend to the paradise first mapped out astronomically at the celestial pole.' (p. 389) 'The mound or stairway with the seven steps was permanently figured in the seven-stepped pyramid of Saqqara as an image of the mount with steps that showed the way to heaven in the astronomical mythology.' (p. 391)

A good example of Massey's use of the comparative method is the following: 'There is a glass hill in the Norse folktales. The princess is only to be won by the youth who can ride up the hill of glass. The ash-lad, a male counterpart of Cinderella, is the only one who at all succeeds. At the first trial he rides a third of the way up, and the king's daughter rolls a golden apple down to him. On the second day he rides two-thirds of the way up, and wins a second golden apple. On the third day he ascends to the top of the hill, and takes the third apple from the lap of the princess. Of course he wins the daughter of the king and half the kingdom besides. In this version the glass hill is the mount of the pole. The king in these märchen is Ra in the Egyptian mythos. The princess was Hathor, goddess of love. The kingdom in two halves was the double earth. Horus wins the second half, and unites the two into one kingdom by climbing the hill of glass and winning the princess as his wife. The tree on which the golden apples grew is the tree of dawn, the tree of Hathor the princess.' (p. 392) 'The pyramid is an artificial figure of the mount as means of the ascent to heaven.' (p. 394) 'As an astronomical foundation, the upper paradise of all mythology upon the mount of glory was dependent on establishing the celestial pole for a fixture in the waters of surrounding space.' (p. 397)

Book 7

In the seventh book Massey draws on the parallels of the Egyptian wisdom as embodied in the Ritual and the Hebrew lore as found in the Old Testament.

First he discusses the legends of creation coming from Semitic stock and how they are remnants of the Egyptian gnosis. It is quite clear that the creators of such legends mistook what they were hearing, completely misunderstanding the types as they were handed down to them. 'The Semitic versions of the legends, Babylonian, Assyrian, or Hebrew mainly reproduce the debris of the astronomical mythology, which has so often been reduced to the status of the nursery-tale.' (p. 398) 'In these the primitive wisdom of old Egypt has been perverted, and the mythical beginnings, which had their own meaning, have been transmogrified into what is herein termed a cosmogonical creation.' (p. 398) 'The legends of creation are known, more or less, as Hebrew, Phoenician, Babylonian, and Assyrian, but as Kamite they have not been known.' (p. 398) When 'the mythical representations of natural phenomena first portrayed by the Egyptians were turned into cosmographical creations by the Semites, they had no verifiable meaning either as history or mythology.' (p. 398) 'Egypt's knowledge of beginnings was laboriously derived by the long, unceasing verification of scientific naturalists. Their ancient wisdom did not fall from heaven readymade, nor had it any claims to a miraculous birth.' (p. 399) 'The ancient wisdom in the Hebrew books has been converted into a spurious specie, and passed off on the ignorant and unsuspecting as a brand-new issue from the mint of God.' (p. 399) 'But in the Egyptian wisdom only can we make out what 'creation' means as a mode of representation in the ancient sign-language.' (p. 400) 'This creation is a representation of natural phenomena which might have been seen any day and night. But the gods of Egypt have been defeatured and dislimned and resolved into their elements of darkness and the firmamental deep.' (p. 401) Also, 'instead of a cosmogonical creation, the Egyptian wisdom shows that the making of heaven and earth was a mode of representation in the astronomical mythology.' (p. 403) 'Darkness existed. Light came forth. The light was then divided from the darkness as a mode of differentiating and describing day and night. Next, the upper firmament was separated from the lower, or, as it is otherwise stated, the waters above were divided from the waters below; whereas in the genuine mythos the upper and lower waters were the upper and lower firmament because the water was a figure of the firmament.' (p. 404) 'By the gnosis here is meant that science of Egyptian symbolism which alone enables us to read the palimpsest of the past that was scribbled over and over again by the teachers of the ancient wisdom.' (p. 408) 'So necessary is the gnosis of the primitive sign-language for the reading of these remains, to prevent debasement of the type and perversion of the meaning.' (p. 408) 'Creation by the word is calling into being things which did not pre-exist or were not previously entified, figured, or known by name.' (p. 408) 'There was no man or woman in the genuine mythos. These only came into existence when the gods and manes had been euhemerized and creation was set forth as cosmogonical through literalization of the astronomical mythology and adulteration of the ancient wisdom.' (p. 411)

He identifies Eden with the basin of the Nile. The pair of Ani and his wife in Amenta being offered the fruit of the tree is identical with pair in the garden of Eden, etc. The twins as opposing brothers can be traced all the way back to Set and Horus. 'And here we have delved down to a taproot of the Jesus legend. Iu-em-hetep in the cult of Atum Ra is the coming son, the ever-coming su or son of the eternal and Iu the su = Iusu, or Iusa the son of Iusaas, is the original of Iusu or Jesus.' (p. 462) 'Iu-em-hetep, the ever-coming son, whom we identify as the original Iu-su, the Egyptian Jesus.' (p. 463) 'A hundred times over one sees how these utterances pertaining to Amenta have been perverted through being assigned to human beings in the life on earth.' (p. 468) 'These were the crowning achievements of those who falsified the teachings of the Egyptians. Nothing could better illustrate the difference between the two versions than the opposite treatment of work. In the biblical travesty the curse is to come to the man in the shape of work and to the woman with the labour pangs of maternity. Whereas in the Ritual work is the blessing and the workers in Aarru are the blessed.' (p. 468) 'As it comes to us, the Book of Genesis is based on misappropriated legends. It is responsible for an utterly erroneous account of creation and the origin of evil, and its damnation of the race through Adam's fall is the sole ground on which the Christian world can now find foothold for its coming Saviour.' (p. 469)

