Los Commentarios Reales,
que tartan del origen de los Yncas
(The Royal Commentaries on the Incas, in two parts)
Garcia Lasso de la Vega
(Pt. 1, 1609; Pt. 2, 1616)
[Translated by Google from the original Spanish.]
Warnings | Chapter I |
Chapter II | Chapter III |
Chapter IV | Chapter V |
Chapter VI | Chapter VII |
Chapter VIII | Chapter IX |
Chapter XI | Chapter XII | Chapter XIII | Chapter XIV | Chapter XV | Chapter XVI | Chapter XVII | Chapter XVIII | Chapter XIX | Chapter XX
Chapter XXI | Chapter XXII | Chapter XXIII | Chapter XXIV | Chapter XXV | Chapter XXVI | Chapter XXVII | Chapter XXVIII | Chapter XXIX | Chapter XXX
Chapter I | Chapter II | Chapter III | Chapter IV | Chapter V | Chapter VI | Chapter VII | Chapter VIII | Chapter IX | Chapter X | Chapter XI
TO THE READER
Although there have been curious who have written Spanish republics of the New World, like Mexico and Peru, and other realms of paganism that has not been with the whole relationship that they could give, I've noticed particularly in the things I've seen written in Peru, of which, as someone from the city of C or ZCO, which was another Rome in that empire, long and clear I have more news that so far the writers have given. Truth is that touch many things very big that had republic, but escríbenlas so short that even the very noticeable to me (in the manner that they say) the misunderstood. Therefore, forced the natural love of country, I offered the job of writing these reviews, which will clearly and distinctly that is in that republic had before the Spanish, and in their vain religious rites, as in the government in peace and war, but their kings were, and everything else that the Indians can say, from the lowest to the exercise of the vassals, to the top of the royal crown. We write only the empire of the Incas, without going into other monarchies, because I have no news of them than this. In the discourse of history the truth of her protest and say no big thing, which is not authorized with the same Spanish historians who touched it in part or in whole, that my intention is not to contradict, but serve a commentary and gloss, and interpreter in many Indian and foreign words in that language interpreted outside the property of it, depending on length will be in the discourse of history, which I offer to the mercy of the read, not to claim another interest rather than to serve the Christian, so that give thanks to Our Lord Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary his mother, by whose merits and intercession of Eternal Majesty deigned to take the abyss of idolatry so many great nations, and reduce the guild of the Roman Catholic Church, Mother and our Lord. I hope to be received in the same spirit that I offer, because it is the correspondence that I will deserve, although the work does not deserve. Other two books are written of the events between the Spanish in the land went up to the year 1560 I left it: we want to see them and finishes, to make them the same that they offering. Our Lord, etc.
ABOUT THE GENERAL LANGUAGE OF THE INDIANS OF PERU
To understand it better so that (with) God's favour, we had
to write this history (because we say it many names from the general language of
the Indians of Peru) will be good to give some warnings about it. The first is
to have three different ways to say a few syllables, very different of how
pronounced the Spanish language, which consist of the different pronunciations
of the same word meanings: to utter a few syllables on the lips, others on the
palate other inside the throat, and at the front give examples where he offer.
To emphasize the predictions, we find that their accents are almost always on
the penultimate syllable, and rarely in the penultimate, and never in the past,
that is, contradicting those who say that the barbarian jurisdictions must
emphasize on the last, what they say about not knowing the language. It is also
noted that in that general language of C or ZCO (who is my intention to speak,
not the particularities of each province, who are legion) is missing the
following letters: b, d, f, g, j, l simple, there is none, but ll
duplicate, and otherwise there is no pronunciation of rr doubling
principle, neither in the middle of the speech, but it has always been easy to
pronounce. Nor is x, so that's all missing six letters of a, b, c,
or Castilian Spanish, and we say that missing eight with the simple l
duplicate the rr: Spanish add these letters to the prejudice and
corruption of language and as the Indians do not, commonly mispronounce the
Spanish jurisdictions that have them. To tackle this corruption is lawful me
because I am Indian, who in this history I write as an Indian, with the same
letters as those such predictions should be written, and then they are not bad
to read that this new view in against the misuse made, which you must give
pleasure to read those names on their property and purity, and why should I
cheer many things that Spanish historians say to check that I was saying, and
because I have to pull the letter with their corruption as they are written: I
notice that seems to contradict myself writing lyrics (I said) that do not have
that language, but I do not get faithfully what the Spanish type. Should also be
noted that no plural number in this general language, although there are
particles that mean plurality. Sírvense singular in both numbers. If any
Indian name I lay in the plural, will be for the Spanish corruption, or the good
adjectives in the predictions, that would sound bad if you write it the unique
Indian jurisdictions, and adjectives or relative Spaniards in plural. Many other
things have that language, different from Spanish, Italian and Latin, which
notice the mestizos and creoles curious, as are those of the
language, I tired to teach me the finger from Spain to the principles of their
language, to support it in its purity, which is a shame that is lost or
corrupted, being a language so gallant, in which parents have worked hard for
the Holy Society of Jesus (as other religions) in order to know well to talk,
and by their good example (which is what matters most) have used a lot in the
doctrine of the Indians. It also warns that this name was understood in
neighbouring Peru by the Spanish who had division of Indians, and in this sense
it will always be offered. It is also of note that in my time, which were until
the year 1500 and sixty, or twenty years later, there was no money in my country
wrought: for it is understood the Spanish in the buying and selling silver and
weighing the frames and gold ounces, and as in Spain say ducats, saying in Peru
pesos or Castilian: each dollar of silver or gold, reduced to good law, worth
four hundred and fifty coppers. So the weights reduced Castilla ducats every
five pesos are six ducats. We say this not to cause confusion in telling the
history of weights and ducats. The amount of weight of silver to the weight of
gold, there was much difference, as in Spain there, plus the value of all was
one. To exchange the gold for silver, gave his interest as a percentage. Also
there was interest to barter silver for silver tested called power, which was to
This barn name is not the general language of Peru, should be of the Windward Islands, the Spanish have introduced into their language with many others that will be noted in history. Means large room. The Inca kings were so large plaza that served to make their holidays in it, when the weather was rainy and not give rise to hiciesen in the streets, and suffice it to warn.
IF THERE ARE MANY WORLDS. IS THE FIVE AREAS
Having to deal with the New World, or the best and main part of you, who are the kingdoms and provinces of the empire called Peru, whose antiquities and origin of the kings want to write, seems to be fair, according to the common practice of writers, try here at the beginning if the world is one, or if there are many worlds, if it is flat or round, and if so is the sky round or flat. If the earth is habitable or not, most of the temperate zones, if there's a warm passage to the other, if there are antipodes, and what, which and other things like the ancient philosophers long and curiously tried, and modern non-stop talking and writing, following each opinion you like most. But because it is not my main intent aquesta or an Indian forces can claim both, and also because the experience, after it was discovered what they call the New World, has disillusioned most of these questions, pass them briefly to go elsewhere, whose fear not reach final terms, but, trusting in the infinite mercy, I say that maybe you can say that there is only one world, and even call the Old World and New World has been discovered is it back to us, and not because they are two, but all one. And to those who dare yet there are many worlds, there to respond, but are in their imaginations heretical until hell are disappointed in them. " And to the doubters, if there is any doubt that, if it is flat or round, may be satisfied with the testimony of those who have turned all of it, or most, such as the Nao Victoria, and others since then I have surrounded. And far from heaven, except he is flat or round, you can respond with the actual words of the prophet: Extendens coelum pellem sicut in which would not show the shape and workmanship of the work, striking one of the other eg saying, to put out the sky and skin, that is, covering the sky with this great body of the four elements around, and covered with fur round the animal's body: not only the main, but that claim that the five parts of the world are called habitable zone of the two temperate, and the environment, for its excessive heat, and the two ends, by the too cold are uninhabitable, and that one Habitable Zone can not be passed to another floor, the heat too much in between, I can say other than we all know, I was born in the Torrid Zone, which is in Cuzco, and grew up there until twenty years, and have been in other temperate zone, on the other side of the Tropic of Capricorn, the South, in recent terms of Charcas, which are the Chichas, and to come to this other part tempered North, where I write this, I went through the Torrid Zone and went through everything, and I spent three calendar days under the equator, where they say passing perpendicularly, which is at the end of Passau, for everything I say that is habitable The tower also as mild. Areas cool wish I could say, with his own eyes, as the other three: remítome Dellas those who know more than me. To which I say that because of his great coolness are uninhabitable, I would venture to say to those opposite are also habitable as others, because in good standing is to imagine, as most believe, that such large parts of the world hiciese God useless, having grown to inhabit all men, and that they are mistaken as the old saying about the Cold zones, as well as deluded as they said of the tower, which was uninhabitable because of its very hot. Before must believe that the Lord, as wise and powerful father, and mother nature as universal and pious, had overcome the disadvantages of the cold heat soberly, how to remedy the excessive heat of the Torrid Zone with so much snow, fountains, as rivers and lakes are in Peru, making it warm for so many different temples, ones that decline to heat, more heat, reaching as low regions, and therefore so hot that by far are almost uninhabitable , as the ancients said della. Other regions that decline to cold, and colder, to go to parties so high, they also become uninhabitable for the great coldness of perpetual snow on do have, against that of the philosophers said Torrid Zone, who never imagined that it could be snow, having perpetual line below the equator, unabated ever, much or little, at least in the big mountains, if not on the slopes or della ports. It should be mentioned that in the Torrid Zone, which reaches della Peru, not to heat or cold in remote regions, or farther away or closer to the equator, but to be higher or lower in the same region, in close proximity to land, as will be told longer. Now I say that this similarity may also believe that they are temperate and cold zones are habitable, as they say many serious authors, although not by sight view and experience, but enough have also hinted at when God created man and said, "Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth and subdue it," where it is habitable, because if it is not, nor could subdue, or fill rooms. I hope in His omnipotence, which in time will discover these secrets (and discovered the New World) for increased confusion and outrage of daring to his natural philosophy and human minds want to assess the power and wisdom of God, I can not do their work like them more than they imagine, having such a disparity of knowledge to another is how much of the finite to the infinite, and so on.
DESCRIPTION OF PERU
The four terms as the empire of the Incas had when he came
into Spanish are: North Ancasmayu came to the river that runs between the ends
of Quito and pastures had, meant by the general language of Peru, river blue is
below the equator, almost perpendicularly. At noon, the term was called the
Maule river, which runs Leste host, from the kingdom of Chile, before arriving
at the Arawak, which is over forty degrees south of the equator. Between these
two rivers put little less than thirteen hundred and fifty miles long by land
from the river to the Chichas Ancasmayu, which is the last province of the
Charcas, North and South, and what is called the kingdom of Chile contains about
five hundred and fifty leagues, also North-South, counting from the last of the
province of the Chichas to the river Maule.
Lift is the term that men never tread, or snow that runs from Santa Marta to the Strait of Magellan, which the Indians call Ritisuyu, which is band of snow. The west bordering the South Sea, which runs along the coast at full length. Start the end of the empire along the coast, from Cape Passau, for do pass the equator, to the Maule River, which also enters the South Sea. Levante to the west is narrow throughout the kingdom. For the widest, which is across from the province Muyupampa, by the Chachapoyas to the city of Trujillo, which is on the seacoast, has one hundred and twenty miles wide, and is narrower, that is from the port of Arica to the province called Llaricosa, is seventy miles wide. These are the four terms of what the Lord the Inca kings, whose history we want to write, by divine favour.
THE ORIGIN OF THE INCAS, REYES DEL PERU
Those people living or dying on the way we have seen, our
Lord God allow that treats them come out a star of dawn, in those dark
escurísimas give them any news of the natural law and civility and respect
that men should be taken each other, and that the descendants of that, coming
from good to better, and cultivate those beasts into men, making them capable of
reason and of any good teaching, so that when the same God, the sun of justice,
had for well sending the light of its divine rays to those idolaters, he found
them not so wild, but more amenable to receiving the Catholic faith and the
teaching and doctrine of Holy Mother Church of Rome, and since then I have
received, as will the one and the other in the course of this history. Very
clear from experience that there has been more ready and agile when they were to
receive the gospel Indians grabbed the Inca kings, ruled and taught, not the
other nations neighbouring towns, where it was not yet the teaching of the
Incas, many of which are now so barbaric and crude as they were before, to be
seventy-one years the Spanish entered Peru. And since we are at the door of this
great maze, let us be well forward to give news of what he had.
After giving many traces, and taken many paths to enter account for the origin and early Incas, natural kings were from Peru, I found that the best trace and the easy way out and tell what level it was in my childhoods often heard my mother and brothers and uncles and other elders, Deste about origin and beginning, because everything that is said about the other way is to fall in just as we say, and you'd better know by the words that the Incas have, not that of other foreign authors. Thus my mother resided in Cuzco, his homeland, came to visit almost every week, few relatives and relatives of the cruelties and tyrannies of Atahualpa (as in life we will have) escaped, in which visits, provided its most common talks were treating the source of their kings, the majesty of them, the greatness of their empire, their conquests and achievements, the government in peace and war were, of laws as the benefit and the benefit of their subjects ordered. In short, they kept the thriving thing that had happened including the favourable answer to that account.
In the past greatness and prosperity came to present things: crying their dead kings, alienated his empire and finished his republic, etc. These and similar discussions were the Incas and Pallas in his visits, and lost the memory of it always ended in tears conservation and crying, saying the kingdom in vassalage trocósenos, etc. In this talk, I as a boy came and went many times where they were, and I was glad to the hear, and rejoice to hear of such fables. Turning, then, days, months and years, and I still sixteen or seventeen years, my relatives came to pass that one day being in this conversation, talking about their kings and antiquities, the oldest of them, who was Dellas I realized, I said, "Inca, Uncle, because there is no writing from you, which is what keeps the memory of things past, what news do you have the origin and principle of our kings? For there the Spanish other nations and their neighbours, as have stories of God and man, they know them when their kings began to reign and those of others, and bartered some other empires, to know how many thousand years ago God created heaven and earth, All this and much more known for his books. But you, that you lack of them, what memory you have of your antiques? Who was the first of our Incas? What was the name? What was his lineage origin? What so he began to reign? How men and arms conquered this great empire? What source had our deeds?"
The Inca, as they rejoiced to have heard the questions, for the pleasure he received from Dellas' account, turned to me (which has already many times he had heard, but none with the attention that time), and said, "Sobrino, I tell you the very willingly, to you should hear them and store them in the heart (i.e. Dell frasi in memory). You will know that in ancient land throughout this region you see were some great mountains and brambles, and the people in those days lived like beasts and irrational animals, no religion, no police, no people, no home, no land to cultivate or plant, without clothing or covering her flesh, and could not plow cotton or wool to make dress. They lived in pairs and threes, as rightly to join in the caves and crevices of rocks and caves of the earth, ate like beasts of the field grass and tree roots, and fruit that they gave of uncultivated theirs, and human flesh. They covered their meat with leaves and tree bark and animal skins, others went naked. In short, they lived like deer and Salvajinas, and even the women had as brutes, because they failed to take them own and known."
Note, by "angry not repeating many times the words" Our Father the Sun, which was the language of the Incas, and manner of worship and observance say them if appointed to the Sun, because it boasted descent from him, and that Inca was not, it was not lawful to take them in the mouth, it was blasphemy and stoned. Inca said: "Our Father the Sun, seeing such men, as I said, took pity, and had pity of them, and sent from heaven to earth one son and one daughter of their own to that doctrine in the Knowledge Our Father the Sun, to worship him and they had their god, and that should give them precepts and laws on which they lived as men by reason and civility, so that people live in houses and villages, they knew till the land, cultivate plants and grain, raising cattle and Dell and enjoy the fruits of the earth, as rational men, not like animals. With this order and mandate our father the Sun put these two sons in Lake Titicaca, which is eighty leagues from here, and were told that they wanted to do, wherever them to stop to eat or sleep, would try to kneel on the floor a gold rebar, half a yard in length and two fingers in thickness, which gave them to signal samples that bar where they were drowned, with only a blow that she should give ground, there would be the Sun our Father to stop and preventing their entry and cut. At last he said: "When you cut these people to our service, keep it in reason and justice, mercy, clemency and gentleness, doing all the office of godly father to his children and loved soft, imitation and resemblance to me, that everybody do well, I give my light and clarity to see and make their farms, and they heat up when they are cold, and create their pastures and fields, do the trees bear fruit and multiply their flocks, rain and calm of his time, and I have to care each day around the world see the needs that are offered land for the provision and help, as supportive and benefactors of the people, want you to imitate this example as my children, sent to earth only to the doctrine and the benefit of those men who live like beasts. And of course I constitute and appoint kings and lords of all nations so doctrináredes with your good reasons, works and government. "Having declared their willingness to our father the sun to his two children, dismissed him. They left Titicaca, and walked north, and all the way, wherever we stopped, tempting gold bar sink, and were never sank. So they entered into a sale or small bedroom, which is seven or eight miles to the south of this city, which is now called Tampu Pacárec, which means selling, or sleeping, it wakes up, and give it this name because the Inca came out of the dawn while asleep. It is one of the people who populate this prince sent later, and its inhabitants now boast greatly the name, because I won our Inca arrived there he and his wife, our queen, in this valley of Cuzco, then all he was made wild mountain.
THE FOUNDATION OF CUZCO, THE IMPERIAL CITY
The first stop we made in this valley, "the Inca" was on the
hill called Huanacauti, to the south of this city. They tried to drive on land
the gold bar, which are easily sank the first blow, they met her, saw no more.
So our Inca said his sister and wife: "In this valley sends our father the Sun
to stop and make our seat and abode, to accomplish his will. Therefore, queen
and sister, it is that each in turn we will call and attract these people to
indoctrinate and do good to our father the sun sends us." Huanacauti the hill
out our early kings each in his part to call people, and that place the first
news we had trampled under their feet and have left it there to make men, we had
done to him , as is well known, a temple to worship our Father the Sun, in
memory of this favour and that made the world. The prince went north, and the
princess to the south, to all men and women who stood by those brambles were
talking and saying how his father had sent the sun from heaven for them to be
teachers and benefactors of the inhabitants of all that land, whooping them out
of the life they had, and showing them to live as men, and in compliance with
what the Sun their father had commanded, went to the call and out of those woods
and weeds, and reduce them to dwell in villages villages, and give them to eat
delicacies of men, not beasts. These things and others like our kings said the
first wild forests in these lands and found, when they saw those two people
dressed and adorned with ornaments that our father the sun had given them (habit
very different from what they brought), and pierced ears, and their descendants
as open as we bring, and in his words and his face showed as children of the
sun, and men came to give people that lived, and maintenance to eat, marvelling
at a party what they saw, and other aficionados of the promises made them, gave
them full credit for everything they said, and worshiped and revered as sons of
the Sun, and obeyed like kings, and calling them a wild others, and referring
the wonders they had seen and heard, gathered in large number of men and women,
came to our kings to take up where they wished.
Our princes, seeing the many people who were close to him, gave orders that some are engaged in providing your picnic for everyone, because hunger does not return to pour in the mountains sent others work to make huts and houses, giving Inca trace how they were doing. In this way, began to populate our imperial city, divided into two half they called Hanan Cuzco, which, as you know, it means the high Cuzco and Hurin Cuzco, Cuzco is low. Those who drew the king wanted the village to Hanan Cuzco, and so they called the high, and those who called the queen, who settled in Hurin Cuzco, so they called the bass. This division of town was not for the half ahead of the other half of the exemptions and privileges, but that all were equal as brothers, sons of a father and a mother. Just wanted the Inca who had this division of people and names unlike high and low, to make it perpetual memory of that one had called King, Queen and others, and ordered that each had only one difference and recognition of superiority that the Cuzco were respected and held high as firstborn older brothers and bass were like second children, and in short, were as the right arm and left at any place and prominence of trade, for being the High attracted by the male and the female bass. Like from the same division were then in every town large or small of our empire, which divided by districts or lineages, saying Hananayllu and Hurinayllu, which is the top and bottom line, Hanan and Hurin his own, which is the district high and low.
Together our populating the city taught the Indians Inca men belonging to male occupations, such as breaking and cultivating the soil, and sow the grain, seeds and vegetables that they showed they were eating and helpful, for which taught them to make plows and other necessary instruments, and gave way bring forth out of order and ditches from streams that run through this valley of Cuzco, to teach them to bring the shoes. Moreover, the queen of Indian industry in womanly occupations, spinning and weaving cotton and wool and making clothing for themselves and their husbands and children, he said to them how they do in other offices of the service from home. In short, nothing of which belong to human life let our rulers to teach their subjects first, becoming the Inca king master of men, and Queen Coya women teacher.