Book 8

Having discussed the Egyptian origins of the Book of Genesis, Massey now goes on to examine them in connection with Hebraic writings as they appear in the Old Testament, namely Ezekiel, Psalms, Job, Isaiah, etc., identifying parallels between the two that would later, in 1954, be followed up by Pritchard in his book Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, although exclusively concentrating on Babylonian and Assyrian sources rather than just Egyptian. The 'garden of Eden in Sheol, and Sheol is a Semitic version of the Egyptian Amenta. That is why the lost Gan-Eden is to be found in the nether parts of the earth as an outcast of the later theology. (p. 470) 'Sheol, then, is one with Amenta, and the drama with its characters and teachings belongs to the mysteries of Amenta, which are attributed to Taht, the Egyptian psalmist who is the great chief in Sekhem, the place where Horus suffered or Osiris died.' (p. 471) The 'Hebrew and Christian histories of these mystical matters have been compounded out of the Egyptian eschatology.' (p. 471)

The Psalms represent the plaintive cries of the manes in Sheol or Amenta. 'These are the pitiful cries and ejaculations of the suffering Osiris or Horus, the saviour in the Egyptian wisdom, and these scenes, circumstances, and sayings have been reproduced as the very foundations of the 'history' in the gospels.' (p. 482) 'Names have been omitted, the prototypal figures effaced, wisdom turned into ignorance, and the remains of Egyptian mythology and eschatology have been foisted on the world as an original revelation given in the Hebrew tongue; whereas the fundamental subject-matter of the sacred writings and the very God himself who is supposed to have revealed the truth in them are non-original as biblical, and only recognizable as Egyptian.' (p. 496) 'Religion in Egypt first began in worship or propitiation of the primal providence that was figured as the Great Mother who brought forth the seven elemental powers called her children. These powers in Egypt were the seven Ali.' (p. 497) 'The harlot in mythology was the Great Mother, whose own children were her consorts in the beginning. When the fatherhood was divinized the god became the husband, the one instead of the seven or eight, who were the Ali.' (p. 497) 'Iao is god the son, and the son in Egyptian is the Messu. Thus, Iah the Messu is the Mes-Iah, hence the Messiah in Hebrew.' (p. 500) And 'as it was with Iu in Egypt so is it with Iahu in Israel, only we must learn to read the imagery aright in accordance with the Egyptian wisdom, which we are told was so familiar to 'Moses.'' (p. 505)

He identifies the story of Joseph with the Tale of the Two Brothers. And there are indeed parallels. Potiphar's wife and her seduction is identical. Also the Precepts of Ptah-Hotep can be seen as the original source of the sayings of Jesus, in the Book of Ecclesiasticus, and other apocryphal works. 'The veil is being torn away from the eyes of those who were unable or unwilling to see through it, and dead Egypt speaks once more with a living tongue.' (p. 518) A 'loose leaf was discovered in the rubbish-heaps of Oxyrhynchus which had belonged to some unknown collection of the sayings or logia of 'the Lord,' who was not Jesus, a Jew in Palestine, but Jesus or Iu-em-hetep, a god of the Jews in Egypt.' (p. 518) 'The origins are rooted in the phenomena of external nature, and have to be interpreted by means of sign-language and the mythical mode of representation. The Jews had got the father and son, and finally knew not what to do with both. The son was a perpetual difficulty in their writings, which repeated fragments of Egyptian mythos in the old dark sayings without the oral wisdom of the Gnostics, and left a stumbling-block that has remained to trip up all, good, dunder-headed Christians.' (p. 519) 'This was preparatory to the rejection of the sonship altogether when presented in the scheme of 'historic' Christianity. They [the Jews] pursued their messianic phantom to the verge of the quagmire, but drew back in time to escape. They left it for the Christians to take the final fatal plunge into the bog in which they have wallowed, always sinking, ever since.' (p. 519) The 'Jews are worshippers of the father, whereas the Christians substituted the son.' (p. 520) The 'Christians, knowing nothing of the astronomical mythology or of the Egyptian eschatology, could only conclude that it must be historical.' (p. 523) 'The Egyptians were indefinitely older than the Semites, but had never heard of the world being lost by Adam's fall, or its need of an historic saviour who should take the place and act the part of the Jewish scapegoat.' (p. 526) 'The drama from which scenes are given in the Hebrew writings, as if these things occurred or would occur upon the earth, belongs to the mysteries of the Egyptian Amenta, and only as Egyptian could its characters ever be understood.' (p. 531) 'The abstract language of the Jewish writings takes the place of the earlier concrete representation and the Egyptian symbol, which were figures of the facts that dislimn and ultimately fade away in words.' (p. 531) 'And how the sarkolatrae have gloated and are gloating ghoul-like over this cowardly doctrine of the divine victim suffering in a human form to ransom the guilty with the blood of the innocent, and save them from the Nemesis of natural law and the consequences of their own sins.' (p. 533)

Astronomical mythology formed the basis of the eschatology. 'So necessary is the mould of the astronomical mythology for understanding the eschatology, whether we call it Jewish, Egyptian, or Christian.' (p. 534) The 'mythos and the eschatology of Egypt were converted into matter of prophecy that was to be fulfilled on earth as the mode of future realization.' (p. 537) 'The burden of Jewish prophecy, which turned out so terribly misleading for those who were ignorant of the secret wisdom, is that the vision of this glorious suture should be attained on earth whereas it never had that meaning.' (p. 539) 'And all the time such teaching is not only utterly immoral, not only ethically false; it never had the significance assigned to it by the Jews and Christians when first taught by the Egyptians. A false bottom has thus been laid by this perversion of old Egypt's wisdom, and on that false bottom have the Jews and Christians built for this world, whereas the Egyptians laid their foundations for eternity.' (p. 540) 'The secret of the whole matter is that in both the Old and the New Testaments the mysteries of Amenta have been literalized and shifted to the human dwelling-place, and the readers have been left groping and wandering in the wrong world.' (p. 541) 'A knowledge of the matter at firsthand in the Egyptian rendering will disintegrate the historical captivity and exodus, leaving but little to set foot upon beyond a heap of ever-shifting sand.' (p. 541) 'The wisdom of old, the myths, parables, and dark sayings that were preserved, have been presented to us dreadfully defeatured and deformed in the course of being converted into history.' (p. 543) 'This view is also enforced by the persistence of the messianic craze that yet survives amongst the Jewish victims of misinterpreted mythology, who still await that fulfilment of the impossible which the persecuting Christians fatuously suppose they have secured for all time and for eternity.' (p. 544)