THE AUTHOR ON THE STORY
Since we have laid the foundation of our building (but
fabulous) at the origin of the Incas, kings of Peru, is why we stop later in the
conquest and reduction of the Indians, extending more than the summary he gave
me that Inca the relationship of Incas and many other Indians, natives of the
towns that the first Inca Manco Capac and sent people down to his empire, with
which I grew up and communicated to twenty years. At this time I heard about all
that we are writing, because in my childhood I was told their stories like
fables include children. Then grown in age, gave me a long story of its laws and
government, comparing the new Spanish government to that of the Incas, dividing
in particular crimes and punishments, and the rigor Dellas, They told how their
kings came in peace and war, how they treated their subjects, and how they were
served of reach. Besides this, I had as a child all his own idolatry, rituals,
ceremonies and sacrifices, their feast days and non-core, and how held;
decánme their abuses and superstitions, good and bad omens, and the one who
looked to ban in their sacrifices and out of reach. In short, I say I got news
of what they had in their republic, if then I wrote it, was more abundant this
story. Others have told me the Indians, I reached my eyes and saw much of that
idolatry, festivals and superstitions that even in my day, to twelve or thirteen
years of my age, had not completely finished. I was born eight years after the
Spanish won my land, and as I said, I grew up there until twenty years and saw
so many things that made the Indians in that their paganism, which tell, saying
that vi. Without the relationship that my parents gave me the things said and
not what I saw, I have been other numerous accounts of the achievements and
deeds of those kings, because then they set out to write this story, I wrote to
the grammar school classmates, charging them each to help me with the
relationship that could be of particular achievements that the Incas were the
provinces of their mothers, because each province has its accounts and knots in
their stories, anal and Dellas tradition, and therefore retains better. As it
happened that what happened in the others. Classmates, taking really what I
asked, each which Dell became aware of my intention to his mother and relatives
who, knowing that an Indian child of his earth, wanted to write the events of
her, taken from their files relations they had of their stories, and I sent
them, and so was the news of the events and achievements of each Inca, which is
the same as the Spanish historians had, but it will be longer, as we noted in
many parts della. And because all the facts first Inca Deste are
principles and base of the history we write, we say them worth much here, at
least the most important, because we do not repeat later in the lives and deeds
of the Incas each of their descendants, because they all generally, and not
kings as kings, precious imitate any and every condition, works and customs
Deste first prince Manco Capac, and said his stuff, we will have the that of all
of them. We will carefully say more records deeds, leaving many as irrelevant
and tidy, but some things said, and others who say, look fabulous, I did not
seem to stop writing, not to remove the grounds on which the Indians founded for
bigger and better things than his empire have, because after all, of these
principles the great things fabulous procedures in reality it has today Spain,
for which I will say what convieniere for the best news I can give of the
principles, means and ends of that monarchy, which I testify that the
relationship simply sucked in the milk, and that since then I've been, ordered
to mine own, and I promise the fans Dellos not party to quit tell the truth of
the matter, without taking away from evil and add to the good they had, that I
know that the Gentiles is a sea of errors, and do not write news that were
missed, but the same things that the Spanish historians have writing of that
land, and the kings of it, and claiming the same words Dellos where be
convenient, so you can see that fictions do not pretend for my relatives, but I
say the same as the Spanish say, only serve a commentary to declare and expand
many things they peered to say, and left imperfect, for having missed entire
relationship. Were added many missing their stories, and passed in fact true,
and some will be removed, which left over, however false relationship that had,
not knowing to ask the Spanish with distinction and age times, and division of
provinces and nations, or failure to understand the Indian who gave it, or
failure to understand each other because of the difficulty of language than the
Spanish who thinks they know more of him, ignoring the nine of ten parts, for
the many things a same word means, and the different pronunciations for the same
speech has very different meanings, as discussed below in some words that will
be forced to bring them into account.
Besides this, in everything that stand out republic destroyed before they known, shall say, is simply counting what was in their age of their idolatry, rituals, sacrifices and ceremonies, and its government, laws and customs, peace and war without any thing to compare them to other similar stories that are human and divine, or the government of our time, because all comparisons are odious. Anyone who can read them compare them to your taste, many find similar to the old, and of the Holy Scripture as the worldly and pagan fables of old, many will see that laws and customs resemble those of our century, many others hear throughout contrary, for me I did what I could, having failed that I wanted. The discreet reader beg receive my spirit, that is to give pleasure and satisfaction, although the strength nor the ability of an Indian, born and raised among the Indians between weapons and horses can not get there.
WILL AND DEATH OF THE INCA MANCO CAPAC
Manco Capac ruled many years, but can not say for certain how
many, say more than thirty, and over forty others, always busy in the things we
have said, and when he was near death, called his sons, there were many, and his
wife Queen Mama Ocllo Huaco, as concubines he had taken, saying it was good that
there were many children of the Sun also called the chief men of his subjects,
and by way of testament asked a long conversation, instructed the Crown Prince
and other children the love and benefit of the tenants, and vassals loyalty and
service of their king, and keeper of the laws that allowed them, stating that
all his father had ordered This dismissed the Sun's vassals, and the children
did in secret another talk, which was the last, where they had always sent them
in memory that were children of the sun, to respect and worship him as god and
father; told them that, in imitation of him, hiciesen keeping his laws
and commandments, and they were the first to save, to give an example to his
subjects, and they were gentle and pious, that would reduce the Indians to love,
attracting them with benefits and not force, that would never be forced good
subjects, who were kept in justice, without consent grievance between them, and
in short, they said showed them in their virtues, and in short, told them their
virtues showed they were children Sun, confirming it works attesting to the
words, so that Indians would believe them, where not, that would make mocking
them if they say they saw one and do another. He ordered them all that they
charged left, I commend them for their children and descendants from generation
to generation, to achieve and keep that which is commanded father the Sun,
claiming that they were all his words, and thus leaving via last will and
testament. He told them that was called the Sun, and was going to rest with him
to remain at peace, from heaven took care of them, and they favoured and
socorrería all your needs. Saying these things and others like the Inca
Manco Capac died, he left as heir to Sinchiroca, his eldest son, and Mama Coya
Ocllo Huaco, his wife and sister. Prince other kings left these other sons and
daughters, who intermarried with each other, to keep clean the blood, which
claimed descent from the Sun fabulously, because it is true they had in
veneration very clean desto descending kings, mixture of other blood,
because God had her, and all others for human, even if the great lords of
vassals, called curacas.
The Inca Mama Sinchiroca married Cora Ocllo (as some want), her older sister, to imitate the example of the father, and grandparents' Sun and Moon, because in their paganism had to the Moon was the sister and wife of Sun made this match to keep the blood clean and heir because he owned the kingdom, both by his mother or his father, and for other reasons later say longer. The other brothers, legitimate and illegitimate, also married to each other, to preserve and enhance the succession of the Incas. Desto said the brothers marry each other had commanded the Sun and the Inca Manco Capac had ordered because they had their children with whom to marry, so that blood is kept clean, but then one could not marry the sister, but only the Inca heir, which kept them, as we shall see in the process of history.
The Inca Manco Capac was mourned by his subjects with great feeling: crying lasted many months and the obsequies. Embalmed his body to keep him and keep him in sight, worshipping god, son of the Sun; offering many sacrifices of sheep, lambs and sheep, and rabbits, poultry, grain and vegetables, confessing lord of all things that had left. What I, as I saw the condition and nature of these people, I can guess the origin Deste Prince Manco Inca, that his subjects, by their greatness, called Manco Capac, is that an Indian must have a good understanding wisdom and advice, and it reached the very simplicity of those nations, and saw the need for them to doctrine and teaching of natural life, and with cunning and intellect to be estimated, pretended that story, saying he and his wife were Children of the Sun, who came from Heaven, and that his father sent them to doctrines and hiciesen either to the people, and believe should be done to get in shape and habit he brought, particularly the ears, as big as the Incas brought, that some were amazing to have seen those who do not like me and saw that now (if used) will be strange to imagine how you could enlarge both, and as to the benefits and honours to his vassals made, confirm the tale of his ancestors, the Indians firmly believed he was the son of the Sun from heaven, and worshiped as such, as did the ancient nations, with less gross, other that made them such benefits, because it is so that people to attend as much as anything to see if what the teacher satisfied with what they say, and having agreed on the life and doctrine, have no need of arguments to convince them what they will do with them. He said that because neither the Incas of royal blood, nor the common people, not provide another source of their kings, but which has been in his fables histories, which resemble each other, and all agree to do first Inca Manco Capac.
SOME LAWS OF THE INCAS WERE IN HIS GOVERNMENT
Never had a pecuniary penalty or forfeiture, because they
said the estate punish offenders and let live was not the bad guys want to
remove the republic, but the ranch to the criminals, and leave them with more
freedom for them to do greater harm. If any curaca rebelled (which was
what most severely punished the Incas) or had other crimes that deserve death
penalty, although the necessary orders, did not remove the successor state, but
they gave it, representing the guilt and penalty of his father to keep it the
same. Pedro de Cieza de Leon says of the Incas to the thing that follows,
chapter twenty-one: "And they had another warning not to be hated by the
natives, who never took the lordship of being chiefs to whom they came from
inheritance and were natural, and if by chance any crime committed, or was
blamed in such a way that deserved to be desprivado. Manor had given and
entrusted the chieftainship to his sons or brothers, and sent them to be obeyed
by all and so on." So here is Pedro de Cieza. The same is kept in the war that
never decomposed natural masters of the provinces where people were brought to
the war; dejábanles with offices even if they were master of the camp,
and dábanles other than real blood, and the captains were delighted to
serve as lieutenants of the Incas, whose members said they were as a minister
and his soldiers, which took the subjects of great favour. The judge could not
adjudicate on the penalty that the law commanded to give, but had to run
entirely on pain of death, by royal commandment-breaker. They said that giving
license to the judge to arbitrate, diminished the majesty of the law, made by
the king with the consent and opinion of men as serious as he had experienced on
the council, which was lacking in experience and severity of individual judges
and it was to make venal judges and open door for, or bribes or entreaties could
buy justice, where born very great confusion in the republic, because each judge
would do what he wanted, and that was not right that nobody hiciese
executor of the legislature, but commanding the law, it was rigorous. True,
looked at the rigor that those laws were, that for the most part (was lighter
than the crime, as stated above) was the death penalty, we can say that laws
were barbarians: but considered it the profit out of this same rigor is still a
republic, one could say that laws were so severely, and men naturally love life
and hate death, came to hate the crime that caused it, and hence arose that
offered little in throughout the year to punish crime throughout the Inca
empire, for all of it, to be a thousand and three hundred miles long, and have
so many different nations and languages, is governed by the same laws and
ordinances, as if not more than own a house worth too much to make those laws
will keep them love and respect, they had them by divine because, as in the vain
belief kings had their children of the Sun and the Sun as their god, they were
by divine command common any king's command, when more specific laws that made
for the common good. And so they said when the sun have made, and revealed to
his son Inca was born here and be sacrilegious and accursed by the law-breaker,
but no one knew his crime, and often came to pass that such offenders accused of
his own conscience, came to publish to justice their hidden sins: for others to
believe that his soul is condemned, however found that they believed their cause
and for his sin came to the republic's ills, such as illness, death and bad
years, and unfortunately any other general or particular, and said they wanted
to appease their god by his death, to send for their sin no more harm to the
world, and of these public confessions understand who is born wanting to claim
the Spanish historians who confessed to the Indians of Peru in secret, as do
Christians and confessors who were deputies, which is false regarding the
Indians, who say the Spanish to flatter and curry favour with them, responding
to questions that are under you feel like you asked, and not according to the
truth: that there was a secret confessions Indians (I mean those of Peru, and I
do not meddle in other nations, kingdoms or provinces do not know), but the
public confessions we have said, asking for punitive damages.
There were appeals for a court to another in any civil lawsuit or criminal would, because they can arbitrate the judge, were executed in the first sentence simply the law of that case was, and Phoenicia the lawsuit, but according to the government housing those kings and their vassals, few civil cases were offered on that litigation. In each village had court for cases that are offered there, which was obliged to implement the law, on hearing the parties, within five days. If offered a case of better quality than the ordinary or atrocity, that would require senior judge, were the people metropolis of that province, and there he was sentenced, that each province had the governor's head above to all that is offered because no pleitante come out of your town or your province to seek justice. Because the Inca kings well understood that to the poor for their poverty, they were not well follow his justice outside their homeland and in many courts, are expenses that are suffering and discomfort that often this mount more than what to ask, so let his righteousness perish, especially if litigation against rich and powerful, which with its strength stifle justice for the poor. For those wanting to remedy these drawbacks princes, did not lead to the arbitrators, nor have many courts, nor pleitantes depart from their provinces. Of the sentences that judges in ordinary litigation gave each moon made regarding other senior judges, and those other more senior, who had in the court of many degrees, according to the quality and severity of business, because in all ministries of the republic was an order from smallest to largest, until the supreme, who were the presidents or viceroys of the four parts of the empire. The relationship was for them to see if justice was administered straight, because the lower courts are not neglected to do it, and not having done, they were punished severely. It was like they took secret residence each month. How to take these warnings to the Inca and their supreme council was for knots, given in cords of different colours, which they understood as figures, because the knots of such and such colours claimed the crimes were punished and certain threads of different colours, they were clinging to the thicker cords, said the penalty was given and the law had been executed, and in this way they understood, because they have letters, and later we separate chapter, where give more long-term relationship in the way of counting that had these knots, which has often caused some admiration for the Spanish view that the major counters Dell err in his arithmetic, and that the Indians are so certain in their own partitions and companies, the more difficult, much easier to show, for those who run them do not understand something else day and night, and so are diestrísimos it.
If a disagreement arose between two kingdoms and provinces on terms or on the grass, the Inca sent a judge of the royal blood, that having been informed, and seen by their eyes that suited both parties, seek to establish, and show that it should be give by sentence, on behalf of the Inca, which remains inviolable law, as pronounced by the king himself. When the judge could not conclude the parties regarding the Inca did what he had done, with notice of which was convenient to each of the parties, and what hindered them, which was signed into law the ruling Inca and when the relationship does not satisfy the judge ordered the suit be suspended until the first visit that would make of that district, for having seen through his eyes, he is sentenced. This were the subjects of very great mercy and favour of the Inca.
DESCRIPTION OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN AND BIG RICHES
One of the major idols that the Inca kings and their vassals
had was the imperial city of Cuzco, who adored the Indians as a sacred thing,
for having established the first Inca Manco Capac, and for the many victories
she had in the gains he did, and because it was home court of the Inca gods. So
was his worship, that even the tiny things showing, that if two Indians in the
same condition they ran on the roads, the one that was of Cuzco and the other to
come to him who was respected and obeyed would which came as top bottom, just
being and go in the city, the more if it was a neighbour of it, and much more if
it was natural. The same was in the seeds and legumes, or anything else which
would lead to other parts of Cuzco, that although the quality does not take
advantage, just because that city was more prized than other regions and
provinces. From this it will remove what would be in bigger things. To have her
in this veneration of those kings ennobled as they could with magnificent
buildings and royal houses that many of them made for themselves, as in the
description della say that some of the houses, among them, and in which
more pains , was the House and the Sun Temple, adorned with incredible that the
greatness of that house, that I dared me to write if they had not written all
the Spanish historians of Peru, nor what they say or what I say, reaches to mean
what they were. They attribute the building of the temple to the King Inca
Yupanqui, Huayna Capac's grandfather, not because he covers, from the first Inca
was founded, but because I just ordered and put in the wealth and majesty that
the Spanish found.
Coming then to the trace of the temple is to know that the Sun was the room that now is the church of Santo Domingo divine, that by not having the required height and width you, do not put here, the stone, As its size and lives today. Carved stonework is flat, very raw and polished.
The altar (so to speak to us to understand, but the Indians knew not an altar) was the East. The wooden roof was very high, because it had a lot of current, the cubija was of straw, because it amounted to make tiles. All four walls of the temple were covered from top to bottom of plates and plates of gold. The wall that altar call, they had put the figure of the sun, made of a gold plate, twice thicker than the other plates that covered the walls. The figure was made with the round face, with its rays and flames, all of a piece, neither more nor less than the painters paint. It was so great that it took the whole end wall of the temple wall to wall. The Incas had no other idols your or others with the image of the sun at the temple or any other, because they worshiped other but to the Sun, although there are some who say otherwise.
This figure of the sun spot in luck, when the Spanish came in that city, a noble man, conqueror of the first, called Mancio Sierra de Leguizamon, who I knew and let live when I came to Spain, great player for all games, that the image be as big a gamble and lost in one night. Where we can say, following the father M. Acosta, who was born saying: "Play the sun before dawn." After time out, watching the town hall of that city how lost her son walked this play, set apart from the mayor chose a regular year. And arrived at the service of his country with such care and diligence (because I had very good parts for men), that all that year did not take card in hand. The city saw it, it took another year, and many others in public office. Mancio Sierra, with regular occupation, forgot the game and hated it forever, remembering the many projects and needs that each day he became. Where it becomes clear how much help idleness to vice, and how good is the occupation of virtue. Returning to our story, we say that one piece that fit the part of Spanish, you can get the treasure in that city and found the Spanish church. At either side of the image of the sun were the bodies of dead kings put their seniority as children of the sun, embalmed (do not know how) seemed to be alive, were seated on chairs of gold, put on gold boards that used to settle. Their faces to the people, only surpassed by Huayna Capac of the over, which was placed before the figure of the Sun, turned to face him, and dearly beloved son, having been outstripped the others, because he deserved that living god you worship the virtues and royal ornaments which showed from a very young man. These bodies hid the Indians with the other treasure, the More Dell not like today. The year 1559, Mr. Polo discovered five of them, three kings and two queens. The temple's main door facing north, as today is, without which there were other children for temple service. All these were aforradas with gold plates in the form of cover. For defuera the temple, high on the walls of the temple, ran a gold azanefa a plank over a yard in width in a crown, which embraced the whole temple.
TEMPLE OF THE SENATE,
AND THE BEDROOM OF THE MOON AND STARS,
THE THUNDER AND LIGHTNING,
AND THE ARK OF THE SKY
After the temple, had a staff of four canvases, the painting
one of them was the temple. Across the top of the cloister was a azanefa
a gold plank over a yard in width, which served as a crown to the cloister
della instead sent to the Spanish, in memory of the past, one azanefa
white plaster, anchor of gold, I let her live in the walls were standing and had
not been shot down. Some faculty had five blocks or rooms large squares, each in
itself, not locked with others, covered in a pyramid, which was made the other
three paintings in the cloister.
The one block of those room was dedicated to the Moon, wife of the Sun, and was the one closest to the chapel of the temple, all of it and its doors were boarded up aforradas silver, because they saw that the white colour was room in the Moon; teníanla put his image and likeness as the Sun, made and painted face of a woman in a silver plank. They entered the room with her to visit the moon and entrust to it, because they had by the sister and wife of the Sun, and mother of the Incas and their whole generation, and so they called Mamacullia, which is Mother Moon: not sacrificed as on one hand the Sun and the other the figure of the Moon were the bodies of the deceased queen, made by order and seniority. Oclla Mama, mother of Huayna Capac, was in front of the moon, face to face with it, and take advantage of the other for being the mother of that child.
Another room of those, closest to the moon, was dedicated to the star Venus, and the Seven Sisters, and all the other stars in common. The planet Venus called Click, which means long and curly hair; honrábanla they said it was page of the Sun, who was closer, sometimes ahead, sometimes in pursuit. At Seven Sisters respected by the strangeness of his demeanour and conformity of size. The stars were on the moon maids, and so gave them the room near her mistress, because they were close at hand for the service of it, they said that the stars are walking in the sky with the moon as his servants, and not with the Sun, because the view at night and not during the day.
This room was also upholstered silver as the moon, and the cover was silver, had all the top of the starry ceiling, large and small, like the starry sky. The other room next to the stars was dedicated to the lightning, thunder and lightning, these three things named and included under this name Illapa, and gathered the verb that distinguish the meanings of the name, which saw the Illapa saying they understood the Lightning, if you heard the Illapa said, understood by the thunder, and when they said the Illapa fell into that part, or did such damage, understood by lightning.
Not worship gods, more respect for the Sun raised them who felt the same thing the ancient pagan Ray felt that the instrument had the weapons of their god Jupiter. By which the Incas gave room for the lightning, thunder and lightning in the house of the Sun as his servants, and it was all trimmed with gold. They gave no statue or painting of thunder, lightning and thunder, it may not portray the natural (that always tried to images), respected by the name of Illapa, whose doctrine significance so far have not reached the Spanish historians, they have made of a triune God gave it to the Indians, resembling their idolatry of our holy religion, as in other things of less appearance and colour have trinities, composing new names in the language, not having them imagine the Indians. I write, other times I have said, which sucked in the milk and saw and heard my elders, and about the thunder is behind what most had said.
Another room (which was the fourth) dedicated to the arch of heaven, because they came from the sun reached, and therefore they took the Inca kings by currency and flag, because down the Sun boasted This room was all trimmed with gold. In a canvas on the gold plates had painted the very life of the bow, so big it took from one wall to another with all their colours to live, called the arc Chuycu, and have him in this veneration, when she saw in the air, mouth shut and put your hand in front, they said that if he discovered the costs and empodrecía teeth. This simplicity had among other without giving reason. The fifth and final room was dedicated to the high priest and other priests who attended the church service, everyone had to be Incas of royal blood. They had one room, not to sleep or eat in it, but it was courtroom to order the sacrifices that had to do, and everything else that suited the temple service. Was this room also, like others, trimmed with gold from top to bottom.
THE FAMOUS TEMPLE OF TITICACA AND ITS FABLES AND ALLEGORIES
Among other famous temples in Peru were dedicated to the Sun,
that ornament and wealth of gold and silver could compete with that of Cuzco,
there was one on the island of Titicaca, which means mountain of lead, is
composed of Titi, which is lead, and Caca, it saw, Hans Caca
pronouncing both syllables in the interior of the throat, as pronounced as the
Spanish lyrics sound means uncle, mother's brother. The lake called
Titicaca, where the island, took the same name of it, which is on the mainland
just over two musket shots; circuit has five to six thousand feet, where they
say the Incas as the Sun put those their two children, male and female, when he
sent down to doctrines and teachings. Life barbarísima people had then in
the land. In this fable add another hundred years old. They say that after the
flood were the rays of the sun on this island and at the first lake in another
part. Which is part seventy-eighty fathoms deep, and eighty leagues round. Of
their properties, and causes that do not support boats to walk over the water,
wrote Father Blas Valera, in which I do not concern myself, because she says has
a lot of lodestone.
The first Inca Manco Capac, favoured Desta ancient fable and his good wit, ingenuity and sagacity, seeing that the Indians believed and had the lake and the island a sacred place, wrote the second story, saying he and his wife were children del Sol, and that his father had put on that island for which there throughout the land were indoctrinated these people, as at the beginning of this history is told at length. The Incas elders, who were philosophers and sages of his country, reduced the first story to the second, giving it to forecast or prophecy, if we can say. They said that having missed the sun on this island its first rays to illuminate the world, was a token and pledge that in the same place he brought his two oldest children to teach and enlighten those people, taking them out of savagery in which they lived as they did after those kings. With these inventions and the like, made in his favour, did the Incas believe the other Indians who were the sons of the Sun, and confirmed its many benefits. For these two tales were the Incas, and everyone in the whole empire, that sacred island, and so sent it to a rich temple, all aforrado with plates of gold, dedicated to the Sun, where all provinces universally subject to Inca offered every year a lot of gold and silver, and precious stones in overcrowding due to the Sun by the two benefits in that place had done. That temple had the same service as the temple of Cuzco. Offerings of gold and silver had so much piled on the island, outside of what the service of the temple was carved out, that what the Indians say about it to admire the most is that I believe. Father Blas Valera, speaking of the wealth of the temple, and how much was left out of the cluttered, said that the transplanted Indians (who call Mitmac), living in Capacavano, certified that he was so much left over gold and silver, they could do dello another temple from its foundations to the top, not mixed with other material, and then the Indians knew the Spanish entry in the land, and they were taking were much wealth for themselves, they threw all that to the great lake.
Another similar story is being offered, is that the valley of the Orcs, which is six miles south of Cuzco, is a small pond that is less than half mile circuit, however very deep, and surrounded by high hills. It is well known that the Indians threw in her much treasure than I had in Cuzco, then they knew the first leg of the Spanish, and that among other riches threw the gold chain that Huayna Capac ordered to do, which instead tell , twelve or thirteen Spanish inhabitants of Cuzco, not the neighbours who are Indians, but the merchants and traders, moved by this famous company made a loss or gain to drain that lake and enjoy your treasure. Sondáronla and found they had twenty-three or twenty-four fathoms of water, without the mud, which was a lot. Agreed to a mine from the east of the lagoon, the river passes do Yucay called for because that part is lower than the ground floor of the lagoon, and the other parties could not drain it because it is surrounded by mountains; not open the drain open pit from the top (perhaps they were better) as it seemed cheaper to go below ground to the tunnel. His work began the year 1500 and fifty-seven, with high hopes to have the treasure, and entered more than fifty feet below the hill, ran into a rock, flint, and arguing with her, saw that drew more fire to stone, therefore, spent many duchies of his estate, have lost their hopes and left the company. I entered the cave two or three times they went on site. So there's public reputation as the Spanish have had those Indians infinite treasure hidden in lakes, caves and mountains, with no hope that can be charged.
THE HOUSE OF THE SUN VIRGIN DEAL
Inca kings had in their pagan religion and vain, big things
worthy of much consideration, and was one of them the profession of perpetual
virginity women kept in many houses of recollection which for them in many
provinces of their empire built, and so that they understand what they were
women, who were engaged, and in which they exercised, we will tell you how it
was, for the Spanish historians that stand out this deal go through as the
proverb that says: "As embers cat." Particularly tell the house that was in
Cuzco, whose likeness was done after that was all over Peru.
Thus, a suburb of that city was called Acllahuaci, means chosen house, the neighbourhood is the one between the two streets leaving the square and go to the convent of Santo Domingo, which used to be Casa del Sol's, one of the streets is coming out of the corner of the square to the left of the cathedral, and going north and south. When I left that city the year one thousand five hundred and sixty, was the main street merchants. The other street is coming from the middle of the square where I left prison, and goes right to the same Dominican convent, also North-South. The front of the house out to the main square between those two streets, and the backs della reached the street that crosses from east to west, so that was the island between the square and the three streets was between her Temple of the Sun and another very large island houses, and a large plaza that would betray the temple there. Hence it is clear the lack of real relationship that had historians, who say they were virgins in the Temple of the Sun, and they were priestesses and priests who helped in the sacrifices, having such a distance from a house the other, and being the primary intention of those in this Inca kings of the nuns not to enter men or women in the del Sol. Selected House was called, because they chose or lineage, or beauty. Had to be virgins, and they were assured that the eight-year chose down.
And because the virgin of the house of Cuzco were dedicated to women of the Sun, had to be of his blood, I mean daughters of the Incas, and the king and their relatives, the legitimate and free of foreign blood, because of mixed with blood of others, we call bastard, could not enter this house of Cuzco, which we are speaking, and the reason is said that since no women suffered the sun to corrupt, but a virgin, and neither was it lawful to give the bastard with a mixture of foreign blood. For when to have children of the sun as they imagined, was not right that bastards were mixed divine and human blood. Therefore had to be legitimate royal blood, which was the same as the sun was usually more than one thousand and five hundred nuns, and there was no rate than could be.
Inside, the house, there were older women who lived in the same profession, aged in her, who had entered under the same conditions, and being already old, and the job they did, they were called mamacunas, that interpreting superficially, it would suffice to say matron however, to give all its significance, mean woman who is careful to craft a mother, because it is composed of breast, the mother, and in this particle cradle, which itself means nothing, and composition means that we have said, not many meanings, according to the different compositions it receives. Doeth good name, because some were office of abbess, others to teach novice teachers, and in worship of their idolatry, as in things that made his hands to exercise, such as spinning, weaving, sewing. Others were porters, other purveyors of the house to ask what they needed, which is abundantly provided them because of the estate of his wives were.
STATUTES AND THE VIRGIN SELECTED EXERCISES
They lived in constant close to ending life of perpetual
virginity to save, they had no booth or around, or anywhere else where they
could talk or see men or women, but were themselves to each other, they said
that women in the sun does not had to be so common that nobody saw, and this
closure was so great that even the Inca himself did not want to enjoy the
privilege rather than the king could be seeing and speaking, because no one
dared to ask such a privilege. Coya Sola, who is the queen and her daughters,
were licensed to enter the house and talk to the girls as old and locked.
With the queen and her daughters sent to visit the Inca, and how they were and what they needed. This house caught me see entire buildings, which only she and the Sun, who were neighbourhoods, and four other great houses that had been home of the Inca kings, respected the Indians in their general uprising against the Spanish, who were the burnt (like everything else burned the city) because one house of the sun was his god, and the other house of their wives, and the other of their kings. They had among other great things of your building a narrow alley, capable of two people, which went through the whole house. Lane sections had many a hand and another where he had offices in the house, where women working service. Each door had those gatekeepers of much collection, in the last paragraph, at the end of the alley, were the wives of the Sun, where no one entered. The house had its front door, like that here called door rule, which was not opened for the Queen and to receive that came to be nuns.
At the beginning of the alley, which was the service door of the house, there were twenty regular porters to carry and bring it to the second door in the house had to come and go. The porters could not pass the second door, on pain of life, even if they sent him in there, no one so I could send the same penalty.
They had to serve the nuns and five hundred girls house, which also had to be virgins daughters of the Incas of privilege that the first Inca gave that reduced service, not the real house, for not entering Women of the Sun but for maids. They did not want them to be daughters of aliens, but daughters of the Incas, but of privilege. Which also had their mamacunas girls of the same caste, and maidens who ordered them what to do. And these were but mamacunas those aged at home, arrived at that age that gave them the name and administration, as saying, and can be mothers and rule the house. In the division that the Spanish did to their homes of the royal houses of the city of Cuzco when the won, fell the middle of this convent Pedro del Barco, whom we will mention later, was the office, and half the degree of fit range, which I reached in my childhood, and later was Diego Ortiz de Guzman, a native of Seville gentleman, whom I knew and let live when I came to Spain.
The main exercise than women of the Sun did was spin and weave and do everything that the Inca had brought on his person, dress and headdress, and also for the Coya, his legitimate wife. Also plowed all the fine clothes offered in sacrifice to the sun, so that the Inca had in mind was a braid called Llautu, wide as a finger merguerite and very thick, which had to be square house, which was four or five laps head and red tassel, which took from one temple to another.
The dress was a shirt that fell to his knees, called uncu. The Spanish call it cusma, not the general language, but word of any particular province intruder. He brought a blanket square two legs instead of layer, called Yacolla. These nuns also made for the Inca a few bags that are square, the fourth in the table; tráenlas underarm clutching a carved braid two fingers very wide, making the left shoulder and shoulder belt on the right side. In those bags called Chuspa, served only to bring the herb called Cuca, which the Indians eat, which was not as common then as now, because I do not eat but the Inca and their relatives, and some curacas, whom the king much favour and mercy, sent a few baskets year.
They also made some small tufts of two colours, yellow and red, called Paycha, clinging to a thin strand of a fathom in length, which were not for the Inca, but for those of royal blood, they brought over his head, fell the tassels on the right temple.
NEW PROVINCES SUBJECT TO THE INCA AND ONE TO WATER THE GRASS ACEQUIA
The Inca Páhuac Mayta and his uncles, having put an end to
his day and left the governors and ministers needed to teach the new subjects,
they returned to Cuzco, the Inca where they were greeted with lots of parties
and great favours and rewards, which so suited to great achievement as they did,
with which enhanced the Viracocha Inca empire until its possible terms, because
the East came to the foot of the Great Range and Sierra Nevada, and west to the
sea, and to the south until the last province chancas of more than two
hundred leagues from the city, and by the three parties and there was nothing to
win, because on the one hand I cut them off the sea, and snow and the other
great mountains of the Antis, and Surle saves the deserts between Peru and the
kingdom of Chili. But with all this, as the rule is insatiable, her new born
care of Chinchasuyu, which is the North wanted to increase his empire as he
could by that band, and having communicated with his advisers, ordered the
construction of thirty thousand men of war, and chose six of the most
experienced Incas to go with him. Supplied with everything needed, came with his
army by way of Chinchasuyu, leaving the governor of the city from his brother
Inca Páhuac Mayta. Reached the privincia Antahuylla, which is the nation
Chaca, which, by the betrayal that made the Inca Yahuar Huacac to rebel against
him, was called a traitor by nickname, and this name lasts to this day among the
Indians, who never say Chanca that do not add Auca, meaning traitor. It also
means tyrannical, treacherous, perfidious, and anything else that may belong to
tyranny and treachery all have this adjective Auca; also means war and do
battle, because they see your understanding of the common language of Peru with
a single word.
With the celebration and joy that such afflicted people could do the Chac, was received by the Inca Viracocha. Which was very gentle with them, and most major gifts as well as with words that gave them gifts of clothing and other prey, because they lost the fear of crime past, as it was not the punishment according to the wickedness they feared if they had to come then or later. The Inca, for others the common that all he did, he visited all the provinces, provided them what seemed to agree. This done, picked up the army, which was housed in various provinces. He walked to which they were to hold. The nearest, called Huaytara, large and populous of the wealthy and bellicose, and had been on the side of the rebels. Which is paid after the Inca Viracocha sent his messengers, ordering them to obey him, and so came with great humility to receive their lord, they were chastened by the battle of Yahuarpampa. The Inca were received with great kindness, and told them that they should live quietly and peacefully, that was what they saw fit.
From there he moved to another province called Pocra, otherwise called Huamanca, and others who say Asancaru, Park, Picuy and harassment, which were all too easily, and were glad to be of his empire, because the Inca Viracocha was desired everywhere for the wonders he had done. Having drawn won, dismissed the army. He ordered that the common benefit of the tenants suited, among other things that he ordered was take a ditch over water hole twelve feet ran more than one hundred and twenty miles long, starting from the top of the mountain that between Parcu and Picuy, some beautiful fonts that are born there, who seem to rivers. And ran the canal to the rucana, was used to irrigate the pastures are deserted by those who are eighteen miles of travel, and take over almost all Peru.
Another similar canal runs almost all Cuntisuyu, and runs from south to north over a hundred and fifty leagues from the top of the highest mountains that exist in those provinces, and out to the Quechua, and serves or served only to water the grass when stop the water fall. From these canals to irrigate the pastures there are many throughout the empire the Incas ruled, is a work worthy of the greatness and government of such princes. Puédese match these canals to the greatest works in the world has been, and give the first place, considering the very high mountains where the carrying, breaking rocks without instruments very great steel and iron, but they broke with other stones through sheer force of arms, and who failed to build on them cantering for arches and bridges to address the creeks and streams. If you are a deep creek crossing, they would behead until birth, around the mountains all to be offered ahead. The ditches were ten or twelve feet from the hole for the saw that would snuggle. Broke it saw the passage of water, and the outside put them large slabs of stone carved by all six parties yard and a half, and two yards long and more than a yard in height, which would offered for spinning, stuck together, and strengthened by the outside with large lawns and plenty of land flush to the slab, so that the cattle that crossed from one side to another unbroken the ditch.
This, which is transported across the district called Cuntisuyu, vide in the province called Quechua, which is ultimately the same district, and has everything I said and looked at very carefully, and some are as large and impressive works, that exceed any paint and soaring prices that Dell can do. The Spanish, as extrenajeros, have ignored this big, or to support them, not to estimate them, even to have mentioned hers into their stories before it seems that knowingly or with plenty of neglect, it is more likely, have allowed it to lose all. The same has been one of the channels that the Indians had taken to irrigate the land of bread, which have left two-thirds lose parts today and many years ago no longer serve, but the channels that can not fail to support the need have in them. "Of those who have lost, big and small, are still alive and signal traces."
PLANT AND ORNAMENT OF REAL PROPERTIES
The service and ornament of the royal houses of the Incas,
who were kings of Peru, there was less than greatness, wealth and glory than all
other wonderful things that their service had, before it seems that some of
them, as will be noted, exceeded all the houses of kings and emperors so far
known to have been in the world. Regarding the first, the buildings of their
homes, temples, gardens and bathrooms were extremely polished, beautifully
carved stonework, stones so tight with each other, that did not allow mixing,
and although it is true that the cast was a red clay (which in their language
called Lancac Allpa, it is sticky mud), made milk, which no signal was
not mud between the stones so they say the Spanish who tilled without mixing.
Others say he threw lime and engáñanse, for the Indians of Peru had
missed, lime or plaster, tile or brick.
In many royal houses and temples of the sun poured molten lead, and silver and gold mix. Pedro de Cieza, chapter ninety-four, also says that Spanish historians argue clearance for my subscription. Echábanlo for more majesty, which was the main cause of total destruction of those buildings, for having found the metals in some of them, they've knocked down all for gold and silver, that his buildings were carved as well as good stone, which lasted many centuries if left to live. Pedro de Cieza, chapter forty-two, sixty and ninety-four, says the same of the buildings, which last long if not shot down. With plates of gold plated temples of the Sun and the royal apartments, wherever that was, put many figures of men and women, and birds of the air and water, and fierce animals such as tigers, bears, lions, foxes, Serval cats and dogs, deer, and vicuña huanacus and domestic sheep, all of gold and silver cast to their natural shape and size, and laid them on the walls, voids and cavities, which left for him going carving affection. Pedro de Cieza, chapter forty-four, he says at length.
Contrahacían herbs and plants that are born on the walls, and put them on the walls that seemed to have born in them. They planted the walls of lizards and butterflies, mice and snakes, large and small, that seemed to go up and down them. The Inca usually sat in a seat of solid gold called Tiana. It was a third in high without Braceras and back, with a concave seat. Brought them on board a large square of gold. The vessels around the service of the house and the table and the wine shop and kitchen, small and large, they were all gold and silver, and had in every house deposit when the king walked, which had not from one place to another, but each house of the Inca, and that there were actual roads as there were in the provinces, all were necessary for when the Inca will end with them, walking with his army or visiting their kingdoms. There were also in these royal houses many barns and Horon, which the Indians call Pirua made of gold and silver, to enclose the point, but for greatness and majesty of the house and the lord of it.
Together they had a lot of bedding and clothing is always new, because the Inca did not set a dress twice, then gave it to his relatives. The bedding was all spawned blankets and vicuña wool, which is so fine and so gifted, which among other precious things of that land, they've brought to bed of King Philip the Second. Echábanlas above and below. They did not know or did not want the invention of the mattresses, and puédese wanted to say that not because to have seen them in the beds of the Spanish, have never wanted to admit in his, for it seemed too gift and curiosity for the natural life they professed.
Tapestries on the walls did not use them because, as mentioned, the upholstered with gold and silver. Food was abundant because everyone is dressed for the Incas relatives who wanted to dine with the king, and the servants of the royal house, which were many. When the main meal of the Incas and all the common people were in the morning, from eight to nine o'clock in the evening dined with daylight lightly, and only served two meals. Eaters were generally bad, I mean a little eating, in drinking were more vicious, did not drink while eating, but after the food comes, because drinking lasted until evening. This is used among the rich, the poor, which was the common people, in all things were short, but not necessary. Acostábanse early and get up very early to make their farms.
CONTRAHACÍAN AS GOLD AND SILVER FOR DECORATING THE HOUSE WAS REAL
In all the royal houses had made gardens and orchards where
the Inca was recreated. Planted in them all the beautiful trees and bright,
postures and fragrant flowers and beautiful plants in the kingdom had, in whose
likeness contrahacían many gold and silver trees and other plants under
natural, with its leaves, flowers and fruits, a beginning to emerge, other
medium-season, others quite sophisticated in their size. Among these and other
great things were misshapen corn raw, with their leaves, corn and cane, with its
roots and flowers, and ear hairs were made of gold and silver all else, a
soldier with the other. And the same distinction made in other plants, flower or
anything else contrahacían yellowing of gold, silver and others.
There were also small animals and large misshapen and casting gold and silver, as were rabbits, mice, lizards, snakes, butterflies, foxes, wild cats, which were not domestic. There were birds of all kinds, some jobs in the trees, as they sang, others as they were flying and sucking honey from flowers. There were deer and deer, lions and tigers, and all other animals and birds were raised on earth, everything put into place as best contrahiciese to nature.
In many homes or all have bathrooms with large jars of gold and silver, which were washed, and pipes of silver and gold, which came the water to the jars. And where there were natural hot springs, baths were also made of great majesty and wealth. Among other great things had lots and piles of wood sticks, misshapen to the natural gold and silver deposits as they were to spend in the service of the houses.