Book 9

In this book, Massey shows that myths relating to the Ark, Flood, and a Great Year of the World all relate to astronomical mythology; each signifies a change in the position of the stars that were pictographs of changes associated with an epic event of historical proportions, usually figured as a disaster, a fall, a cataclysm, etc. He had already discussed the same in the Lectures. 'Before the legends of a deluge could have been formulated, the deluge as an overwhelming flood of water had become a figure used in sign-language to express the natural fact in a variety of phenomena to which the type might be and was applied.' (p. 545) 'The so-called deluge-legend comprises a hundred legends and a hundred applications of the same type, from one single origin in sign-language as the primitive mode of representing a fact in nature.' (p. 545) 'On the grand scale it was the mythical representation of the ending and submergence of an old order of things in the astronomical mythology; but there were various distinct deluges with that meaning, and not merely one.' (p. 545) A deluge, 'we repeat, became the natural type of an ending in time in the uranographic representation.' (p, 546) The 'water of heaven is synonymous with the deluge. In one aspect the deluge, as a figure in the sign-language of the astronomical mythology, was a mode of representing the sinking of the pole in the celestial ocean which was figured as the world of water.' (p. 547)

'It was caused by a failure in keeping time, and the failure is followed in a number of legends by the new heaven, in which the supreme timekeeper is the moon or the lunar divinity who is Taht in the Kamite representation.' (p. 547)

He discusses Babylonian, Polynesian myths, etc. The legend of Atlantis is at root Egyptian. The 'deluge in the stellar mythos being over, and the powers of darkness being defeated and destroyed, chiefly through the direct agency of the lunar goddess Hathor, the bow of Taht was set in heaven with its promise that the waters of the wrath of Ra should not again cover the earth. This, like all that is Egyptian, was true mythos, not false explanation of natural fact.' (p. 562) 'The Kamite account of this ancient wisdom is mythological; the biblical is pretended history.' (p. 563) 'It was natural for those who knew nothing of the Egyptian wisdom to suppose that the deluge, the ark, and the character of  Nevid, Nay, or Nevion, in the British mythos, was derived from the Hebrew records. But the true and final explanation is that both were derived from the Egyptian on separate lines of descent.' (p. 565) 'This is the father Nnu as Egyptian who became father Noah in the Hebrew version.' (p. 566) 'This may help to show how fragments of the astronomical mythology have been put together in the Book of Genesis without key or clue, and the old dark sayings of the ancient wisdom repeated minus the necessary knowledge for enlightening the world.' (p. 566) The world's great year is none 'other than the astronomical sense of a re-beginning at the same point of departure as in the beginning.' (p. 580) 'A knowledge of the facts constitutes the sole data of the truth, and such knowledge will ultimately put an end to the great delusion of the false faith that was founded in the uttermost ignorance of the astronomical facts,' (p. 580) as a figure of precession

'The longer one dwells in presence of Egypt, the older grows the face of her unveiled antiquity. Not fifty merely, but more like a thousand centuries look down upon us from her summit of attainment, the pyramid of her glory, that she built for ever in the highest heaven of her heavens.' (p. 581) 'After long study of the whole matter one sees perforce that the science of astronomy in Egypt, with its observed and registered cycle or cycles in precession, is actually older than any race of men on earth outside of Africa.' (p. 582) 'The present writer contends that the deluge-legends of the world are based upon the astronomical mythology of Egypt, but that in the isolation of the primitive emigrants the ancient wisdom lapsed and the deluge as a mode of symbolism in astronomy was more or less lost sight of.' (p. 584) 'The chief contribution made by the Semites to the astronomical mythology was in literalizing the legends which originated with the mythical mode of representation, and in putting forth an exoteric version of the ancient wisdom.' (p. 584) 'The three pyramids of Giza answer to those of the sun, moon, and seven stars elsewhere. The Great Pyramid is in itself a sign of seven, comprising, as it does, the square and the triangle in one figure.' (p. 607)

Seven = stations of the pole, the six move whilst the seventh remains motionless. The myths 'show that the mystery of the seven stars in the drama of 'revelation' was a mystery of the celestial heptanomis in the astronomical mythology.' (p. 612) 'The Chichimecs of South America are the dogs by name. In Africa these would have been totemic jackals. But with­out going back so far in time and space as the submergence of the southern pole and the declination and disappearance of its star below the horizon for those who travelled northward, there is another origin possible for the legend of the dog.' (p. 612)

Book 10

In this book Massey proves that Exodus of the Bible is based on the exode of the manes out of Amenta, a spiritual affair, not an historical event, and had nothing to do with a mythical Moses leading his people out of the land of bondage. That was but a subversion of a mythical event turned historical by those who did not understand the primary facts upon which the myth was based. These can be traced to three types of migration; the stellar, lunar and solar, with recognisable symbolism pertaining to each.