The largest share of this wealth sank the Indians after the Spanish were eager to gold and silver and hid it so that never appeared, or is expected to appear if not who are perhaps, because it is understood that Indians living today do not know the sites were those treasures, and their parents and grandparents would not let news Dell because the things that had been dedicated to the service of their kings did not want to serve others.
BURYING LOS REYES: THE OBSEQUIES LASTED ONE YEAR
The obsequies that made the Inca kings were very solemn, but
neat. The embalmed corpse, we do not know how they were as whole seemed to be
alive, as earlier said five bodies were found the Incas, one thousand and five
hundred and fifty-nine. All interior Dellos buried in the temple they had in the
town called Tampu, which is the downstream Yucay less than five miles from the
city of Cuzco, where there were very large and magnificent buildings of stone,
of which Peter Cieza, chapter ninety-four, said he was told by quite certain
that was found in some part of the royal palace or temple of the sun instead of
gold melted mixture, together with bitumen that they put the stones were settled
with each other, words are theirs taken literally.
When the Inca died, or some curaca major, were killed and buried alive the servants left most advantaged and most beloved women, saying they wanted to go to serve their kings and lords to the next life because, as we have said , had in their heathen that after this life was nothing like her body, and not spiritual. Offering themselves to death, or took it from his hands, for the love that their masters had. And what some historians who were killed and buried with their masters or husbands, is false because it was great inhumanity, tyranny and scandal to say that in the pretext of sending it to their masters, who were killed by hateful. The truth is that they were offered to the death, and often were so many, that shortcuts superiors, telling them that this was sufficient which would, henceforth, little by little, as they were dying, would serve their masters.
The bodies of the kings, after embalmed, placed before the figure of the Temple of the Sun in Cuzco, where they offered many sacrifices as divine men claiming to be sons of the Sun The first month of the death of king cried every day with great feeling and many cries all of the city out to the fields each neighbourhood of itself, wore the insignia of the Inca, flags, weapons and clothing of their dress, who stopped to bury the obsequies. In their cries, loudly recited his deeds done in the war, and the gifts and benefits he had made to the provinces where they were natural that those who lived in this neighbourhood. After the first month, did the same, fifteen to fifteen days, and joining every full moon, and it lasted all year, at the end of making their end of year with all the solemnity they could, and with the same tears, for which men and women were identified and those that progressed in skill, as mourners, who singing in sad tones and funerals said the greatness and virtues of the dead king. What we said was the common people of that city, so did the Incas of royal parentage, but with much more solemn and advantages, as princes to commoners.
The same was done in each province of the empire, trying every lord of it for the death of his Inca hiciese the best feeling possible. With these cries were going to visit places where that king had stood in that this province, in the countryside, walking, or in town to make a favour, which made, as aforesaid, had in great veneration, there were over their cries and screams, and particularly reciting the grace, mercy or benefit in such a place that had made them. And this is enough of the actual funeral rites, in whose likeness made in the provinces share in them by their chiefs, that I remember seeing in my childhood something dello. In a province which they called Quechua, I saw great crew out to the field to mourn their curaca; wore their dresses made banners. And that gave me the screaming woke to ask what it was, and told me they were the obsequies of the chief Huamampallpa, which was the name of the deceased.
POSTS AND POST, AND CARRIED THAT OFFICE
Chasqui called the post office that had made the roads to
carry briefly the mandate of the king, and bring new and notices for their
kingdoms and provinces, far or near, had been of importance. For which they had
a quarter of a mile every four to six Indian boys and lightweight, which were
repaired in two huts for the inclement sky. They had the revenues for its time,
and a hut, and the other, one looked at the road, and the other to the other, to
discover the messengers before they came to them, and perceiving to take
collection, because it is not losing any time. And it always put the huts up,
and put them in a way that would see the each other. They were a quarter of a
league, they said that this was what an Indian could run without getting tired
light and encouragement.
Chasqui called out to him, which means barter, or give and take, that is, because bartered, gave and took from one to another, the collections they had. They are not called cache, which means messengers, for the name they gave to the ambassador or messenger himself personally went from a prince to another, or the sudden sir. The revenue or the messengers carrying message was short, because the Indians of Peru did not know how to write. The words were few, very concerted and currents, because no trucks, and because many were not forgotten. The message that came with the coming and cried at the sight of the hut, to gird themselves who had to go, as the mail in playing the horn, so that you have saddled the post, and going where you could understand gave his collection, repeated two, three and four times, until I understood that I had to carry, and if not understood, you wait for very fit and give your collection, and in this way passing from one to another to where he had arrived.
Other collections had, not in words but in writing, so to speak, but have said they had no letters, which were knots, given in different threads of different colours that were placed in their order, but not always in the same way, but sometimes prefix the one colour to another, sometimes bartered backwards and this way collections were figures, which understood the Inca and their officers, for what was done, and the knots and colours of the wires meant the number of people, weapons or clothing, or food supplies, or anything else that had to do, send or make available. These Indians called knotted quipu (meaning knot, and knot, which serves as a noun and verb), for which they were understood in their accounts. In addition, chapter in itself say how long they were and what they did. When there was a rush of messages, adding emails, and put in every post ocho and ten and twelve Indians messengers. They had another way to give notice by these emails, and was smoked by day of one another, and night flares. For which they had always chasquis apperceived fire and torches, and perpetually kept watch night and day for your conference, to be ready for any event that is offered. This manner of notice by the fires was only when there was a rebellion uprising and large kingdom or province, and done so that the Inca knew within two or three hours at most (albeit for five or six hundred leagues from the court) and he ordered you need to when I got the new some of which province or kingdom was the uprising. This was the work of the messengers and the precautions they carried.
THREADS AND KNOTS: WAS GREAT FIDELITY IN METERS
Quipu means knot tying, and account is taken
because the knots gave the whole thing. Indians did yarns of different colours,
some were in a single colour, two other colours, other than three, and other
more, because the simple and mixed colours, they all had their significance in
itself, the threads were very crooked, three or four liñudos, and thick
as an iron spindle, and three-quarters long rod, which in another thread strung
by their order in the long run, as a rapcejos. For the colours drew what
was contained in one such thread, like the yellow gold, and silver for the white
and coloured people of war.
Things that had no colours were put in their order, starting from the higher quality, and proceeding to the less, everything in their kind, as in the corn and beans. Let's compare those of Spain, first wheat, then barley, then the pea, bean, millet, etc. And so when they realized the weapons, which were first put more noble, like spears, and then darts, bows and arrows, clubs and axes, slingshots and other weapons they had. And speaking of the tenants, they realized the residents of each village, and then with those of each province. In the first line put the above sixty years old, the second, older men above fifty, and the third contained the forty, and so ten to ten years to children at the breast. In the same order had women through the ages.
Some had other trickles of thin wires of the same colour as the gut, or exceptions to those general rules, as we say in the thread of men and women of that age, which is understood to be married, the trickles meant the number of widowed or widows who had that year that age, because this accounts were annual, and gave no reason more than a year alone.
The knots were given on the order of unity, dozen, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, and seldom or never went to the nearest hundred thousand, because as each village had its account of itself and each of its metropolitan district never reached the number desto or so much of those who passed the hundred thousand, that in numbers there were down there enough. But if they offer have to count the number hundred thousand, so tell because their language can make all the numeral numbers as he has, but because I had not bother to use the higher numbers did not exceed the ten thousands. These numbers counted by knots given in those threads, each divided from the other number: but the knots of each issue were given all together under a return, by way of the knots that occur in the cord of the blessed patriarch San Francisco, and could do well because I never went to nine, and do not exceed nine units and tens, etc.
At the top of the threads put the number higher, it was the ten thousand, and lower the thousand, and so the unit. The knots of each number and each thread were paired with each other, neither more nor less that puts a good accountant to make a large sum. These knots or quipus the Indians themselves were in charge, which called quipucamayu, it means that it is responsible for the accounts, and although at that time there was little difference in the Indians for good or ill, that in his little malice good government they had, all could be called good, with all that they chose for this office and anyone else the most approved and those that had been the longest experience of his goodness. They are not giving please others, because among these Indians has never been used outside but to please his own virtue. Nor is sold or leased gave because they knew or lease, or buy, or sell, because they had no money. Bartered one thing for another, that is, things to eat and no more, that did not sell the clothes, or houses, or estates.
Quipucamayus to be as faithful and legal, as we said, were to be in each town according to neighbours, that no matter how small the people were to be four, and from there up to twenty and thirty, and all had records about themselves, but because it records all around them, enough to have an accountant or clerk, wanted the Incas had many in every town and in each faculty, to excuse the lie that could exist between the few, and they said that having many had to be all the evil or neither.
BASED IN WHAT ACCOUNTS AND UNDERSTAND HOW
They settled for their knots all the tribute they gave each
year to the Inca, putting each thing by its genus, species and grades. Settled
people going to war, dying in it, being born and dying each year from their
months. In short, we say that writing in all things those knots consisting
account number, up to battles and recounts that were given, to say how many
embassies had brought the Inca, and many discussions and arguments had been the
king. But what was inside the embassy, and the words of reason, or another event
record could not tell from the knots, because it consists of sentence, ordered
orally or in writing, which can not refer to knots, because the knot said
number, but not the word. For repair of these signs were missing the facts
showing records deeds, or have been embassy, reasoning or discussion made in
peace or war. The talks which took the Indians quipucamayus memory, in
short, in brief, and committed to memory, and tradition, the successors taught
from parents to children and descendants, and particularly in main towns or
provinces where they had spent and kept there more than elsewhere, because the
natives were proud in them. They also used other remedy for their deeds, and
embassies, who brought the Inca, and Inca gave answers that are held in memory
of the people, and the elders, who were philosophers and sages were careful put
them in prose, histories stories, brief as fables, that by their ages, the will
to children and youths, and people rustic field, so that from hand to hand, from
age to age preserved in everyone's memory. Also put the stories so fabulous,
with his allegory, as mentioned below some and tell others. Also the
haravicus, who were the poets, composing poems and short abstracts, which
locked in history, or embassy, or the king's reply. In short, they said the
verses all that they could not put in knots, and the verses sung in their
triumphs and their festivals, and recited the Incas novice when knighted, and in
this way kept the memory of their stories. However, as experience shows, all
remedies were perishable, because the letters are those that perpetuate the
facts, but as those Incas not reached, valiéronse of what they could
invent, and as if the knots were letters, historians and accountants chose, who
were called quipucamayu, which is the one in charge of the knots, so for
them and for the wires, and the colours of the wires, and with the help of
stories and poetry, writing and retained the tradition of their deeds. This was
the way of writing that the Incas were in their republic.
These quipucamayus came the chiefs and noblemen in the provinces, namely those things that records of their ancestors wanted to know, or any other remarkable occurrence that had happened in this province, because they, as clerks and as historians, kept records, which were the annual quipus of events are made worthy of memory, and as required by the office perpetually studying the signs and figures in the knots had to keep in mind the tradition of those facts were known because, as historians, had to account pidiesen Dell when it, by which tax office were reserved and any other service, and so never let go the hand knots.
In the same order they realized their laws and ordinances, rites and ceremonies, that the thread colour and the number of knots drew the law forbidding this or that crime and the penalty gave the disruptive della. Sacrifice and ceremony said that in such and such festivities were the Sun declared the ordinance and law that spoke in favour of widows or the poor or passengers, and so was aware of all the other things taken by traditional memory. So each thread and knot reminded them that itself contained, like orders or items from our holy Catholic faith and works of mercy, than the number we get what we are commanded below. So the Indians were agreed by the knots of the things their fathers and grandfathers had been taught by tradition, which they took with the utmost care and reverence, and sacred things of their idolatry and laws of the Incas, and sought to preserve in memory failure who were writing, and the Indian, who had not traditionally taken memory accounts or any other story that had happened between them, were ignorant of the one and the other as Spanish or any other foreigner. I tried the quipus and knots with the Indians of my father and other curacas, when San Juan and Christmas came to town to pay their taxes. Outside the chiefs begged my mother to send me them to compare their accounts, because as people suspect, did not trust the Spanish who treat them in that particular truth, until I della certified, reading shipments of taxes brought me and comparing them with their knots, and in this way Dellos knew as much as the Indians.
DESCRIPTION OF THE IMPERIAL CITY CUZCO
The Inca Manco Capac was the founder of the city of Cuzco,
which was honoured with the Spanish and and honourable reputation throughout,
never taking his own name, they said the great city of Cuzco, head of the
kingdoms and provinces of Peru. Also called the new Toledo, but then they
dropped from memory the second name, by the inappropriateness of, because no
river Cozco the gird as Toledo, and it looks like on the site, its population
starts from the slopes and foot of a high hill, and tend to all parts of a large
and spacious flat. Has wide streets and long, and very large spaces, so the
Spanish people in general, and the royal scribes and notaries in their deeds,
use the first title, for Cuzco and his empire was another Rome in his, and so I
could compare with one another because they resemble the things that were more
generous. The first and foremost, to have been founded by its first kings. The
second, in the many different nations they conquered and seized his empire. The
third, in so many good laws and bonísimas who ordered the government of
its republics. The fourth, in so many great men who gave birth, and with good
urban and military doctrine was raised. In which Rome did lead to Cuzco, not for
having raised better, but have been more fortunate to have met with them letters
and immortalized their children, that was no less illustrious in the sciences as
excellent by the arms, which were honoured for slicing one another, they, doing
exploits in war and peace, and those, writing the one and the other for the
honor of his country and perpetual memory of all I do not know which Dell did
more, if of arms or of the feathers, that because these powers are so heroic
spears couples, as seen in the often great Julius Caesar, which exercised both
with many advantages, not determined by what Dell was larger. Also in doubt
which of these two parts of famous men owe more to the other, if guerreadores
writers, because they wrote their exploits and immortalized forever, or whether
the letters to those weapons because they were so great facts as they did every
day, so they had to write all his life. Both sides have much to argue each one
in his favour, let them have, to say the misfortune of our country, that
although he had noble sons in arms, and of great wisdom and understanding, and
very able and capable in the sciences, because they have letters left no memory
of his great deeds and high judgments, and so they killed them and together with
his republic. There were only some of their deeds and those entrusted to a
tradition teaching thin and miserable word from father to son, which has also
been lost with the entry of new people and exchange of nobility and foreign
government, as usually happens whenever that are lost and bartered empires.
I encouraged the desire for the preservation of antiquities of my country, those few that remain, that are not lost at all, I set to work so excessive as far ahead I was and I must be, writing its former republic to finish, and because the city of Cuzco, mother and mistress of it, does not get forgotten in the particular pattern in this chapter the description of her, taken from the same tradition, which as a natural child fit me, and what I saw with own eyes, say the old names that their neighbourhoods were, until 1560, that I came out of it, were kept on seniority. Since then I have exchanged some names of those for the parish churches in some neighbourhoods have wrought.
King Manco Capac, well considering the amenities that has beautiful valley of Cuzco, the site level, surrounded on all sides by high mountains, with four streams of water, though small, that supply the entire valley, which was a means of beautiful brackish water source for salt, and the land was fertile and healthy air, decided to found his imperial city in that place, conforming, as they said the Indians, with the will of his father the Sun, which according to the sign that Barilla gave the gold, I wanted to settle his court there, he was to be head of his empire. The temple of the city before it is cold than hot, but not so much that forces were looking to warm up, just enter a room where there is not to lose the cold air brought from the street, but if there brazier on, you know very well, and if any, are passed without him. The same in dress clothes, which if made to walk and summer, it is enough, and if and winter are good. In the bedding is, if you do not want more of a velvety, have had enough, and if you want three, do not grieve, and that is all year round, with no difference from winter to summer, and the same is in any other region of cold, warm or hot to the land, which is always the same way. In Cuzco, to participate, as we say, more than cold, dry heat and moist, not tainted meat, that if they hang fourth in a room without windows that open, remains eight days and fifteen, and thirty, percent, until it is dry as jerky. This I saw in the flesh of cattle that have been in Spain, if the ram be warmer here than there will do the same, or will do much better, I saw this, because in my time, as we shall, not yet killed sheep of Castile, had the little brood of reach. As the cold hardening, there are no flies in that city, but very few, and those are the sun that does not fit in any quarters. Mosquitoes from biting there are none, or other vermin vexatious; of all that city is clean. The first houses and dwellings were slopes and slopes of the hill called Sacsayhuaman, which is between the east and the city Septentrion. At the summit of that hill successors built after this superb Inca fortress little valued, by the same hated that they won, pus shot down in no time. The city was divided in two parts that the principle stated, Hanan Cuzco, Cuzco is high, and Hurin Cuzco, Cuzco is low. Antisuyu Dividíalas Road, which is going to the East, the northern part was called Collcampata. Collcam should be the jurisdiction of the particular language of the Incas, who knows what it means. Mean leg platform. It also means tier of stairs, and because the platforms are in the form of stairs, they gave this name also means bench, whatever.
On that platform the Inca Manco Capac founded his real home, which later was Paullu, son of Huayna Capac. Della I reached a very large and spacious warehouse, which served as a place on rainy days, to solemnize it their main festivals. Only one barn was still standing when I came out of Cuzco, that like, you say, I left all fallen. Then he continues, going to the East fence, another neighbourhood called Cantutpata, carnations mean platform. Cantata called some very pretty flowers that resemble carnations in part to Spain. Before the Spanish had no pinks in the land. They resemble the cantata, in branch and leaf and thorns, Cambroneras of Andalusia, are very large plants, and because the district had very great one (that even I the scope), and called him. Following the same trip on fence to the east, continue another neighbourhood called Pumarurcu, mean beam lions, mountain lion is lion Curcuas: beam, because a large beams that were in the quarter tied the lions had the Inca, to tame and place them where they should be. Then follows another huge quarter called Tococachi I do not know what this name means composure, because I play mean window; cachi is the salt you eat. In good form of that language say salt window, I do not know what he meant by that, if not name and it has another meaning that I do not know in this neighbourhood was first built the convent of San Francisco divine. Twisting a little to the south, riding fence, the neighbourhood is still called Munaycenca, love means nose, because muna is love or want, and cenca's nose. To what end verifications such name do not know, should be with any occasion or superstition, they never put anything. Still going to the fence to the south, is still another great neighbourhood, called Rimacpampa; mean square speaker, because it is apregonaban that some ordinances for the government of the republic had made. Apregonábanlas of his time to the neighbours and went to meet knew what they were commanded by them, and because the place was in that neighbourhood Rimacpampa, there is another at noon in the city, said Pumachupan, means tail lion, because it concluded that district in top of two streams that the end of the meet by end of square. He was also given this name by saying that neighbourhood was the last of the city, wanted to honour him with calling Cola and Cape Lion. Without this, it had lions and other wild animals. Far from this neighbourhood, west of him, was a village of more than three hundred inhabitants, called Cayaucachi. Was that people over a thousand steps of the last houses of the city. This was the year one thousand five hundred sixty, now, that is the year of 1600 and two of this writing, is now (I'm told) in the Cuzco, whose population has become so widespread that it has embraced itself everywhere.
To the west of the city, a thousand steps of it, there was another town called Chaquillchaca, which is also irrelevant for composite name, if it is not proper. There goes the road that will Cuntisuyo; near that road are two very fine water pipes, which will gorge below ground, can not tell where the Indians led, because it is very old work, and also because traditions are missing things as individuals. Collquemachachuay call those pipes, means silver snake, because the water is similar in white to silver, and the sewers to the snakes in the turns that are giving the land. I've heard that comes and the people of the city to Chaquillchaca. Going with the same fence, returning from the west to the north, was another area, called Pichu. Also was out of town. Forward, following the same fence, there was another neighbourhood, called Quillipata, which is also out of town. Later, north of the city, going to the same fence, is the great neighbourhood called Carmenca, name, and not the general tongue. For he leaves the road that will Chinchasuyu. Returning to the fence to the east, is named after the neighbourhood Huacapuncu, means the door of the sanctuary, because huaca, and instead declare, among other meanings that have, it means temple or shrine. Puncu's door, called him because of that neighbourhood goes into the stream running through the main square of Cuzco, and the creek down a very wide and long street, and they travel across the city, and league and a half will join the path of Collasuyu. They called that entry door of the Shrine or Temple because the rest of the neighbourhood dedicated to the Temple of the Sun and the home of the chosen virgins, who were their main shrines, had the whole city as sacred, and was one of his biggest idols and in this respect called for this input stream and the street door of the sanctuary, and out of the brook and said Cola Lion Street, say that their city was holy in their laws and religion vain, and a lion in weapons and military. This neighbourhood Huacapuncu reaches of Collcampata together with, where we started making the siege of the city's neighbourhoods, and so the circle is made whole.