'The oldest races that have kept the reckonings are descended from one or other of the seven stations in the mountain of the north, and in the later mythos men ascended from the earth below, or from below the earth; the human ascent being figured in the upward pathway of the sun. These were the solar race who followed the lunar and stellar people of the past.' (p. 629) 'Under the name of khabsu in Egyptian the stars are synonymous with souls. These in their nightly rising from Amenta were the images of souls becoming glorified. They came forth in their thousands and tens of thousands from the lower Egypt of the astronomical mythos, the earliest exodus being stellar.' (p. 630) 'The sufferings of the chosen people in Egypt and their miraculous exodus out of it belong to the celestial allegory of the solar drama that was performed in the mysteries of the divine netherworld, and had been performed as a mythical representation ages before it was converted into a history of the Jews by the literalizers of the ancient legends.' (p. 635) 'We find the mythos, the legends, and the folktales of the world are all involved in the Egyptian wisdom, and the Hebrew traditions are demonstrably the debris of Egyptian myth and eschatology.' (p. 635) Traditions of an exodus like that of the biblical version can be found throughout the world and all are traceable back to the original Egyptian mythos. 'The Egyptian exodus is a mystery of Amenta. It is described in the Ritual as the per-em-hru or 'coming forth to day' from 'the Hades of Egypt and the desert.'' (p. 637) 'It is unfortunate and humiliating to us as a nation that Egyptology and Assyriology in England should have first fallen into the hands of devout believers in the biblical 'history.' (p. 638)

'Thus the origin of the exodus, as Egyptian, was in the coming forth of the heavenly bodies from below the horizon in the mythical representation. This was followed by the coming forth of the manes from dark to day, from death to life, from bondage to liberty, from Lower to Upper Egypt in the eschatology.' (p. 639) 'The opening chapters of the Book of the Dead are called the Per-em-hru or coming forth to day. In other words, this was the Kamite exodus of the manes from Amenta in the eschatological phase of the mythos, which has been converted by literalization into the 'history' found in the Book of Exodus.' (p. 639) 'There were two versions of the dark sayings and the hidden wisdom, the esoteric and the exoteric, amongst them, as there were amongst the Egyptians, and these have doubled the confusion. The Christian world has based its structure of belief simply and solely on the exoteric version.' (p. 641) As he puts it succinctly, 'in the darkness of the grossest, crassest ignorance the Christian faith was founded.' (p. 641) 'Thus it is provable and will be proved that 'biblical history' has been mainly derived from misappropriated and misinterpreted mythology, and that the mythology is demonstrably Egyptian which can only be explained in accordance with the Egyptian wisdom.' (p. 641)

'The monuments of Egypt are as truly and honestly historical as the geological record. Both have their breaks and their missing links, yet are perfectly trustworthy on the whole. And these monuments, from beginning to end, have no word of witness that the Jews or Hebrews ever were in Egypt as a foreign ethnical entity. They know nothing of Abraham as a Semite who went down into Egypt to teach the Egyptians astronomy. They know nothing of Jacob except as a Hyksos pharaoh, or a divinity, Jacob-El, whose name is found on one of the scarabs. They know nothing of Joseph and his viziership, nor of the ten plagues, nor of the going forth in triumph from the house of bondage to attain the promised land. These and many other wonderful things related in the Word of God are known to the Egyptian records, but not as history. There is another Egypt not yet explored by the bibliolaters: the Egypt of mythology and the Kamite eschatology.' (p. 653)

'At Pi-ha-hiroth we enter the Red Sea of the mythos, the water of the west that was red at sunset, but not the geographical Red Sea.' (p. 656) 'Those two, the leader and the guide, both in the astronomy and the eschatology, are the only two in the Hebrew version that are to go forth in the exodus from the wilderness and burial-place of the dead.' (p. 657) 'Fragments of the ancient wisdom survive in many foolish-looking legends.' (p. 666) 'In conclusion, the children of Israel, under Moses, travel through Amenta. They take possession of a land divided into twelve domains, which the Egyptian manes had already cultivated in the nether earth as a map of heaven in twelve divisions. Under Joshua they cross the water to take possession of the ancient heptanomis which had been configurated by the Egyptians as the upper circumpolar paradise. They are led to this land flowing with milk and honey by the hornet = the Kamite wasp or bee. This was the heaven mapped out of old by the Egyptians as the pastures of the seven cows who provided milky abundance in the Sekhet-Hetep, or the evergreen meadows of divine Aarru. And it is the Great Mother, whether in her stellar or lunar character as Apt or Hathor in the mount, who plays the part of traitoress and surrenders the city to the solar god.' (p. 686)

He then goes on to prove that the mention of the children of Israel on the Egyptian monuments is not a vindication of the biblical history, but was a confederate of the Nine Bows, i.e., marauders and invaders of Egypt. 'The people of Ysiraal (Israel) are here included, together with the Syrians, and amongst the confederated 'Nine Bows' who made continual incursions into Egypt as invaders and marauders, and who are spoken of as having been exterminated.' (p. 688) He ends this book with his belief that the title of pharaoh is based on paru, the lion and not parao, the house. 'The pharaoh personated the lion, or the lion-god, and sometimes wore the lion's tail as the emblem of royalty. Then he was paru as the lion and the hak as ruler.' (p. 689)

Book 11

He now goes on to discuss one of my favourite books of the Bible, the Revelation of St John the Divine, a book that was originally considered too controversial by the early compilers to be included as a canonical book. More rubbish has been written about this 'prophetic' book than any other biblical text, creating nonsense and moribund absurdities, even inspiring a whole film series. Commentators on Revelation, who are almost always devout Christians, use this text as an excuse to excoriate all non-believers, and as proof that when it comes to the Last Judgement only the believers in Christ will be taken up on high in what is colloquially termed 'the rapture.' The only modern writer of note who has attempted to tackle the mysteries of this text was a non-Christian, D. H. Lawrence, in his short book simply titled Apocalypse. It remains one of the most accurate accounts, showing all other commentators to be widely off the mark.

Having said that, Massey, being the profound thinker that he is, is one of the few who actually understands this writing because he strips it bare to the bone and scrutinises it with his inner light, basing his analysis on a thorough understanding of the types adumbrated in this work, and by using his method of typological interpretation. All Christians should be forced to read this section of Massey's opus; then they perhaps will learn something.

'The process of making scripture history from the Egypto-gnostic remains, without the gnosis or science of the ancient wisdom, may be seen approaching its climax in the Book of Revelation attributed to John the divine.' (p. 690) 'The present contention is that the book is and always has been inexplicable because it was based upon the symbolism of the Egyptian astronomical mythology without the gnosis...But in the Book of Revelation the drama of the mysteries has been mistaken for human history, and a mythical catastrophe for the actual ending of the world.' (p. 690) He identifies John with Taht-Aan, the divine penman. 'The object of the present section, then, is to show that the matter of 'revelation' was derived from the Egyptian astronomical mythology and eschatology, and that the Jesus of this book is one with Iu, the su or son of Atum-Ra, who was portrayed as the divine man and bringer of peace to earth a many thousand years ago.' (p. 691) John is the seer, what he sees is visions based on astronomical mythology, not futurity of the things to come. There are parallels between the Book of Enoch and Revelation. 'Seven watchers are called up for judgment, and when tried are found to have been unfaithful to their trust because they came not in their proper season. They are judged, found guilty, and cast down into the flaming abyss like the seven mountains overthrown in Revelation.' (p. 693) 'The day, or a day of judgment, was periodic, like the deluge. It was the ending of a time, an age or aeon, sometimes called 'the ending of the world' by those who were ignorant of the sign-language.' (p. 694)

When John is to swallow the little book, it is a repetition of the swallowing of the book in the Tale of Setnau. 'A brief synopsis will suffice to show that the Book of Revelation contains a version of the astronomical mythology which was derived from the Egyptian wisdom. The vanishing heaven is the celestial heptanomis that was formed in seven astronomes, on seven hills, or seven islands, which sank and passed away like the lost Atlantis in the last great deluge of all. The most ancient genetrix is reproduced as the great harlot. She is the beast that sat upon the waters as a pregnant hippopotamus. Her seven 'sons of the thigh' are here as the seven kings who were made drunken with the cup of her fornication or promiscuous sexual intercourse. These, as powers, are the seven heads of the scarlet-coloured beast or solar dragon upon which the woman rode. By a change of type, the scarlet-coloured beast becomes the 'Scarlet Lady' of later theology; the woman in red being substituted for the red water-cow. The Great Mother is now denounced as the great whore living in adultery with her own children who originated in the seven elemental powers, to pass through several phases of phenomena as the seven with Anup, with Ptah, with Horus, or with Jesus and with Ra.' (p. 698) 'Thus, when the second angel sounded, a mountain (one of the seven) sank down flaming to be quenched in the celestial sea. This was one of the seven mountains upon which the ancient harlot sat. At the same time a great star fell from heaven, which was one of the seven polestars. When the fifth angel sounded another polestar fell. The fall of the total seven has not been followed out one by one in stars. But the fall or wreck of the heptanomis piecemeal has been otherwise described.' (p. 701) 'According to the ancient wisdom, or the gnosis, says the writer, the seven heads of the beast on which the woman sits are seven mountains, and they are also seven kings, elsewhere called the kings of the earth, the kings who committed fornication with the woman, and were made drunken with her wine.' (p. 707)

Book 12

In the final section of his last work in life, Massey now concentrates on proving that the history of a so-called messiah personified in Jesus Christ was purely fictitious and based on a total misinterpretation of the symbolism that had been prevalent in ancient Egypt for thousands of years. In fact, this section can be seen as the culmination of his work, all the previous sections, nay the previous books, have been leading to this point, and he is now in a smug position where he can finally sit back and reveal to all his theory of the Christian myth as a substitution for the original gnosis.

Of course, he has said all this before in his prior works, namely the final section of Natural Genesis and his Lectures. But now he has a better grasp of his subject matter; it is more clarified in his mind, and therefore he can write it with a greater clarity.

'A doctrine of messiahship was founded on the ever-coming messu, or child of the inundation in the preanthropomorphic phase of symbolism, in which the type might be the fish, the papyrus-shoot, the beetle, hawk or calf, each one of which bears witness that when the infant-likeness was adopted as a figure of the ever-coming saviour or messiah the human type was just as non-historical as any of its predecessors.' (p. 727)

He now goes on to examine the astronomical mythology and its relation to the child, or the ever coming one, or messu, and how the changes of the polestars, the zodiacal signs, etc., would have played their part in determining the type prevalent. 'The Egyptian founders of astronomical science did not begin with mathematical calculations. They had to verify everything by observation through all the range of periodic time, and this was the only method that was fundamental or practical at first. It was by direct observation, not by calculation, that the wise men of Egypt and Meroë attained their knowledge of precession.' (p. 732) 'The divine mother and child had been humanized in the Egyptian religion when the stone monuments begin for us, at least ten thousand years ago, but the zootypes were still continued as data in sign-language. This was the knowledge that was in possession of the Wise Men, the Magi, the Zoroastrians, Jews, Gnostics, Essenes and others who kept the reckoning.' (p. 733)