THE STRENGTH OF CUZCO. THE GRANDEUR OF ITS STONES
Beautiful buildings were the Incas, kings of Peru,
fortresses, temples, royal houses, in gardens, both positive and roads, and
other large factories excellence, as shown today by the ruins that Dell have
been, though poorly You can see the foundation that was the whole building.
The largest and most magnificent work they sent to do to show their power and majesty, was the fortress of Cuzco, whose grandeur is incredible who have not seen, and you've seen and viewed carefully make you imagine, and still believe, which are made by way of enchantment, and that the demons did not men, because many of the stones, so many and so great, like those made in the three fences (which are more rocks to stone), of admiration imagine how they could cut from the quarries of which were removed because the Indians had no iron or steel for the cutting or styling, then think how they brought the building to another difficulty is not less, because they had no oxen, nor knew making cars, and there are cars that can suffer, not sufficient to throw oxen; llevábanlas dragging force of arms, with thick Maronas, nor do the roads wearing them were plain, but very rugged hills with large slopes, and do the up and down through sheer force of men. Many of them led to ten, twelve, fifteen leagues, particularly the stone, or better said, the rock which the Indians call Saycusca, which means tired (because they arrived at the building), it is known that brought fifteen leagues from the city and crossed the river Yucay, which is slightly less than Guadalquivir in Córdoba. Those that were carried over Muyna, which is five leagues from Cuzco, then go ahead with the imagination, and think how they could adjust both stones so large that they can barely get the tip of a knife for them is never ending. Many of them are so tight, it just appears the coupling of both was necessary to adjust them up and place the stone on the other very often, because they were not square, neither could they even make use of a rule to seat over a stone and see if it was set with the other. Neither knew how to make cranes and pulleys, or any other talent to help them up and down the rocks, being so great that frighten them, as stated by José de Acosta, speaking of this same strength that I needed to have the measure about the size of many of them, I want to assert the authority of this great man, although I have asked fellow students, and I sent it, the relationship has not been as clear and distinct as I asked the sizes of larger stones, which wanted the measure sticks and eighths, and not fathom, as I sent it, liked it with testimony from writers, because the wonder of this building is the incredible grandeur of the stones, the work that was incomportable need for lifting. and down to adjust and make them as they are, because not achieved what could be done with no more help from the coast of arms. He says, then, Father Acosta, Book VI, Chapter Fourteen: "The buildings and factories that the Incas did in fortresses, temples, roads, lodges and other, were many and overwork, as manifested today in the ruins and pieces have been as seen in Cuzco, and in various parts of his kingdom, went great number of all provinces, because the work is strange and frightening, and not used for mixing, and had iron steel and stone cutting and shaping, or rides, or instruments to bring them, and yet these are so solidly carved in many places barely see the seam of each other. And they are so great many stones, as is said, that would be incredible thing without not see it. In a stone I hereby Tiaguanaco thirty-eight feet long, eighteen wide, and the bulk would be six feet, and in the wall of the fortress of Cuzco, which is of masonry, there are many stones of much greater greatness, and what you admire is not being cut them I say about the wall as a rule, but to each other very unequal in size and in the faction, fit together with incredible juncture, without mixing. All this was done to many people, and suffering in the till, because to fit a stone was forced other try it out many times, not being the same or flat, etc." All are words of Father Acosta drawn to the letter, which will be the difficulty and labour which made the fortress, because they had no tools or machines that help.
The Incas, as expressed that his factory, it seems that she wanted to show the greatness of his power, as shown on the vastness and majesty of the work, which did more to admire it for no other purpose. They also wanted to show the ingenuity of teachers and architects, not only in the work of polished stone (which the Spanish did not just more expensive), but also in the work of rough stone, which showed no less primordial than the other. Also sought to show men of war in the trace of the building, giving each place is necessary for defence against enemies.
The fort built on a high hill, which is towards the north of the city, called Sacsa huaman, whose foothills begin population of Cuzco, and tend to skirt all the people of Cuzco begins, and stretches out all around to great space . That hill (on the part of the city) is straight, almost perpendicular, so sure that the strength of that band Rush enemies squad formed, or otherwise, or where there's room for artillery to plant but the Indians had no news until they were the Spanish. For the safety of that band was, they felt that was enough any defence, and threw only a thick wall of hewn stone, richly carved by all five parties, if not by the backfill, as Albanisa say, was that wall over two hundred fathoms long. Each stone row was a different length, and all the stones of each course very much alike, and settled for very good interlocking thread, and so adjusted to each other on all four sides, that did not allow mixture. Truth is not the cast of lime and sand, because they failed to make lime, however cast by mixing a slurry of red mud that is very sticky, to swell and filled bites that were working the stone. In this near Pulici showed strength and because the walls were thick, and work both sides highly polished.
THREE WALLS OF THE FENCE
Deste against the wall, on the other side has a large flat
hill, for that band up to the top of the hill with very little cost, where the
enemy could attack in squadrons formed. There were three walls, one ahead of
another, like going up the hill, each wall will have more than two hundred
fathoms length. Are made in a half moon, because they will close and join the
other wall is polished to the part of the city. In the first wall of those three
wanted to show the strength of his power, even if all three are of the same act,
it has the grandeur of it, setting up the larger stones that make amazing the
building who has not seen and frightening to anyone who looks carefully, if he
considers either the greatness and the multitude of stones, and the little
dressing they had for the cutting, styling and seating in the work.
To me that I have not taken from quarries, because they have no signs of having been cut, but they carried the rocks loose, untidy (which lumps called beds), that these mountains were accommodated for the work, and how well were the settled, because some are concave on one end, and convex another, and other biases. A tipped to corners, and some without, faults or excesses which sought to remove or not matching, not add, but the empty and hollow as a very large rock swelled with the full and convex another big rock and more, if they could find greater, and the like bias or a penalty equal right with the law or other bias; and the corner was missing a rock made up for by pulling the other, rather small room, which only swell that fault, but another rock snuggling with her sharpened, to serve the need of the other, so that the intention of the Indians seems to have been not to small stones that wall, if only to fulfil the lack of large but they were all admirable greatness, and embrace each other, favouring all, supplying each the absence of the other to greater majesty of the building. And this is what the father Acosta said: "What I most admire is not being cut them from the wall as a rule, but to each other very unequal in size and in the faction, fit together with incredible juncture, unmixed. With so settled without order, rule or compass, there are rocks everywhere so tight with each other as the polished stone, the face of those crudely carved rocks, almost left as they were at birth, only joints carved out of rock four fingers, and that very wrought, so that in the rough of the beam, and polishing the seams, and disorder of the seat of those rocks and boulders, came to make a gallant and showy work."
A priest, born in Montilla, who went to Peru, when I was in Spain, and returned in a short time talking about this strength, particularly in the monstrosity of the stones, I said that before never imagined seeing them believe that they were as large as he had said, and then saw that they seemed more than fame, was born and then another more difficult question, which was to imagine that they could not seat them in the art work but by the devil. Some had a reason to hinder how they settled in the building, even with the help of all the machines that engineers and teachers around here are older, the more so without them, because it exceeds that work to the seven who write and wonders of the world, for making a wall so long and wide as the Babylonian, and a colossus of Rhodes, the pyramids of Egypt, and other works, well you see how it could do that was going innumerable people, and adding day and day and from year to year material to material, and more material, it gives me to be of brick or bitumen, as the walls of Babylon, or bronze and copper, like the Colossus of Rhodes, or stone and mixture, like the pyramids, in short, is reached how they made that the strength of the people, by the long time, overcame all. More imagine how could those Indians so without machines, mills and cutting tools, styling, up and down rocks as big (most are pieces of saw stone building), and make them as tight as they are, is not achieved, and therefore attribute it to spell, through familiarity so great that the demons had.
In every close, almost in it, there was a door, each door was a stone lifting the width and height of the door with the closing. The first called Tiupuncu, meaning door, because that is somewhat sandy plain concrete sand. Tiu means to sand and sand. And Puncu means door. The second called Acahuana Puncu because the teacher did more than was called Acahuana, pronounced the syllable ca in the interior of the throat. The third was called Viracocha Puncu, devoted to their god Viracocha, who talked that long ghost, who appeared to Viracocha Inca prince, and gave notice of the lifting of the Chanca, so I had to advocate and founder of the new city of Cuzco, and as such gave the door, was asking della saves and defender of the fort, as in times past had been the entire city and all its empire. Between a wall and those three, the entire length of them, there is a space of twenty-five or thirty feet, is filling to the top of each wall, do not know that if the mound is the same hill that rises or if done by hand should be the one and other. Near the sill had each more than a yard high, from which he could fight with more defence exposed.
THREE TOWERS, MORE TEACHERS AND TIRED OF STONE
Past those three fences, is a long narrow space, where there
were three towers on the site as long triangle. The principal of them, who was
in the middle, called Moyoc Brand, mean round strength, because it
was made in the round, it was a source of a lot of very good water, brought from
far below ground. The Indians can not tell where, or when. Among the Inca and
the supreme council walked secret tradition of such things. At the tower were
lodged the kings when they came to the fortress to recreate, where all the walls
were adorned with gold and silver, animals and birds, and plants, misshapen
natural, and embedded in them, which served as upholstery. There were also many
dishes, and all the other service we have said that they had the royal houses.
The second tower called Páucar Brand, and the third Sácllac mark, both were square, they had many rooms for soldiers who had care, which by his order had to be of the Incas of privilege than other nations could not enter the fortress, because it was home of the Sun, weapons and war, as was the temple of prayer and sacrifice. Captain general had as mayor, had to be of royal blood and legitimate, which had its lieutenants and ministers to each his ministry, for the militia of the soldiers, for the provision of supplies, cleaning and Pulici of arms for clothing and footwear had a warehouse for the garrison in the fortress there.
Below the towers were carved below ground as much as above, passing the vaults of a tower to another, which communicated the towers also like top. In those Soterraño showed great device, were carved with many streets and alleys, which crossed from one side to another with twists and turns, and so many doors, some against others, and all of a size that a short distance entering the maze and not lost its senses were right to leave, and even the very talks did not use to enter without a guide, which was to be a ball of thick string attached to the left to enter the door to go guided by him. Good boy, with others of my age, I went many times to the fortress, and be ruined and polished throughout the building, say what was on the ground, and even much of what was underneath, we dared not go into some pieces of those arches that were left, but as far as sunlight, not to get lost in, as the fear that put us Indians.
They failed to arch vaults. Going carving the walls, left for Soterraño a stone corbels, on which beams threw stones instead of long, lined on all six beams, very tight, which reached from one wall to another. All the great building of stone fortress was polished and rough stone, richly carved with great delicacy, which showed that the Incas knew and could, with hope that the work takes advantage in carving and grandeur to all others until there were Indeed, to be trophy trophies, and so was the last because a few years after he went over the Spanish in the empire, and tackle other so large that they were doing.
Four teachers understood more in the works of that strength. First and foremost who attributed the trace of the work was Huallpa Rimachi, Inca, and to say he was the chief, he added the name Apu, who is captain or higher in any ministry, and they call him Apu Huallpa Rimachi; so you would call it Inca Maricanchi. The third was Acahuana Inca him they attributed much of the great buildings of Tiahuanaco, which we have said earlier. The fourth and last of the teachers called Calla Cunchuy. This time they brought the stone tired, which made the teacher more your name, because it retains its memory, whose greatness, as well as the other are equal, and amazing. Loose put here as some of the bulk and height of it, I have not deserved having accurate; those who have seen it. The Indians say that much work has happened on the way to get there and cried tired blood, and could not reach the building. The stone is not carved, but rough and tore it was squared. Much of it is tucked under land that I left her because she imagined that underneath there was a great treasure, and dug it out as they could; more before they reached the treasure imagined, they sank that great rock, and hid most part of its grandeur, and so most of it is underground. In one corner is a hole high or two, if I remember rightly, they pass the corners of one party to another. The Indians say that these holes are the eyes of the stone do blood wept, the dust that collects in the holes, and it rains and water runs down the stone, it is a stain or something scarlet signal because crimson land is in that place. The Indians say that this sign of blood was shed when he cried. As much as it claimed this fable, and I heard it many times.
The true history, as the Incas had the elders, who were the wise philosophers and doctors of all kinds of pagan stone is bringing more than twenty thousand Indians, dragging with large ropes. Iban with great tact, the way to do the bore is rough, with many slopes Agro to raise and lower, half of the people pulling the ropes in front, the other half was holding the rock with other ropes that had clasped behind because the slopes below and go to to where they could not remove.
In one of those hills (carelessness that existed between those who were arguing, not knocking all the pair) won the weight of the rock to the strength of those who supported it, and released by the downhill, and killed three or four thousand Indians who were going to guide, but with all this misfortune, the rose and put on the plain where it is now. Blood is spilled say that he cried because they cried and did not get to be put into the building. They said he was tired, and could not get there because they were tired of carrying it, so that what they spent attributed to the rock. Thus were many fables, which traditionally teach their children and descendants, to make it more memory of the remarkable occurrences between them passed.
The Spanish, as envious of their impressive victories, and must sustain that strength, but was repaired at their expense, so that through them in centuries to come see how great had been the strength and courage of those who won, and memory be eternal his deeds, not only not sustained, but they own the building demolished for private homes that now have in the city of Cuzco, which save the expense and delay and regret with which the Indians tilled the stones for the buildings demolished all that polished stone was built into the fence, no house in the city that has not been worked with the stone, at least those who have paved the Spanish.
The larger stones, which served as the Soterraño beams, got to thresholds and doorways, and smaller stones for the foundations and walls and the stands of the stairs looking for the rows of stone suited them, and having found, breaking down all the courses was on top of which they needed, although they were ten or twelve courses, and many more. Thus disproved that great majesty, unworthy of such havoc, that will eternally sorry for those who look closely at what it was. Brake it down with such haste, that even I did not manage it but the few relics that I said. The three walls of rocks left standing, because they can not topple the greatness of them, and even with all this, as I have said, they have demolished part of them, searching for the string or chain of gold that Huayna Capac had, because they had conjecture or traces that had been buried there.
Began the factory that it is not expensive and poorly drawn strength, good king Inca Yupanqui, the tenth of the Incas, although others have to say that was his father Inca Pachacutec, saying it left the trace and the model made, and very large collection amount of stone and rocks, there were no other material in the work. Soon run out more than fifty years, until the time of Huayna Capac, and even the Indians say was not complete, because the stone had been brought tired for another big factory intended to do, which with many others throughout the empire were made, did head the civil wars that soon after the two brothers Huascar Inca and Atahualpa stood up, at which time the Spanish came to the tackle and knocked on the whole as they are today.
CORN AND RICE THAT CALL, AND OTHER SEEDS
The fruits that Peru had, that was held prior to the Spanish,
were in many ways, some which are kept on the tiller and other below. Of the
fruits that grow above ground has the first grain, the Mexicans and
baloventanos call maize. It is one of two ways: one is tough, they call
muruchu, and the other tender and many gifts, called capia.
Cómenlo instead of bread, toasted or cooked in plain water, the corn seed is
hard which has been brought to Spain, that of the tender has not come here. In
one province grows more tender and delicate than others, particularly that
called Rucana. To their solemn sacrifices, as mentioned above, made corn
bread, they call zancu, and for eating, not regular, but from time to
time by way of gift, made the same bread, which they call huminta;
different in names, not because the bread was different, but because one was for
sacrifice and the other for simple meal, the meal the women grinding slabs wide,
which threw the grain, and brought over another slab made way crescent, not
round, but something long, three fingers on edge. In the stone made crescent put
their hands, and thus brought the song back and forth over the corn with this
difficulty grind their grain and anything else that had to grind, so stopped
eating bread usual.
No grinding in a mortar, but the hit, because they are ground by force of arms by the blows they give, and the stone like a crescent, with the weight you have, what took ground below, and bring it with ease by the way he has, by uploading and downloading it from one place to another, and occasionally picks up in the middle of the slab with one hand what is grinding to brill, and the other has the stone, which, with some resemblance Fuller might call, by the blows that make you give a hand and the other. Are still with this kind of grind for what they need. They also made porridge, which they call api, and ate with great joy, saying a thousand graces, because it was very seldom. Flour, because it tells all, aside from the bran, throwing it on a clean cotton cloth, which was seized on hand, seating throughout. The flower of the flour as devoted thing, it sticks to the blanket, the bagasse, as thicker, departs her, and easily remove it, and return to pick up the blanket in the middle of the flour that was stuck to them, and removed it, threw another window, and so were sifting all that they needed, and more was sifting flour for bread that the Spanish were not for the Indians ate, because it was so rough, mainly of corn, must be removed. Hovered in the way we've said for lack of screens, which did not reach beyond Spain while there was no wheat. All of which I saw with my eyes and I fed them until nine or ten years with zara, which is corn bread which has three names; Cancu was the sacrifice, Humin, for your holiday and gift, Tanta (pronounced the first syllable in the palate) is the common bread, the court called zara toast, means toasted corn, including the name itself adjective and noun hase to pronounce with M, because the N stands for neighbourhood or a large neighbourhood fence. In zara called musti cooked (and the Spanish motto) means cooked corn, including itself both names. Corn flour do the bizcochillos Spanish and fritter, and any other gift, as well as for healthy patients, for which medication, in any kind of cure that is, experienced physicians have banished the wheat flour used of corn. Just simple flour and water make the beverage you drink, and drink, Acedo, as the Indians know how to do, it is very nice vinegar; of the reeds, before the grain matures, it becomes very nice honey. Because the rods are sweet dried reeds and leaves are high maintenance and very nice for the animals. From the leaves of the ear and are served matelillo making statues to go very light. Some Indians most passionate of intoxication that the other community, zara throw the soaking, and thus have until its roots, then grind it all as it is, and cook in same water with other things and keep casting the until it ripens. You make a very strong drink that intoxicates suddenly; llámanle Vinapu, and in another language, sora. The Incas banned for being so violent to drunkenness. After I say here has been re-used by some vicious. So the zara and parts take the profits we have said, not many others who have found health, by way of medicine and in beverages such as plasters, as it said elsewhere.
The second of the crops that grow on the face of the earth are they call quinoa, and Spanish rice mujo or small, because the grain and colour you like something. The plant that grows closely resembles damn well on the stem and in leaf and flower, which is where quinoa breeding, the tender leaves eaten by Indians and Spanish in their stews, they are tasty and very healthy. They also eat grain in their dishes made in many ways. Of quinoa Indians do drink, and maize. Indian herbalists use of quinoa flour for some diseases. The year one thousand five hundred ninety of Peru sent me this seed, but arrived dead, although sown at different times, not born. Without these seeds are the Indians of Peru three or four ways of frijoles, the size of the beans, though minor, are to eat, stewed in their use of them, llámanles purutu; have chochos, like Spain, something bigger and more whites; llámanlos Tarvie. Without eating frijoles are others who are not eating, are round, and made with turquoise, are colourful and the size of chickpeas, together are called chuy, and differentiated by the colours, give them many names, ridiculous, well suited, to avoid prolixity we leave to say, used in many ways Dellos games he had, and of boys and older men, I remember having played one and the others.
OF VEGETABLES TO BREED UNDER THE EARTH
Many other vegetables are grown under the earth, which the
Indians used them to sow and maintenance, mainly in the provinces zara
sterile. Has the first place they call the pope, who serves of bread baked and
grilled cómenla, and also throw in stews, past the ice and the sun to be
retained, as elsewhere said, is called chunu. There are other occasions
that call is a lot of gift, is long and thick as the finger of the hand because
it is sweet cómenla raw and cooked in stews, and pass the sun to
preserve, without honey or sugar throw seems preserved, she has plenty of sweet,
then it is called cavitation. Another is similar to this at the waist,
but not in taste, by contrary, because it touches on bitter, and can not eat it
cooked, called the anus. The Indians say that food is contrary to the generative
power to stop them was damaging, those who were proud of gallants on the one
hand taking a rod or a stick while they were eating, and food and said they lost
their virtue and not damaged. I heard them right, and sometimes I saw the fact,
but implied that they did so more by way of grace by not giving credit to the
jeering of their elders.