The zodiacal sign of Pisces, for instance, would show why Christ was symbolised by the fish, why fish is eaten on a Friday, etc. 'It has often been a matter of wonderment why the birthday of the Son of God on earth should be celebrated as a festival of unlimited gorging and guzzling. The explanation is that the feast of Christmas Day is a survival of the ancient Uaka festival, with which the rebirth of the Nilotic year was celebrated with uproarious revellings and rejoicings, as the festival of returning food and drink. It was at once the natal-day of the Nile, and of the messu or messianic child under his various names.' (p. 743) 'Each year salvation came to Egypt with the waters just in time to save the land from drought and famine, and the power that saved it was represented by the shoot of the papyrus, or the fish as the bringer of food and drink on which the salvation of the people depended; and the bringer of these was Horus the saviour, as the messu of the inundation.' (p. 743) 'This is a strictly scientific and not-to-be-controverted demonstration of the indubitable truth that the birthday of the Messiah now celebrated on the 25th of December had been celebrated for at least 10,000 years on the corresponding day as the birth of the Egyptian messu at the feast of the Messiu on the first day of the Egyptian year, which was the 25th of July, from the time when the Easter equinox was in the sign of the lion.' (p. 744)

He then discusses the discrepancies between the dates of Jesus' birth, with no concord between the Bible and the Church Fathers. (See Murdock's Christ in Egypt on this.) 'This duality of the divine birth at Christmas and Easter has been the cause of inextricable confusion to the Christians, who never could adjust the falsehood to the fact; and now at last we recover the fact itself that will be fatal to the falsehood.' (p. 746) 'It will be elaborately demonstrated that the concocters of Christianity and its spurious records had a second-hand acquaintanceship with the Egyptian Ritual, and that they wrought into their counterfeit gospels all that could be made to look more or less historical-like as a sacerdotal mode of obtaining mastery over the minds of the utterly ignorant, who were held to be the 'better believers.'' (p. 746) 'As now demonstrated, according to the record of the mystery-teachers in the astronomical mythology of Egypt the legend of a child that was born of a mother who was a virgin at the time is at least as old as the constellation in the zodiac when the birthplace (in precession) coincided with the sign of Virgo some 15,000 years ago.' (p. 749) It is worth remembering that 'nothing was added to the Egypto-gnostic 'wisdom' by the carnalizers of the Christ in Jerusalem or Rome except the literalization of the mythos and perversion of the eschatology in a fictitious human history.' (p. 749)

He then discusses the legend of Jesus as it was founded and existed in Rome. The adoration scene on the walls of the temple of Luxor is an adumbration of Jesus' coming. 'The mythos is the parent of the märchen, and the unity of the märchen is traceable to the Egyptian mythology and eschatologythere, and nowhere else.' (p. 758) 'Only minds completely crazed or fatally confused by the current Christomania would suppose that the details of the story, which is as old at least as the cult of Ptah in Memphis, were derived from the 'historic' version that was canonized at last as Christian.' (p. 758) 'The mother with child, the great or enceinte mother, is at the head of the Kamite pantheon as the mother of life and a figure of fecundity.' (p. 761)

This was continued in the cult of Rome. All fables relating to the infant Jesus can be traced back to their ancient Egyptian equivalents, these are their prototypes. He then discusses the closest we have to a surviving fragment of the Christ as it is portrayed in the Egypto-Gnostic mysteries. These can be found in the writings of the Gnostics like the Pistis Sophia. 'One of the two books had the general title of The Book of the Great Logos, according to the mystery, an equivalent for the Logoi or Sayings of Jesus, which were Christianized as the Logia Kuriaka or Sayings of the Lord, and on which the canonical gospels were eventually founded.' (p. 771) 'Pistis Sophia begins where the gospel story comes to an end. Jesus rises in the Mount of Olives, but not on the mount that was localized to the east of Jerusalem. The Mount of Olives, as Egyptian, was the mountain of Amenta.' (p. 771) 'It contains an Egypto-gnostic version of the mysteries, astronomical and eschatological. Relics of the ancient wisdom have been piously preserved in this, the most important of all the gnostic remains, i.e., for the purpose of establishing a link between the Egyptian origins and the canonical gospels, and for showing how the 'history' was concocted.' (p. 773) 'The mysteries of Amenta, as in the Book of Revelation, are more or less repeated in the mysteries of Pistis Sophia which contains sufficient data to identity a gnostic version with the Kamite original.' (p. 774)

The writings contained in the Pistis Sophia are derived from the texts found in the Ritual. 'But the Egypto-gnostic Jesus is the fulfiller of both the first and the second advent; the first as the child of twelve years, the second as the Horus of thirty years; the first in the life on earth, the second in Amenta; the first as solar in the astronomical mythology, the second as spiritual in the eschatology; the first as the utterer of parables, the second as the expounder of the greater mysteries.' (p. 775) There are definite parallels between Horus and Jesus especially in their infancy, when the child is twelve he then disappears only to re-appear as the great teacher of 30 years of age. These parallels are more closely retained in the apocryphal texts rather than the canonical gospels. 'We hear little of the wonderful child as divine teacher in the canonical gospels, but some of the excluded matter appears in the apocryphal gospels.' (p. 776) 'Thus Pistis Sophia shows the physical foundation of the mysteries. Astronomical science was taught as matter of the mysteries, but the science being physical these were classified as the lesser mysteries, whereas the greater mysteries were eschatological.' (p. 778)

Jesus and his twelve disciples can be traced to the Horus of the astronomical mythology and the signs of the zodiac. There are many other parallels; Arthur and the twelve knights, the twelve judges, the twelve gods with Odin, etc. 'In the Ritual the deceased goes where he pleases, does as he pleases, and assumes whatsoever form he pleases as he masters mystery after mystery according to the gnosis. In the canonical gospels we find an exoteric rendering of these mysteries of Amenta, which the lie-enchanted Christian world believe in as historical miracles performed on earth by an historical saviour named Jesus.' (p. 784)

Jesus and the Christ are based on the double Horus. 'This it is as the double Horus, or as Jesus and the Christ, who was dual as manifestor for the Virgin Mother and afterwards for God the Father: double by nature, human and divine; double in matter and in spirit; double as child and as adult, double as the soul of both sexes.' (p. 786) 'The reason why the virgin's child should make his change and pass away when twelve years old, and why the divinized adult should not take up the story until thirty years of age, to leave no record during eighteen years, is to be explicated by the Egyptian wisdom. It is because the two as double Horus, or as the dual Jesus Christ, are no more than types, and have no relation to an individual human history.' (p. 791) 'The two Jesuses, one in matter and one in spirit, or Jesus and the Christ, are identical with Horus, the prince in the city of the blind, and Horus who reconstitutes his father.' (p. 792)

The Christ simply means the 'anointed,' as was Horus. Being anointed is a formula of change, of transubstantiation, or transformation, as was the Child Horus into the Elder Horus as son of Ra, as was Jesus when  he was transformed into the Christ. 'The second Horus, Horus in spirit, was the demonstrator of eternal life in his resurrection from the sepulchre who is thus the word-made-truth.' (p. 792) 'This is the merest passing allusion to the second Horus who was the anointed, only-begotten Son of God the Father; that is, to Horus, glorified, who followed human Horus in the flesh, but could not be so easily made to look historical.' (p. 792) The 'primitive mysteries of totemism were continued and developed as spiritual in the Egyptian eschatology.' (p. 794) 'These elements agree with the three persons in the trinity that were Osiris the father, Horus the son, Ra the holy spirit, in whose names as father, son and holy ghost the rite of baptism still continues to be practised.' (p. 795)

The mysteries and the miracles of Jesus were based on the gnosis. 'The mysteries were a dramatic mode of representing the gnosis or science of the Egyptian mythology and eschatology. They are the mysteries of Amenta.' (p. 805) Jesus 'promises that whosoever shall achieve the gnosis of this wisdom shall have the power of performing these mysteries of the resurrection which only become miracles when exoterically rendered in the canonical gospels.' (p. 806) The 'miracles of the canonical gospels repeat the mysteries of the Ritual, and the scene of these was in the earth of the manes, not in the earth of mortals,' (p. 806) and 'the gospel history has been based upon that other earth of the manes being mistaken for the earth of mortals.' (p. 806) 'The Christians babble about the mysteries of revealed religion, which mysteries never were revealed except to those who had been duly initiated. These were mysteries to the Christians simply because they had not been revealed to them. They are the mysteries of ancient knowledge reproduced as miracles of modern ignorance.' (p. 807) 'That which is done mythically by the god is performed by the manes on the eschatological plane, and as he is in the human likeness, it follows that he must walk the water in the sun-god's track.' (p. 807) And with confidence he says, 'we are now able to prove twice over by means of the original matter and mode of the mythos in the Egyptian eschatology that was humanized or literalized in legends and at last converted into Christian history.' (p. 808)

'The legends of mythology were not ideal, nor based upon abstract ideas. They were not first evolved from the inner consciousness, but from facts in outward nature that are for ever verifiable.' (p. 808) 'When it is conclusively proved that the Christian miracles are nothing more than a pagan mode of symbolical representation literalized, there is no longer any question of contravening, or breaking, or even challenging any well-known laws of nature.' (p. 809) Jesus when 'wielding a magical power over the elements, in casting out devils, in causing the spirits of evil to enter the swine, in healing the woman with the issue of blood, in giving sight to the blind, in transforming and transfiguring himself in suddenly concealing himself in walking upon the sea, in his personal conflict and battles with Satan, in raising the dead to life out of the earth, in resuscitating himself on the third day; in all these and other things Jesus is accredited with doing exactly what was attributed to Horus in the Ritual and in the Egyptian mysteries.' (p. 810) 'They are otherworld occurrences in the true rendering, and they can only be re-related to reality as a mythical mode of representing the scenes in the drama of Amenta.' (p. 810) And again, 'the faith was founded on the uttermost falsification of natural fact as the ground of the history. On the one hand we find a belief that these miraculous transactions, these teachings of the Christ and the Christ himself were historical. On the other, we have the proof that they were unhistorical, a proof upon evidence that has never been tampered with, and that is directly derived from witnesses that do not, cannot lie.' (p. 810)

He then discusses Jesus on the Mount, etc. This takes place in Amenta and was never a geographical place, never existed physically. It is post-resurrectional. Set and Horus can be traced via their counterparts in the gospels, with Set as the evil one and Horus as the good spirit. Here they can be seen as Satan tempting Jesus in the wilderness. 'Satan and Jesus are the representatives of Sut and Horus, the contending twins of darkness and light, of drought and fertility, who strove for supremacy in the various phenomena of external nature, and in several celestial localities belonging to the mythology.' (p. 832) 'Sut is the representative of evil, of darkness, drought, sterility, negation, and non-existence. It is his devilry to undo the good work that Horus does, like Satan sowing tares amongst the wheat.' (p. 832) 'We now have the original matter with which to compare the remains, and the comparative process will prove that these 'apocrypha' are not perversions of the canonical gospels, but that they preserve traditions derived from the Kamite mythology and eschatology.' (p. 834)

The most discernible of the episodes in the gospel history is the raising of Lazarus and the two Merti or Marys, Mary sitting at the feet of Jesus is identical with Isis at the feet of Osiris. 'As to the name, the Egyptian name of the Greek Osiris is Hesar, or Asar. And when we take into consideration that some of the matter came from its Egyptian source through the Aramaic and Arabic languages ... there is little difficulty, if any, in supposing that the Al (article the) has been adopted through the medium of the Arabic, or derived from the Hebrew prenominal stem לא, to emphasize a thing, as in the Osiris, which passed into the article Al for the in Arabic, and was prefixed to the name of Osiris as Al-Asar, which, with the Greek 's' for suffix becomes L-azarus.' (p. 851) 'According to the genuine mythos or gnosis which is Egyptian, and we have no other criterion, the double advent of Horus depended on his birth and rebirth, in the two earths; the birth of a human soul in matter and the rebirth of an immortal in Amenta.' (p. 862) The second coming of Horus = Jesus, not in this life, but in eternity. 'But it is otherwise in the canonical gospels, because in making out a history solely human the concocters were limited to the human life in the earth of time.' (p. 862) 'The Horus or Jesus of twelve years is the mortal on this side of death. The Horus or Jesus of thirty years is a spirit on the other side, in spirit-world.' (p. 863) We have to remember that 'when the narratives in the canonical scriptures had taken the place of the primitive drama, certain mysteries of Amenta were made portable in parables, and thenceforth the gospels repeat the same things in parables and logoi that were represented dramatically in the mysteries.' (p. 865) 'Paul is the only writer or speaker in the New Testament who knew better.' (p. 867) 'Paul was epopt and perfect amongst those who knew that the historic version was a lying delusion.' (p. 867)