The Spanish call the sweet, and the Indians of Peru apichu, there are four or five colours, some are red, others white, others yellow, and other dwellings, but the taste differs little from each other, the less best are those that have brought to Spain. There are also pumpkins and melons, pumpkins that here called Roman, and Peru capallu; criánse as melons, coménlas boiled or stewed, can not be eaten raw. Pumpkins that are vessels there are many good, llámanlas mati; of eating, as in Spain, there were none before the Spanish. There is another fruit that is born under the earth, which the Indians call inchic and Spanish peanuts (all the Spanish names put fruits and vegetables of Peru are the language of the Windward Islands, which have already been introduced in Spanish language, so we account of them); the inchic looks very similar in the bone and the taste of almonds, if eaten raw, offends the head, and if toast is tasty and good with honey nougat made of very good . Also very nice inchic removed from the oil for many diseases. In addition to this fruit is born another of his underground, which the Indians call cuchuchu, so far I do not know that the Spanish have given the name, is because there Fruit Windward Islands, which are very hot land, but in the Collao, that land is very cold, is delicious and sweet, eat raw, and is profitable for stomachs no proper digestion are like roots, much longer than anise. No leafs, but the face of the earth where she was born verdeguea above, and here the Indians know that there cuchuchu below, and when you lose that they see is green seasoning, and then take it out. The fruit and inchil most are gifts from curious and gifted people who do not maintain the ordinary and poor people, even if they catch them and present them to the rich and powerful.
FRUIT TREE TOP
There is another very good fruit that the Spanish call
cucumber, because he seems somewhat at the waist, but not in taste, or how
healthy it is for patients with fever, or having good digestion; above are
contrary to those of Spain, the name the Indians give to me has gone from
memory, though fatigued me in this way many times and many days, and berating
the poor guard who has made and makes many words in our language, I offered to
apologize for this name cachama cucumber do not know if I cheat,
confident that by the distance of the place and no mine, so I can not figure out
the deception Aina, my relatives, Indians and mestizos of Cuzco, and all
Peru, will judge this my ignorance, and many others who find in this my work;
perdónenmelas, for I am yours and only serve as incomportable took a job
like this it is for my little strength (without any hope of reward him or
others), the cucumbers are three sizes, and smaller ones that are shaped like
hearts, are the best, born in small clumps. Another fruit that arrived in Cuzco
called chilli year 1500 and fifty-seven. It is very good taste and
abundance. Born in a ground floor, almost lying on the floor, have a rogue on
top as the arbutus, and is the same size, not round, but somewhat prolonged
Many other fruits are born in tall trees (which look more like those pulses) occur in a hot land, such as maritime, and the Antis, others breed in temperate lands, such as hot valleys Peru, but because the one and the others and all have reached everywhere, it is not necessary to divide between them, but say as they left, and by the beginning of the Spanish call guavas, and the Indians savintu, say they are round, medium-sized apples, and, like them, with hulls and bark. Inside, the spinal cord, has many seeds or kernels round, smaller than those of the grape. Some are yellow on the outside and red on the inside, these are of two kinds, some so bitter that you can not eat, others are sweet, tasteful, others are green on the outside and white on the inside; are better than the red with many advantages, and unlike in many maritime regions are better than the red and white. The Spanish made preserves and other fruit after I got out of Peru, which previously was not used. Seville saw the savintu, who brought the name of God a passenger friend of mine, and fruit of my land be invited me to her.
Another fruit called pacay Indian, Spanish and guavas; criánse in green pods plus and minus one quarter long and two inches wide, open the pod, are a white vedijitas, neither more nor less than cotton, so like him, who has been to Spanish inexperienced, not knowing the fruit, have quarrelled with the Indians who gave it, knowing that by mocking them gave them to eat cotton. They are very sweet, past the sun is stored long, inside, in the vedijitas or buds, have a black nugget like small beans, which are not eating.
The fruit that the Spanish call pears to resemble those of Spain in the green colour at the waist, called avocado Indians because of a province of that name was communicated to others. Are two to three times higher than large pears from Spain, has a soft and thin sheath and beneath the spinal has, to be a finger in thickness, inside there grows a fart or bone, like the highly regarded as it is in the same pear shape, and as thick as the common bulb here, has not experienced it advantageous for anything, the fruit is very tasty, very healthy for the sick sugar meal is to eat a very gifted preserved.
There is another fruit which the Indians call rude rucna, and the Spanish lucma, because there is no corruption at all give them names. It's just fruit, not just sensitive or gifted, but a sweet touch before in agriculture or bitter, or known to be harmful to health than being harsh and rude delicacy, are the size and size of the common orange; are within the bone much like a fart in the chestnut colour of the shell, and in the thick of it, and the white of the bone, but is bitter and not eating. They had a lot of plums, which the Indians call ussun; are red and sweet foods today make take another day as red urine, which seems to have mixed blood.
MULLI TREE AND PEPPER
Among these fruits can put the tree called mulli, born
of his own in the fields, fruit in long narrow clusters, the fruit is a round
bumps the size of dry coriander, the leaves are small and evergreen. The grain,
being seasoned, the surface has some very tasty sweet and very soft; passed
away, the rest is very bitter. They brew of that grain to drink tráenlo
gently between your hands in warm water until all the sweetness has had, and
should not get bitter because they lost everything. Strain that water, and keep
three or four days until that time arrives, it's very nice to drink, very tasty
and very healthy for the ills of urine, flank, kidney and bladder, and mixed
with corn concoction enriching it and more palatable. The same water cooked
until it thickens, it becomes very nice honey, the same water, put the sun, I
know not what you add, the aceda and vinegar is very nice. Milk and resin
mulli elsewhere said how helpful it was for wounds. A decoction of the
leaves in water is safe to wash your legs and body, and to cast himself the
scab, heal old wounds; sticks made of fresh branches are great for cleaning
teeth. I knew the valley of Cuzco adorned countless trees so helpful, and in few
years almost no one saw him, the reason was that it is very nice charcoal
braziers, and even when you turn spark a lot, after the fire keeps on to ashes.
With these fruits of the Indians, we can put the seasoning thrown in everything they eat is cooked, either boiled or roasted, they eat not without calling uchu, and the Spanish, Indian pepper, although there will axi call, which is the name of the language of the Windward Islands. The land of my friends are so uchu, who will not eat without him he is but a raw herbs. For the love that he received in what they eat, prohibiting eating in a strict fast that it was more rigorous, as elsewhere said. Is the pepper of three or four ways, the commune is thick, somewhat long and blunt; llámanle recot uchu, pepper mean thickness, unlike that which follows; cómenlo seasoned or green, rather than just take your perfect colour which is red. Others are yellow and others purple, although I have not seen in Spain over the Reds. There are other peppers over a Jerne little bit less, thin as your little finger or merguerite, these gentlemen had more than the past, and so spent on the royal family and the whole family, the difference of his name I has gone from memory, also called uchu as the past, but the adjective is what I need. Another round pepper is often neither more nor less than a cherry with your nipple or stick; llámanle Chinchi Ullu, burning more than others without comparison, bred in small quantities, and is therefore more valued. The poisonous vermin fleeing the pepper and its plant. A Spanish come from Mexico I heard that was good for the eyes, and dessert and eat for every meal two roasted peppers. Generally, all the Spanish who come to Spain pigs usually eat, and they want more than the species of eastern India. The Indians believe therefore that they have in more than all the fruits that we have said.
MAGUEY TREE AND ITS PROFITS
Among these fruits we put the tree that the Spanish called
maguey, and the Indians chachau, for the many benefits that Se removed,
of which we have mentioned elsewhere. But Father Blas Valera says many more
virtues of chachau, and no reason to shut up, though more briefly tell
his paternity. He says it's eyesore, and that the wood is light, which has a
crust, which are twenty feet long and as thick as your arm and leg, very light,
spongy core, which use painters and sculptors of images. The leaves are thick
and half a fathom long, all born at the foot of the thistle as the Lawn, and
therefore the Spanish call it cactus, and leaves more properly be called
cladodes, have thorns as well as the leaves of the thistle. The Dell is very
bitter juice, served to remove stains from clothing, and curing cancer or
inflamed wounds and to remove the maggots from the wounds. The same juice,
cooked on their own roots in rainwater is very good for removing the fatigue
that was washed away with her, and for various medicinal sinks. Of leaves that
are seasoned and dried the feet of the trunk, pull hemp fortissimo that
made the soles of shoes, and ropes, halters and halters, and other gross things
of that cut before they dry (put them mashed to flows in streams to wash the
vomit and lose their own), take another hemp less rude than the past, they were
deep they brought in the head and clothing made where there was a lack of wool
or cotton; seemed to Anjou brought from Flanders, or tow more than enough to
weave in Spain. Another more subtle take hemp that we have said, that make very
nice yarn for nets, they hunt birds; pónenlas in some narrow gorges
between the hill and hill, grasped a tree to another, and flicking the bottom of
birds they are, who, fleeing people, fall into the nets, which are very subtle
and dyed green for the green field and trees do not resemble the networks and
the birds fall on them more easily. Networks make long, six, eight, twelve,
fifteen and twenty fathoms and longer, the leaves of the maguey are grooved, and
rainwater is collected them, it is useful for various diseases. The Indians
caught, and are very strong brew, mixing it with corn, or quinoa, or
mulli tree seed. They also honey and vinegar. The roots of chachau
ground, and make soap rolls, with the Indian women wash their heads, take away
the pain of her, and the stains on the face. Raising the hair, and get very
black. So here is the father Blas Valera, only I added the length of the nets,
to be something remarkable, and because he does not say. Now tell how to raise
the hair, and how the black, it is barbaric and frightening thing.
The Indians of Peru, all of them are long and loose hair without touching one, at best, bring a tape as wide as your thumb, with that encircle the head, if not the coyas, which by the very cold in the ground them does, bring covered. Amicísimas natives are very black hair and very long, because they bring into the open. When brown put them, or they fork, or they like the styling, it cooked in the fire in a kettle of water with herbs inside. One of the herbs must be the root of chachau that Father Blas Valera said that, as I saw him do a few times, over a cast, however, as a boy and child, or of how many were calling for herbs, or what they were. To put the hair inside the boiler, the boiling concoction fire was put India's back, the neck will put any objections because the fire did not offend. They were counting on the boiling water does not reach the head, because cociese meat; for the hair that remained above water, too wet with it, which qualified for the virtue of cooking herbs. In this way were in the torment volunteer, I say almost two hours, but as a boy did not notice it so carefully, so that it can now say tightly, but do not miss the fact, for it seemed harsh against them doing it. But in Spain I'm seeing the admiration that many ladies do to change her hair, that scent with sulphur and water squirted with strong brown, and put the sun in the middle of the scorching day, and they do other condumios you know, I do not know which is worse and more harmful to health, if this or that. The Indians, having made other sinks to remove horruras knowledge, pulled her hair darker and glossy raven feathers that just moved. As much as this and much more can the desire of beauty.
As has been the relationship of birds, is just the demos of
the grain, and vegetable plants that lacked Peru. Is to know that the first
wheat led to my country (I call it the whole empire was one of the Incas) was a
noble lady, named Maria de Escobar, married to a gentleman named Diego de Chaves,
both natural Trujillo. She knew in my village, many years after he went to Peru
he moved to that city he never knew because she died in the Kings.
This lady, worthy of a great state, took the wheat to Peru, Rimac City. Furthermore both the Gentiles to worship goddess Ceres, and in this midwife did not account for my land, what year would not know, but the seed was so little that they went preserving and multiplying three years without making bread wheat, did not get to half bushel leading, and others do less, it is true that the seeds distributed those first three years to twenty and thirty grains per neighbour, and had to be even more friends, for which qualified all of the new harvest.
For this benefit to this courageous woman did in Peru, and the services of her husband, who was among the first conquerors, the city gave the Kings a good allocation of Indians, who perished in the death of them. The year of 1500 and forty-seven had not bread wheat in Cuzco (although it was wheat), because I remember that the bishop of that city, Don Fray Juan Solano, a Dominican native of Antequera fleeing the battle coming Huarina, stayed at my father with other fourteen or fifteen of his comrades, and my mother gave them with cornbread, and the Spanish came so starved that they prepared dinner while I took handfuls of corn oil, casting their horses, and they ate like candied almonds, barley is not known who took it, it is believed that some grain Dell was among the wheat, because although these two seeds depart, never deviate from it.
OF THE VINE, AND FIRST I PUT GRAPES IN THE CUZCO
Noah plant given the honour of Caravantes Francisco, formerly
of the first conquerors of Peru, a native of Toledo, noble man. This gentleman,
seeing the earth with a quiet seat and sent to Spain for the plant, and he who
came for her, because she wore cooler, took the Canary Islands, brown grape, and
so he came home all red grapes, and wine is all Aloque, not quite red, there
have been many other plants and, to Muscat, but even so there still white wine.
For as much as this gentleman did in Peru, the Gentiles worshiped god Bacchus famous, and he thanked him little or nothing. The Indians, although this time it cheaper the wine, crave little because they are content with their old concoction made from zara and water. Along with that heard in Peru a Spanish gentleman curious reliable than a raisin seedling had brought from Spain, and that prevailing some grains of the dried shoots were born: but so delicate that it was necessary to keep in the nursery three or four years, until they were force to be planted, and for dried grapes to be matched Prieto, and that's why all the wine out of red or Aloque Peru because it is not quite tight as the red of Spain might be that had been the one and the other because the Spanish forward had to see things from their land in the Indies, and nausea have been so effective that no work or danger has made them big to stop trying the effect of desire.
The first to put grapes harvest in the city of Cuzco was Captain Bartolomé de Terrazas, of the first conquerors of Peru, and one that went to the front Chilli Don Diego de Almagro. I met this gentleman, was noble status, magnificent, liberal, with the other natural virtues of a gentleman. Planted a vineyard in its allocation of Indians, called Achanquillo in Cuntusuyu province, where, one thousand five hundred and fifty-five, to show the fruit of her hands and liberality of his mind, sent thirty Indians, loaded very beautiful grapes, Garcilaso de la Vega, my lord, his close friend, with orders that he gave his hand to each of the gentlemen of that city so that all might enjoy the fruits of their labour.
He was a great gift, because new fruit of Spain, and magnificence, not less, because if they had to sell the grapes, Dellas made more than four or five thousand ducats. I enjoyed many of the grapes, because my father elected Ambassador Captain Bartolomé de Terrazas and two Indians took little page for each main house two sources in them.
THE VALUE OF THE COMMON THINGS BEFORE WINNING THE PERU
Say common things in their own particular three that will be enough to be witnesses of what we tested, and I will not say more, to excuse the prolixity that cause innumerable referring to this sort might say. The first witness to be a pasture is now mayorazgo the good of Extremadura, in the city of Trujillo, which each year is worth more than eight thousand ducats a year, bought it that the ancestors of today have two hundred thousand maravedíes principal, and this was shortly before he won the Peru. The second witness is that in this city of Cordoba, a noble man who died in it a few years before he discovered the Indies, in his will, among other things, mandates that a certain party is made to Our Lady, and that the mass is sung, and she preaches a religious order of the divine San Francisco, and to give alms to eat that day thirty maravedíes convent. The income of the possessions that for this act of piety and other left worth then sent four hundred and fifty maravedíes. The brothers of the party, which are the royal scribe, seeing how much income has grown, give alms to the convent (of more than fifty years now) the amount of twenty to thirty ducats, rising a few years the number increased, and other down to the smaller number, and there have been forty years of giving gold crowns, which are sixteen thousand maravedíes, instead of thirty maravedíes sent the testator, because income has grown so much that this year one thousand six hundred and six possessions rent in cash and gifts over nine hundred ducats. The third witness is, in the city of Badajoz, the nature of my father, four entails, among many others that are there, which he founded after a woman noble widow four children, which was mistress of a villa surrounded with seven leagues, and many very good pastures. The town took the King Henry Third, for good government, by way of a woman and have wars between Portugal and Spain then, and be the town near the bay, could not defend it, gave him swear in perpetual forty-five maravedíes gave him swear billion in perpetual maravedíes forty-five thousand of income, which at the time rented the villa. Sixty years will be sold in one hundred and twenty thousand ducats, and today is worth more than three hundred thousand. Say that now pose with the title of lord what rent voucher, which I do not know. I swear that lady left the eldest son to improve it, and the other three left four and five thousand maravedíes income in pastures, and today its owners had better pray maravedíes ducats, and more rather than less, and that was improved, be his estate in swear, it has not grown a white, if it were in possession was not the same. In his own way has increased the value and price of all the other things that are spent in the republic, and with supplies such as apparel and footwear, everything has gone up in price as has been said, and still climbing, which the year of 1500 and sixties, that I got in Spain cost me the first two pairs of cordovan shoes in Seville broke a real and a half each pair, and today, which is one thousand six hundred and thirteen, are worth in Cordoba of that ilk, who were of a sole, five reales, Córdoba city to be cheaper than Sevilla. And rising from the bottom, which is the shoe to the top of the things that are hired, they are censuses, say that the year of 1560 were given the money to roll ten thousand thousand of income maravedis and although four years later, good governance, were sent up to fourteen thousand thousand, this year does not want to take anyone (if they are in quantity and must be either tax) less than one thousand to twenty thousand, and many people , lords of vassals, seeing the price and take surveys taken twenty thousand a thousand to redeem those aged fourteen thousand. As others have said, it is certain and evident that within a few days the army of Peru comes in Seville, his voice sounds until the last places in the Old Orbe, because as the contract deal and men communicate, and move from one province to another and from one kingdom to another, and everything is hanging from the hope of money, and that empire is a sea of gold and silver, their increased reach to bathe and fill with joy and wealth to all nations of the world, grant that our triumvirate has made them. (Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro and Hernando de Luque).
THE BLOODY BATTLE OF SALINAS
Rodrigo Orgonez as brave soldier who was admonished his
people good morning, and put in squad infants, with their sleeves arquebusiers a
hand and another of the squad, although their musketeers were few, and many of
its opposite, were those who destroyed and defeated. Masters of the infantry was
Christopher de Sotelo, Hernando de Alvarado, Juan Moscoso, Diego de Salinas. The
horsemen divided into two teams, on the one were John Taylor and Basque Guevara,
and the other Francisco de Chaves and Ruy Díaz. Orgonez, as leader, wanted to
run at large with team mate Pedro de Lerma, pretending to rule the field, but
his intention was only to be free to go from one place to another looking for
Hernando Pizarro to meet him. Artillery set aside the squad, which could offend
their enemies. He put forward a stream passing across the plain and a small
marsh that are there, understanding that steps would be difficult for their
Pedro de Valdivia, who was master of the field, and Antonio Villalba, sergeant major ordered his people for the same terms as Rodrigo Orgonez yours. They put the squad with very beautiful sleeves musketeers, who were the ones who did the deed. Were two squads of a hundred horses from those of Orgonez. Hernando Pizarro, his companion, whose name was Francisco Barahona, took the lead of a squad of horses, and Alonso de Alvarado the other. Gonzalo Pizarro, as general of the infantry wanted to fight on foot. So went to meet the de Almagro, and passed the creek and swamp, without contradiction by the enemies, because before moving on, they laid a spray of balls that really hurt them, and even messed up so that they could easily break; because infants and horses were removed from the position where they were to get away from the musketry. Seeing this Orgonez, despairing of victory, he ordered the artillery to play, and a ball which entered the contrary squad took five soldiers in a row, which frightened them so that if you enter four or five, disruption of the entire squad . But Gonzalo Pizarro and Valdivia Camp Master stood before, and struggled the soldiers and sent them with the wire ball bearing spikes tirasen to the contrary, they did benefit them. Because of Almagro, in the absence of muskets, were armed with pikes, and those of Pizarro wanted them off because their horses would break the squad more than fifty spades, as they say Agustín de Zárate and Francisco Lopez de Gomara.
Wire balls (for those who have not seen) are made in the same mold as the common, take a quarter or a trio of iron wire, each end of the thread and make a garabatillo as a small hook, and put the thread one end of the half mould, and the other in the other half, and to divide the media moulds get in the way a piece of sheet iron, copper or thin as paper, then throw the molten lead, which garabatillos encorpora with iron wire, and leaves divided into two half ball, clinging to the iron wire. Cast them into the musket together like the whole ball, and leaving the stray musket, and iron wire are cut in half as bump ahead. For this cut sent disposed of spades, as historians say, because the balls would not break so common as broken spades. No boobies threw for not doing so much harm in them wanted to show their opponents the advantage that the muskets they had.
This invention led Flanders ball to Peru Captain Pedro de Vergara with muskets that happened there. I reached in my country some of them, and in Spain I have seen and I've done, and there met a gentleman named Alonso de Loay, a native of Trujillo, who left the battle wounded by a ball, which cut the lower jaw with all teeth and part of the lower molars, the father of Francis of Loay, who now lives in Cuzco, one of the few sons of conquerors who enjoy the divisions of their parents. The invention of wire balls out of view must have put the pieces of string thrown into the guns to do more damage to enemies. Returning to the story of our battle, we say that Orgonez and team mate Rodrigo Pedro de Lerma, seeing the damage the musketry had done in theirs, fell upon the squadron of horse Hernando Pizarro was going to see if they could kill him, it was the they wanted, because the victory of the battle and saw a decline in the camp of his enemies. They stood in front of it and his companion, who by signs of orange velvet doublets, were well known. Fell upon them, who came to meet with great courage and bravery. Orgonez Rodrigo, who had been released from rest, she found Francisco Barahona, and struck him in the gypsy (in Peru, in the absence of traps Burgundy, put those on horseback to fake gypsy infant helmets that covered their faces) broke the spear, which was silver and copper, and opened his head and dropped it into the ground, and passing on to another the spear pierced the breasts, and sword-throwing hand was doing wonders of person, but was short lived because of a arquebus a pellet struck him in the forehead, who lost his sight and strength.
Pedro de Lerma and Hernando Pizarro found the spears, and they were riders, not ready, you will need to say how they used in them. "Thus, then and till now in all the Spanish civil war had, made some leather bags clinging to a strong correones saddle hanging from the front of the saddle and the horse's neck, and put the story of the spear in the bag, and tucked under his arm, as if it were ready. In this way was in the battles meetings in Peru were among the Spanish, because the blow was with all the strength of the horse and knight. Which was not necessary to the Indians, which was enough to blow his arm hurt them and not ready. After the first meeting, if the spear was healthy, then taken out of the pocket, and used as a spear Genet. We give particular regard to the offensive and defensive weapons in my country that were used, in order to better understand what we were saying. Returning to the meeting of Hernando Pizarro and Pedro de Lerma, because it is so long spears, and soft more than what their owners wanted, the meetings were low. Hernando Pizarro badly wounded his opponent in the thigh, breaking the breastplates and the coat he was wearing. Pedro de Lerma gave Hernando Pizarro's horse at the top of the crown, so that the knife of iron of the spear cut some of the skin, and broke the halters, and hit the top of the saddle-bow, which (to be chair arms) so contorted and took his place, and going forward the spear broke breastplates and the coast, and Hernando Pizarro struck in the belly, not fatal wound, because the horse, the brave encounter of the spear Delom at that time, and fell to the ground, and with its free fall in the death knight that did not happen and it certainly passed the lance of the other party. In this step, both praising the exploits of Orgonez historians say almost the same words, the last of Agustín de Zárate in that are as follows: "And when Rodrigo Orgonez rushed, wounded him with a shot of musket in front Having been past his helmet, and he with his spear, after wounded, killed two men, and stuck a sword through the mouth to a servant of Hernando Pizarro, thinking it was his master, for he was very well dressed." So here is Zárate. On which is to be noted that in Spain who gave the link in this battle must be of the opposite side of Hernando Pizarro, in particular because he left. Hernando Pizarro said that his servant dressed in the garments and insignia that he said he would take the day of battle, so that those who seek him (looking for the servant dressed) was careless. In which he accused of being cowardly and timid, and this reputation spread throughout Spain, and went to Peru and the Royal Council of the Indies, to become certified particular, he called a famous soldier was found in the battle of Don Diego Almagro, who was said Silvestre Gonzalez, and, among other things, asked whether Peru had to Hernando Pizarro a coward. The soldier, although the opposite side, he said, paying him all that Hernando Pizarro and his challenge, and Orgonez, and colleagues, we said it was the public voice and fame of this battle. This happened in Madrid in recent years in the prison of Hernando Pizarro, who were twenty-three, and the soldier told me what happened in the Royal Council of the Indies. Which cast a bad reputation, to give pain, said he was servant who say it was his partner. He said he was very wearing, and it was true, because I had the same currency of Hernando Pizarro, who was very orange velvet doublet slashed. Removed from the truth, adding to the fake in doing that was co-fed. Seeing his family to Hernando Pizarro fallen, meaning that he was dead, drove with Don Diego de Almagro, and the one and the others fought Bravissimo very mortality of both parties, because the fire was lit more than they thought, and wounded and killed with the utmost rage and despair, as if they were all one nation, no religion, or remembering that they had been brothers and comrades in arms, to win the empire with so much as won. The fight lasted without acknowledging the victory much more time than you imagined, because the de Almagro, although there were far fewer in number, were equal in value and encouragement to those of Pizarro, and so resisted the might of the enemies and the advantage of the musketry, at the expense of their lives, selling well until they were consumed, dead and wounded and those who could turned their backs. Was more cruel then the rage with which they had fought, that although were defeated and surrendered, not pardoned before showed higher signal.
MARQUIS MAKES THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE KINGDOM AND THE PROVINCE OF PONDS,
AND GONZALO PIZARRO GOING TO THE CONQUEST OF CINNAMON
Quiet war, and the Indians made in peace, made the
distribution Marquis Dell within most major Spanish that were found in the
conquest, gave a very good deal to his brother Hernando Pizarro, Gonzalo Pizarro
and another, whose district is found Years later, the silver mines of Potosi,
where he learned to Hernando Pizarro, as a resident of that city (though I saw
him in Spain), a mine that gave his ministers to send him money from her. Which
went so rich that more than eight months removed unblemished silver, fine, of
any law, without other benefits to more than melt metal.
Add this wealth here because I was trying to mind when that famous hill in the first part of these comments. Garcilaso de la Vega, my lord, gave the division called Tapacri. Gabriel de Rojas took another much good, and so many other men in space over a hundred leagues from that city term then had, which were then part of the city called Peace.
Not worth those divisions were then but little, although they had many Indians, and were of very fertile land and abundant, until they discovered the mines of Potosi, then the rents went up ten to one, that the divisions they rented a two, three, four thousand dollars, rented after twenty, thirty and forty thousand pesos. The Marquis Don Francisco Pizarro, having ordered him to found the town they called Plate, now called the Silver City, and having divided the Indian jurisdiction over the winners and conquerors of it, it was all one thousand and five hundred and thirty-eight and thirty-nine, having not rested yet two years of civil wars and conquests past, tried other so difficult and more laborious, as we shall tell. With the death of Don Diego de Almagro was the Marquis only governor over seven hundred leagues of land that is north to south, from Charcas to Quito, where he had to do to appease it and pave the new conquests to their masters in various parts made and in providing justice and tranquillity for the people who were already peaceful, but as the rule and dominion is insatiable, not content with what I had, tried new discoveries, because his warlike spirit and have sought to bring forward the good deeds that up there had been.
All new terms that outside of Quito and beyond what the Inca kings Lord, there was a very long and wide land where they raised cinnamon, and therefore called Cinnamon. It seemed to send her conquest of his brother Gonzalo Pizarro, that had nothing much land to govern as he, and having consulted with his secret, he resigned the governorship of Quito in the said his brother, for that city lifeguard at what you would need, because there was to make his entrance, being the Tan-release of Quito. With this determination sent for Gonzalo Pizarro, who was busy in Charcas in the new population of the city of La Plata, and in order to seat and enjoy the allocation of Indians who had fitted. Gonzalo Pizarro came then to Cuzco, where his brother was, and having talked between the conquest of the Canela is admonished for her, accepting with good spirits, the journey, to show it the value of his person for such feats.
Made in the Cuzco over two hundred soldiers, hundreds of horses and other infants; spent with them more than sixty thousand ducats. He went to Quito, five hundred leagues, where he was governor Pedro de Puelles. Along the way he fought with the Indians who were rebels, had minor battles with them, but those of Huánucu squeezed her badly, so much that, as Augustine says Zarate, Book IV, Chapter I, he sent the Marquis Francisco de Chaves relief.
Gonzalo Pizarro, free of that danger and not so great, arrived in Quito. Pedro de Puelles showed the provisions of the marquis his brother was obeyed. And as governor of that kingdom adorned you need for your journey, made more than a hundred other soldiers, which were all three hundred and forty, one hundred and fifty horses and other infants.
It took more than four thousand Indians of peace loaded with weapons and food supplies, and other necessities for the day, such as iron, axes, machetes, rope and hemp ropes, and nails out there for what they offered.
Also took about four thousand head of cattle pigs and sheep over the empire, which also helped to carry part of the ammunition and loading.
Quito left by his lieutenant Pedro de Puelles, and having renovated and given new order in certain things that were in need of reformation, came out of Quito for Christmas the year one thousand and five hundred and thirty-nine. He went very peacefully and very gifted of the Indians that lasted all the way to leave the empire of the Incas. Subsequently entered into a province called Quixos historians. And because in this day of Cinnamon, Francisco Lopez de Gomara and Agustín de Zárate are very satisfied, telling the events almost the same words, and because I heard them many of the people in this discovery were found to Gonzalo Pizarro, say, picking up one and the other, what happened.
Thus, in the province of Quixos, which is north of Quito, many Indian warriors came to Gonzalo Pizarro, but then they saw the many Spanish and carrying horses, retreated inland, where it never appeared. A few days bravísmamente the earth shook, which fell many houses in the village where he was. The earth opened in many places, there was lightning, thunder, lightning, so many and so thick that the Spanish are very much admired; together many days it rained so much water, it seemed that the cast with rain; admiróles the novelty of the land so different from what they had seen in Peru. After forty or fifty days that had this storm, tried to pass the Nevada Mountains, and although they were well ready against (as that Sierra is so strange), I fell so much snow and it was so cold that froze many Indians, because they wear little clothing, and that very little shelter. The Spanish, to escape the cold and snow, and that bad area, abandoned the cattle and carrying food, meaning people find it wherever there was Indian. But befell against, because that last Cordillera had great need of supplies, because the land they found (to be sterile) had no inhabitants. Made haste to get out of it, became a province and the people who called Zumaca, since the slopes of a volcano, where they found food, but so expensive, that in two months that there were no rain stopped they never or only one day that received a lot of damage, that they lost a lot of clothing worn clothing.
In that province called Zumaca, which is below the equator, or near, the trees are grown is called cinnamon, they were looking. Are very high, with large leaves like bay leaf, and fruit are a fine fruit bunches, which are raised in cocoons as acorn. And though the tree and its leaves, roots and bark smell and taste of cinnamon, cinnamon are the most perfect buds. The mountains are raised many of those trees, uneducated, and bear fruit, but not as good as the Indians take the trees they plant and cultivate their lands for their profits with their neighbours, but not to those of Peru . And they never wanted or want your uchu species, beyond the Spanish call chilli, pepper and Spain.
THE DEATH OF DON FRANCISCO PIZARRO MARQUIS POOR AND BURIAL
Feeling the noise the Chili's had some Indians entered the service of the Marquis where he was, and he warned people who came, and how come. The Marquis, who was talking to her Mayor, Dr. Velazquez and with Captain Francisco de Chaves, who was like his lieutenant general, and Francisco Martin de Alcantara, his maternal brother, and another twelve or thirteen servants of the house, with the announcement of the Indians suspected what it was. Francisco de Chaves sent to close the door of the room and the block where they were, while he and his men were armed to go out and defend those who came. Francisco de Chaves, understanding that it was any particular quarrel with soldiers, and that would be enough to appease his authority (instead of closing the doors as he was commanded), went out to them and found them coming up and the stairs. And disturbed to see what he did not think he asked them, saying: "What do they send vuestas mercedes?" One of them gave a lunge for an answer. He, looking hurt, to defend drew his sword, then loaded all over it, and one of them gave as good a stab in the neck, like it says Gomara, chapter one hundred and forty-five, brought the head to about, and rolled the body down the stairs. Those in the room, they were servants of the Marquis, came to see the noise, and seeing dead to Francisco de Chaves, turned and fled as mercenaries, and drove through the windows that came to an orchard of the house, and among them Dr. Juan Velasquez was the stick in the mouth, because it does not clog the hands, and that she had to respect the opponents. Which came into the room and finding no people in it, went on the block. The Marquis, feeling so close, medium left arm, which had no place to tie a belt that had breastplates. Pregnant drew a shield and a sword in his hand. They left with him his brother Francisco Martin de Alcantara and two boys, and men, one named Juan de Vargas, son of Gomez Tordoya and another Alonso Escandon. Which took no defensive weapons because they had no place that they can be taken. The Marquis and his brother got to the door, and bravely defended large space of time without poderles into enemies. The Marquis, with great spirit, his brother said: "Death, who are traitors." And bravely fighting each other, killed the brother of the Marquis, because I did not defensive weapons. One of the pages, then put in place, and he and his master's door so valiantly defended, that the enemies were wary of being able to win, and fearing that the fight would last much relief to the Marquis and kill them all taking them in the middle. Juan de Rada and one of the companions in arms seized Narvaez, and threw him to the door in the Marquis cebase in it, and meanwhile the others entered. So it happened that the Marquis received a thrust Narvaez and other injuries that gave him, he died later. Meanwhile others came and went about the Marquis, and others to the pages. The men who died fighting as badly injured and left four of the opponents. Seeing only the Marquis, they all ran to him and surrounded him everywhere, he fought a good space of time as he was jumping around and other parties, bringing the sword with such strength and skill, which badly wounded three of their opponents, but as there were so many to one, and spent his age and sixty-five, was discouraged so that some of his enemies approached him and gave him a lunge for the throat, which fell on the floor confisión calling loudly, and fell as he was, made a cross with his right hand, and put his mouth on her, and kissed the famous expired on the famous Don Francisco Pizarro, who has so enriched and enlarged and enhances the crown today Spain and the world, with the riches of empire won, as it looks, and how back in many parts have said. And with all its grandeur and wealth over so helpless and poor, which was not what, or who will bury them. Where fortune in less than an hour matched his disfavour and misery to the favor and prosperity in the speech of his life had given him.
DIEGO DE ALMAGRO IS SWORN IN AS GOVERNOR OF PERU,
SENDS ITS PROVISIONS TO VARIOUS PARTS OF THE KINGDOM,
AND THE CONTRADICTION DELLA
The Marquis died, as has been said, by too much trust
Francisco Chaves, who closed the doors as he was commanded to close them, while
the breaking of opposites, were made to arm the Marquis who were, and perhaps
surpass those of Don Diego. Well, being no more than four, who were the Marquis
and his brother, and their two boys, and poorly armed, killed four, as the
authors say, and made others believe is that if they were well perceive, was
made of the four the others burst through the windows to keep out enemies and
even to beat them, than when they reached the victory, could get relief with
time. But when misfortune comes, ill be remedied by human advice. Gomara says
the black man who killed those of Almagro was that feeling that brought the
crowd fighting with the Marquis, came up the stairs up and help his master, or
die with him, and when he reached the door he felt that he had died; wanted to
bolt for defuera locked and call to let justice; going joining the black
doors, he managed to leave one of those inside, and feeling the intent of slave
attacked him and killed lunges. Seven were killed by the Marquis, and among them
a servant Francisco Chaves. Then they went to the plaza de Almagro with bloody
swords singing victory. Thus ended the great Marquis, more by neglect and
confidence of his people, not by the strength of his enemies. With the bustle of
his death there arose a great noise throughout the city: around, shouting,
saying: "Here the king who killed the Marquis." Others loudly said, "and the
tyrant is dead, and avenged the death of Don Diego de Almagro." In the clamour
and confusion left many of one side or the other, each to promote their party,
and the square there were many riots and brawls, where deaths and injuries, but
ceased after the camp of the marquis with the certification that was death. The
Chili took Don Diego de Almagro the boy to the plaza, saying there was no king
in Peru but Don Diego de Almagro. Which, calmed the revolt of that day, the
council took an oath as governor of the land, no one dared to contradict him,
although all of the council were of the opposite side, but no one dared speak or
contradict what they asked for the victors. Ministers who had removed his
justice, and put others on their side. The richest and most powerful men in the
city of the Kings had, because they were of the opposite side, in short, took
over the city. King took the fifth, which was a very large sum that was
collected. So did the assets of the dead and missing, in that they were
necessary to aid all his people, who were as poor as has been said.
Juan de Rada appointed by the captain general. He captains Juan Tello de Guzman, a native of Seville, Francisco de Chaves, the other close kinsman Francisco de Chaves who killed the Marquis that have civil wars, to be brother against brother. Also named by Captain Christopher Sotelo, and appointed other ministers of war. The fame of these things came to the city of Kings all the Spanish that went vaganzos and lost ground, and so did Don Diego more than eight hundred fighting men. Sent to all cities in Peru, as it was at Cuzco, Arequepa, to the Ponds and down the coast from the sea, Trujillo, and inland to the Chachapoyas, require absolute control and to receive him as governor of throughout the empire. On one or two cities obeyed more by fear than by love, because they had no strength to resist Diego fifty men sent to them, the other cities resisted, as we say.
In Peru it is common that language down the coast and up the coast, not because costs go up and down the coast, round shape that can not be, but says the coast down to the new navigation to the wind ago in that southern sea that come from Peru to Panama, which is to say downhill because there always runs that wind. And unlike say going up the coast from Panama to Peru, by the contradiction of the wind, which makes them go up as if struggling to go uphill. Juan de Rada provided everything that was said on behalf of Don Diego, very quite, without letting the other captains and mates who were in the Marquis's death, which was born of envy and resentment in all other major and tried to kill Juan de Rada.
Known mutiny, gave stick to Francisco de Chaves, who was the chief of the league, and killed many, among them Antonio de Orihuela, a native of Salamanca, although he was recently arrived from Spain, because they knew that the way had said that they were tyrants, and he was so poorly regarded in his health, having said that it was to get between them.
One of the ministers of Don Diego sent along the coast to take possession of those peoples and the people for their worth, and take guns and horses from the neighbouring Indian gentlemen who favoured the contrary, all the most were his enemies, was a gentleman named Garcia de Alvarado. He went to Trujillo, took the post of justice to Diego de Mora, but he was a lieutenant of Don Diego de Almagro, because he knew that warned of all that happened to Alonso de Alvarado, who was the other side.
And in the city of San Miguel Francisco de Vozmediano slaughtered, and Hernando de Villegas, and made other great outrages, and killed in Huánucu Alonso de Cabrera, who had been steward of the Marquis Don Francisco Pizarro, it gathered some friends to run away with them to the kingside.
Another minister Don Diego, Diego Mendez, went to the Ponds, the village of la Plata, where he found the town without people, because the neighbours had left him for a few parties and others to join the city of Cuzco to be with them for the king, as we shall see. Diego Mendez took much gold in that town that the residents were hiding in the possession of Indians, which together are so weak, that for any threat that make them discover what they know.
It also took more than sixty thousand pesos unblemished silver mines of Porco's called, which then were not yet discovered the Potosi. Confiscated and placed at the head of Don Diego de Almagro the Indians and the plantations that were the Marquis Don Francisco Pizarro, which were delicious. So did the Indians of Captain Diego de Rojas, and Peranzures, and Gabriel de Rojas, and Garcilaso de la Vega, and all other residents of that town, most were all friends of Pizarro. Another messenger sent Chachapoya province, where Alonso de Alvarado walked pacified. Who, when he saw the provisions of Diego and his letters, though they made him great promises if he obeyed, and great threats if contradicted him, announced the arrest response to the messenger, and to persuade that it was one hundred Spanish that followed and would serve to His Majesty, and with the consent Dellos raised his flag. And although Don Diego wrote with other messengers, he never wanted to obey, but he said no governor would get to see the express command of His Majesty had done hitherto. All this was Alonso de Alvarado relied on the roughness of the province, which, as before mentioned, is asperísima and hoped Alvarado, but had few people, until they came together to defend others from the camp of Pizarro to serve the emperor, knew they had to go many, and so was expecting to happen, making calls to people along the coast had. Where we will leave by telling others that did the same. The messengers that the provisions and powers of Don Diego de Almagro went to Cuzco, dared not make any insolence made as they had done elsewhere, that while in that city had many of his worth, had over the king's service, and were leading men, rich and powerful Indians had dealings, and those of Don Diego were poor soldiers have recently joined the land, who wanted to prosper similar revolts them too. Mayors were then in that city, Diego de Silva, and again by my name, son of Feliciano de Silva, a native of Rodrigo, and Francisco de Carvajal, who later became field marshal of Gonzalo Pizarro.
Who, having seen the supplies, not to irritate the side of Don Diego that would make some destination, responded, and all the council with them, not contradicting or obedience, and said that it was necessary solemn fact that Don Diego send enough power which sent, and then send it receive the governor. This said with determination not to receive, more than for there to entertain time and place to join that of his party were absent, most were out of town in their divisions and gold mines, almost all the divisions of Cuzco have them.