Massey now discusses the three principle events of the myth of Christ; the Last Supper, the Crucifixion, and the Resurrection, demonstrating that each of these events were antecedent in the astronomical mythology before their literalization in the gospels. The Last Supper is based on the Egyptian myth of Set and Osiris' banquet when he enticed him into a casket and then killed him. It can also be found in the Ritual. 'Sekari is Osiris in the sekru, or coffin; and to be in the coffin, or in the cruciform figure of the mummy, has the same meaning (with a change of type) as if the divine victim might be embodied in the tat, or extended on the cross.' (p. 875) 'The scene of the resurrection is in Amenta, the earth of eternity, the earth of the manes, not on the earth of mortals. It is here the risen Horus breathes the breath of his new life into the sleeping dead to raise them from their coffins, sepulchres and cells. When the Egyptian Christ, or karast, rose up from the tomb as Amsu-Horus it was in a likeness of the buried mummy, as regards the shape, with one arm loosened from the swathes or bandages. But this resurrection was not corporeal on earth.' (p. 878) 'The mystery of transubstantiation was not understood by the writers of the gospels, who did not know whether Jesus reappeared in the body or in spirit, as a man or as a god. They carried off all they could, but were not in possession of the secret wisdom which survived amongst the Egypto-gnostics. They wrote as carnalizers of the Christ.' (p. 879) 'Now this making of the krst, or mummy-Christ, after the Egyptian fashion is apparent in the gospels. When the woman brings the alabaster cruse of precious ointment to the house of Simon and pours it on the head of Jesus he says, 'In that she poured this ointment upon my body, she did it to prepare me for my burial.' She was making the Christ as the anointed-mummy previous to interment.' (p. 880) 'In the absence of the gnosis the reincorporation in Amenta led to the doctrine of a physical resurrection at the last day on this earth. The power of resurrection was imparted by Ra, the father in spirit, to the anointed and beloved son.' (p. 881) 'The Christians having carried off the Corpus Christi which the Egyptians transubstantiated in the sepulchre, have never since known what to do with it. But as the Christ rose again in the material body and ascended with it into heaven, leaving no mummy in the tomb, they can but nurse the delusive hope that a physical saviour may redeem the physical corpse, so that those who believe may be raised by him at the last day and follow him bodily into paradise.' (p. 887) 'Jesus is not torn in pieces, but Osiris was. When Sut did battle with Un-Nefer, the Good Being, he tore the body into fragments, and that is the sacrifice still commemorated in the Christian eucharist.' (p. 887)

He ends his great work with a discussion of the sayings of Jesus, especially those discovered fragments that were published shortly before his death. He believes these so-called sayings are not original but can be traced to the Egyptian wisdom along the lines of the Gnostics and the Egypto-gnostics. 'The present object is to prove that all such logia were the sayings of him who is here set forth as the Egypto-gnostic Jesus, who had many types and names but no individual form of historic personality.' (p. 889) 'Again and again, the status and character of Jesus as the sayer in the gospels are only to be determined by the mythical or mystical relationship.' (p. 901) 'And as Horus the divine word in person is the Lord whose name of Heru signifies the Lord, these sayings of Horus are the logia kuriaka; assuredly the oldest in the world, which we have now traced to Iu-em-hetep, the Egypto-gnostic Jesus as the sayer for Atum-Ra.' (p. 903) The 'sayings of Horus the lord in the Ritual were collected and written down by Taht-Mati the scribe, and that Matthew, or Matthias, corresponds to Mati both in character and by name,' (p. 903) and 'the extant Gospel of Matthew was evidently founded on a collection of those 'wise sayings, dark sentences and parables' that constituted the wisdom of the Egypto-gnostic Jesus, one late version of which has been preserved in the Book of Ecclesiasticus, entitled 'the wisdom of Jesus.'' (p. 903) 'But it was only the spiritual Horus or Christ that could reveal the true gnosis, which is here admitted versus the historic personage.' (p. 904) 'The Book of the Dead or Ritual of the resurrection virtually contains the Gospel of the Egyptians which was assumed to have been lost.' (p. 905) 'From this we learn, by means of the comparative process, that the literalizers of the legend and the carnalizers of the Egypto-gnostic Christ have but gathered up the empty husks of Pagan tradition, minus the kernel of the gnosis; so that when we have taken away all which pertains to Horus, the Egypto-gnostic Jesus, all that remains to base a Judean history upon is nothing more than an accretion of blindly ignorant belief; and that of all the gospels and collections of 'sayings' derived from the Ritual of the resurrection in the names of Mati or Matthew, Aan or John, Thomas or Tum, Hermes, Iu-em-Hetep or Jesus, those that were canonized at last as Christian are the most exoteric, and therefore the farthest away from the underlying, hidden, buried, but imperishable truth.' (p. 905)

If this has proved helpful, or you may have a criticism regarding the Guide, please contact me via email. Any comments will be appreciated.





This page last updated: 29/10/2010