THE AUTHOR TELLS HOW HE WAS WITH GONZALO PIZARRO.
ACCOUNT OF THE DEATH OF SAILING NÚÑEZ.
CARVAJAL FRANCISCO. THE ARRIVAL OF THE KINGS. THE RECEPTION TO BE MADE
I met with Gonzalo Pizarro of view in the city of Cuzco, then
that was it, after the battle of Sacsahuana Huarina up, they were nearly six
months, and most of those days I was at home, and saw the try him at home and
abroad. All were honoured him as supreme, accompanying him wherever he went, on
foot or horseback, and he had to all residents and soldiers, so kindly, and as a
brother, complained that none of it and never saw anyone to kiss your hand, or
he was but it might pray for moderation: all simply took off his cap, and no one
deserved it stopped talking about your worship. Carvajal, as we have said, he
called father, I heard it once when I was with the governor, who as a child and
a boy I was with him, came to talk to Francisco de Carvajal, and although the
room there was no one could I hear it is modesty from me, and spoke in his ear
so that even the voice not heard. Gonzalo Pizarro replied briefly, and one of
them was saying, "Look, father." Vile eat a few times, always ate in public,
brought them a long table had at least a hundred men, she sat at the head of it,
and a hand and another in the space of two seats, not rested anyone out there
sat down to eat with him all the soldiers they wanted, that the master and the
neighbours never ate with him, but at home. I ate twice at his table, because I
sent him, and one day was the day of the feast of the Purification of Our Lady,
the son of the Marquis, and I with them, ate up all three in that space the
table left without seats, and he gave us his plate than we had to eat, and I saw
everything I've said, and as eyewitness to certify it. Historians have had
reporters passionate hatred and rancour, to inform them what they wrote. We also
find that taking every fifth, and real incomes, and the tributes of the Indians
vacos, and those who went against him, that everything was going to be
more than two-thirds of the income parts of Peru, people did not pay war, and
brought her very unhappy, and when he was killed, they say that they found him
hidden treasures, where adultery is by far the rising crime as a reason to
incriminate such cases, especially in those who command and govern.
Returning to our story, is to know that in time that Gonzalo Pizarro was this time in the city of Kings, befell the unfortunate death of Núñez Vela, brother of the viceroy Blasco Núñez de Vela, which caused the captain Juan de la Torre, who years earlier had married an Indian woman, the daughter of a curaca of the province of Puerto Viejo. The Indians, being increased with the relationship of that Spanish, rather than estimating it with their treasures, they discovered a tomb of his ancestors gentlemen, where more than one hundred and fifty thousand ducats in gold and fine emeralds. Juan de la Torre, looking so good, wanted to flee from Gonzalo Pizarro, and come to Spain to enjoy their wealth, but seemed to him that depending on the offence against the service of His Majesty had done (it was one of those who fought the beard the viceroy, and put them in medal), did not come safe, Núñez Vela tempted to flee with him on a ship in the port which was, to that in Spain, he and his relatives will sponsor and favoured, for him the tyrant out of power, and having already Núñez Vela's consent, by gossip and novels that were invented, that Her Majesty the government confirmed to Gonzalo Pizarro, apparently moved, for being so did not want to lose the grace and friendship Gonzalo Pizarro, who expected great favours, and because Núñez Vela, or else he discovered by Pizarro to the treatment that he had done, being the cause of his death, he wanted to win the hand you were to discover, and and she realized Gonzalo Pizarro, thus cut off the head Núñez Vela, and made room to another about it, even whispered that Gonzalo Pizarro had done more for the licentiate Carvajal persuasion, not by desire I had of kill him because he always suspected that soft Pizarro condition Núñez Vela, who had earlier been encouraged that incentive. Thus ended this fine gentleman, because of a traitor who was anyway. Francisco de Carvajal, taking days before news of the departure of Gonzalo Pizarro to the Kings, and his office, came from Charcas to join him in the same city. Gonzalo Pizarro left, some time outside to receive him, made him a solemn and triumphant welcome, as a captain who had won many victories, and many enemies were scattered. Carvajal left in the village of Silver Alonso de Mendoza as captain and lieutenant of Gonzalo Pizarro, he brought it close to a million pesos of silver, which was taken from the mines of Potosi, and the Indians vacos, that was good to spend Gonzalo Pizarro Carvajal where he repeated what the letter he had written about himself king. We leave them and all his ministers and friends, particularly the residents of the cities of the empire, engaged in peace and quiet of the Indians and Spanish that he had, and the increase of the holy Catholic faith, doctrine and education of the natives, and the exploitation of their estates, and common of merchants and traders, with past wars and revolts nobody dared not farm or market, because everything was a danger that we take away from their owners, as did, for one, discovered color of tyrants, stealing, and the other to say that what they needed for the king. That troubled waters (as the saying goes), profit is fishing. We spend Spain to say that His Imperial Majesty provided, known revolt and alteration of Peru and the imprisonment of viceroy Blasco Núñez Vela.
THE CAPTAINS OF JUSTICE, AND HOW THEIR HEADS TOOK DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE UNITED
After the talks referred to, followed by another very
different with a soldier named Diego de Tapia, whom I knew as we mentioned in
our history of Florida, Book VI, chapter eighteen, who had been a soldier of
Carvajal, his own company, and much loved him, because he was a good soldier and
very agile for anything. He was small of body and highly polished at all, and
Carvajal had escaped before the battle Huarina. Since front of him, cried her
eyes out with great tenderness and passion, and among other things, a lot of
feeling, he said: "Sir, my father, much weight I see your grace in the point is,
it pleased God , sir, to be content to kill me, and let your worship with life,
I give mine for a very well spent. Oh my lord, how much it hurts me to see that!
If your grace will flee when I ran away, did not look like it is." Carvajal said
he thought very well the pain and feeling, and I would greatly appreciate your
willingness and desire to exchange his life for others, which showed good
friendship they had. And what of the flight said: "Brother Diego de Tapia,
because we were such great friends, why when I did not tell me you said you
fled, and we left both?" He laughed rather than reply to those who knew him, and
I see the wonder in itself was how to respond to everything that was offered.
All this and much else happened on the day of the battle with Francisco de
Carvajal. Gonzalo Pizarro was alone, no one saw him, because he commanded so, if
it was not Diego Centeno and six or seven major soldiers were with him.
The next day he did justice to Gonzalo Pizarro and his master of the field and captains, who arrested the day of the battle, as Gomara says, chapter one hundred and eighty-seven, were Juan de Acosta, Francisco Maldonado, Juan Velez Guevera, Dionisio de Bobadilla, Gonzalo Nest, who said he pulled his tongue along the occiput, and does not say why, and it was for blasphemy against the imperial majesty said. All these and many others were hanged, although they were children Dalgo wanted to keep his pre-eminence not because they were traitors to their king. After hanging their heads cut off and send them to various cities of the kingdom. The Juan de Acosta and Francisco Maldonado was placed on the roll of the square of Cuzco, in separate cages of iron, I saw them there, although one of the authors (the Palencia), chapter ninety-one, say the Acosta led the city of Kings. The Dionisio de Bobadilla and another took her Arequepa, where he served full well that good prognosis Joan of Leyton Bobadilla threw the same when that city was the head of Lope de Mendoza, who said that very soon the would be taken away from there and his in the same place and very fulfilled to the letter. Made haste to execute justice in Gonzalo Pizarro and his ministers, fearing, as the authors say, that while he lived was not safe to land. A Pizarro condemned beheaded for treason, and to pull down the houses they had in Cuzco, and strewn with salt and verifications a stone pillar with a sign that read: "These are the houses of the traitor Gonzalo Pizarro," etc.
All of which I saw done, and the houses were the ones that fit in the division of the city was won when he and his brothers, and the site of an Indian language called Coracora, which means grassland. Gonzalo Pizarro, the day of his detention, as stated, was in the tent of Captain Diego Centeno, where he was treated with the same respect as the most prosperity and dominion. Would not eat that day, although they asked, almost everything he spent in walking alone very imaginative, and good time the night Diego Centeno said: "Lord, are we sure this night?" Declined to say whether he would be killed that night or would wait a day to come, because it understood that the hours Gonzalo Pizarro years to his opponents were up to him dead. Diego Centeno, he understood, he said, "your lordship can sleep safe, that we should not imagine that." After midnight, he leaned a bit on the bed and slept like an hour, then turned to walk to the day, and he asked the light of a confessor, and stood with him until noon, where we'll leave it to happen to Francisco de Carvajal, to say what he did that day, who does not walk so designed as one of the authors will do, but quite the contrary, as I say, not by obligation of benefits that thing had received from Francisco de Carvajal; before wanted to kill my father after the battle of Huarina, and tried to find causes for it removed from their imaginations and suspicions, and according to this prior bad I had to tell him that his honour back, but the obligation of writing the events of their times to account for Dell worldwide, and even forced me strength, if we can say that without passion, hobby or tell the truth about what happened, and I swear as a Christian that many steps which I have written the shortened and cut off for not being passionate aficionado or write so against what the authors say, particularly Palencia, who must be late for that land, and heard the vulgar many fables like composite which wanted to invent the following his sides and passions.
These things I have said and others say such small that happened in those days, I heard in my childhood to those who spoke in them, which at that time and years later there was talk of noble people in that little or a lot do not speak at the occurrence. Then in middle age, the person I heard people who were guardians of Francisco de Carvajal and Gonzalo Pizarro, to the stores where they were imprisoned were very close to each other, and those soldiers who kept them, they were of main, it passed from one to the other remuda, and saw it all and had in particular, as eyewitnesses.
THE REVENGE OF THE SHAME AGUIRRE MADE,
AND THE MAYOR FOR MEASURES HABERLE A HANDS,
AND HOW TO ESCAPE AGUIRRE
Aguirre was not his conquest, although the village of Potocsi
helped him with everything you would need, plus he excused himself saying that
what he needed for his consolation was to seek death, and give haste to arrive,
and this is remained in Peru, and completed the term of office of the lawyer
Esquivel, gave in after beating him as a man desperate to kill him and wish he
could, to avenge the insult. The licensed, certified by friends determination in
absence and gave away the hurt, and not as you wish, but three and four hundred
leagues in the middle, thinking they saw him so far away and forget him Aguirre,
but he earned the more profit the more the lawyer he fled, and followed him on
the trail wherever he went. The first day the lawyer went to the city of the
Kings, who are three hundred and twenty miles of road, but within a fortnight
was Aguirre with him the lawyer gave away another flight to the city of Quito,
which is four leagues way, but a little more than twenty days it was Aguirre,
which known to the lawyer, turned and took another leap to Cuzco, which are five
hundred miles of road, but came just days after Aguirre, who walked on foot and
barefoot, and said that a hit was not to ride a horse or appear where people see
him. Aguirre walked in this way after his degree three years and four months.
Which, looking tired to walk such a long way and must not use, they decided to
seat in Cuzco, for it seemed that having a judge in that city as rigorous and
righteous Aguirre is not dare to do anything against him. And so he took to his
house a home street between the cathedral, where he lived very modestly, usually
brought under a coat dress coat, and girded his sword and dagger, though it was
against their profession. At that time my father's nephew, son of Gomez Tordoya,
and of the same name, spoke to Mr. Esquivel, because it was in the country,
Extremadura and friend, and said: "Very remarkable is how all of Peru canine and
diligent walking Aguirre for killing your worship, I want to come to me to his
hotel to sleep at night even in it, that knowing Aguirre with your grace I'm not
dare to enter his house." The lawyer thanked him, and said he was walking
straight and confident person, who did not remove a coat or offensive weapons
that this enough, that was otherwise shocking the city and show much fear of man
as Ahmed, said this because it was small and mean body size, but the desire for
vengeance that made him the person and encouragement that could be equated with
Diego García de Paredes and Juan de Urbina, celebrities of that time, because he
dared to enter a Monday noon at the home of lawyer, and having walked by it many
steps, and passed by a runner and tall, and a high room, and a block, camera
room, where he had his books, he found him sleeping on one of them and stabbed
him in the right temple, that killed him, then gave him another two or three by
the body, but not hurt by the altitude that was dressed, but the blows were the
ruptures of the coat. Aguirre turned to retrace his steps, and when he saw the
front door found that he had dropped his hat, and had a mind to come back for
him, and took and took to the streets: but when he came to this step was all
cut, without touch or trial, then entered the church not to take shelter in it
having the street in the middle. He went to San Francisco, who was at the
convent east of the church, and having travelled a long way from the street,
also happened to go to the monastery. He took the left on a street that was to
stop where they founded the convent of Santa Clara. In that square he found two
men servants, brothers Rodrigo de Pineda, and coming up to them and said: "Escóndanme,
escóndanme" without being able to say another word, that was stupid and lost
like this. The Knights, who knew him and knew his claim, he said: "Have you
killed the lawyer Esquivel?" Aguirre said, "Yes, sir; escóndanme, escóndanme."
Then I put the knights in the house of brother, where the latest there were
three large pens, and one of them had one where they kept the fatlings Razorfen
I got there and they sent them not to come out of that place, and looked out, because they could not quite see any Indian who came into the yard, but the pen was excused, not having won in, what they had to go in it. They said they would provide you eat when no one knew, and did, that eating and dining at the table of brother, each of them secretly got in his pockets all the bread and meat, and anything else that best they could; and after eating, pretending to each other that went to the natural supply, stood at the door of the Razorfen, and provided the poor Aguirre, and it had forty calendar days.
The mayor, after the death of the licensee knew Esquivel, ringing the bell and ordered to by guards Canari Indians at the gates of the convents, and sentinels all around the city, and sent away anyone come out of the city without his license. Entered the convent, all Catholics, but lacked not overturned. So the city was in this wing and care more than thirty days, without there being any Aguirre new, as if the earth had swallowed him. After the proceedings relaxed time, removed the guards, but not the keepers of the royal roads still kept rigorously. After forty days of the event seemed to the gentlemen (that one of them was said Fulano Santillán and other Cataño, noble knights, who knew him well, and one of them I found in Sevilla when I came to Spain) would be nice to have Aguirre over charging, and rid them of their danger to have him in their power, because the judge was harsh, and feared some misfortune will not happen. They agreed to get out of town in public and not hidden, and to come out in black robes, for which he shaved his hair and beard, and he washed his head, face, and neck, and hands and arms to the elbows with water in which they had thrown a wild fruit, which is neither eating nor any other benefit: the Indians call Vitoc; in colour, shape and size of a large eggplant, which, starting into pieces and thrown into water, leaving it to be like three or four days, and after washing her face and hands, and letting it air dry, three or four times to wash the skin gets darker than a Ethiopian, and even then washed with another clean water, not lost or removed the black until it has been ten days and then removed the skins of the same complexion, leaving the other as was previously. So put the good Aguirre, and he was dressed as black dresses field low and vile, and those a day, at noon, went with him through the streets and square to the hill called Carmenca, where the road goes to go to the Kings, and there are very good stretch of street and square, the house of Rodrigo de Pineda to the hill Carmenca. The black Aguirre was walking in front of their masters, carrying a musket on his shoulder, and one of his masters had one in the saddle, and the other was holding a falcons of that land, pretending they were going to hunt.
Thus they reached the final of the town where they were guarding. Which asked if the magistrate had to leave out of town. Which bore the hawk, as angry in his own carelessness, the brother said: "Your worship I wait here or go little by little, I come back for the license and catch up very Aina." Saying this, he returned to town and did not cure the license. The brother was black with every good care to leave the jurisdiction of Cuzco, who at that part more than forty miles of road, and having bought a hack and giving a little silver, said: "Brother, are you free land where well you can go away in session, I can not do more for you." With that he returned to Cuzco, and Aguirre came to Huamanca, where he had a close kinsman, noble and rich man of the leading citizens of that city. Which received it as a son, and said and did a thousand gifts and caresses, and after many days I sent it provided necessary. Do not put your name here to have received at home and been good for a criminal to justice real. Aguirre ran well, it was a wonderful thing for at that time occurred in Peru and the rigor of the Judge and the many steps he did, and because the nonsense that Aguirre made the day of his fact it seems that you were before favourable than harmful, because if you go into a convent, in any way to escape, according to the steps that they all did, but then there was no more than three, which was to Our Lady of Mercedes, and the seraphic St. Francis Santo Domingo and the divine. The mayor was as fluent and insulted that he had not been taken advantage of its many steps to punish Aguirre as he wished. The brave soldiers and outlaws said if Aguirre had many of the world, so eager to avenge their wrongs, the coroners were not so free and insolent.
INDIANS AND SPANISH SHOW HOW TO CELEBRATE THE FEAST OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT IN THE CUZCO.
PENDENCY A PARTICULAR THAT THE INDIANS WERE AT A PARTY OF THOSE
Because the story calls for each event is counted in its time
and place, we put these two to the top of the eighth book, because it happens in
Cuzco after the war of Francisco Hernández Girón and before the arrival of the
viceroy of that kingdom expected. Therefore keep this rule, we say that the
party which Catholics call Corpus Christi was celebrated solemn in the city of
Cuzco after wars are over the devil invented in that empire to hinder the
preaching of our Holy Gospel, that the season was that of Francisco Hernández
Girón, and God grant that it is. The solemnity there now, and much more, because
after the war that ended at the end of the year one thousand five hundred and
fifty-four, succeeded fifty-seven years of peace until the present, which is one
thousand six hundred and eleven, when writing this chapter.
My intention is nothing but write the events of that day and leave presents for those who wanted to take the job of writing. Then there was in that city about eighty neighbours, all noble knights, noblemen, which neighbours (as we have said elsewhere) refers to the lords of vassals who have allotments of Indians. Each of them took care of decorating the bier that his subjects had to carry in the procession of the feast. Componíanlas with silk and gold, and many rich jewels, emeralds and other precious stones. And within the litter put in the image of Our Lord or Our Lady, or another saint or holy devotion of Spanish or Indian vassals. Resembled the poles to which are the confraternities in Spain in such parties.
The chiefs of all the district of that great city came to her to solemnize the feast, accompanied by their relatives and all the noble people of their provinces. They brought all the trappings, ornaments and inventions that time of Inca kings used in the conduct of its biggest parties (of which realized in the first part of these reviews), each nation carried the flag of his lineage from which prided down.
Some came (as painted by Hercules) wearing a lion's skin, and their heads embedded in the animal, because they boasted their descent from a lion. Others brought the wings of a large bird called cuntur, placed at the back, like those painted by the angels, because they boast descent from that bird. And so it came to other currencies other fowl, such as springs, rivers, lakes, hills, mountains, caves, they said that their forefathers came out of those things. Brought other foreign currencies with gold dresses and silver plated. Others with garlands of gold and silver, others came made monsters, hideous masks, and hands pellejinas of various animals, and that they had hunted, making big gestures, pretending to be crazy and silly, to please their kings anyway. Some of greatness and wealth, and others with follies and miseries, and each province with what he thought was best invention, more solemn, more pomp, more taste, more nonsense and madness, is well understood that the variety things to delight the eye, and added delight to the taste and mood. With those things, and many others that you can imagine, I am unable to write, parties solemnized the Indians of their kings. With them (rather than increasing it all could) in my time celebrating the feast of the Blessed Sacrament, true God, Redeemer and our Lord. And they did so with great joy, as people already disillusioned with the vanities of their pagan past.
The City Council of the Church and the City did its part as befitting the solemnity of the feast. They made a stage in the gable of the church, from the outside coming to the plaza, where they put the Blessed Sacrament in a very rich gold and silver custody. The City Council of the Church stood at the right hand, and the City on the left. He had with him the Incas who had been of royal blood, and honour them and make some demonstration that the empire was of reach.
The Indians of each division went to his litter, with all his family and coaching, singing every province in its own particular native language, not in the general court, to differentiate from each other.
Brought their drums, flutes, shells, and other rustic musical instruments. Many provinces had their women towards men, helping them to ring and sing.
The songs that were saying they were in praise of God our Lord, giving thanks for the favour he had done to bring them to their true knowledge also yielded by the Spanish priests and secular, for having taught the Christian doctrine. Other provinces were no women, only men, in short, everything was in the fashion of the time of their kings.
At the top of the cemetery, which is seven or eight degrees higher than the square, climbed a ladder to adore the Blessed Sacrament in their crews, each divided from the other ten or twelve steps in between, because they are mixed together with others. The square down the other ladder was on the right side of the stage. Each nation entered its age (as they were conquered by the Incas), which were the first modern, and so the second and third, until recently, they were the Incas. Which went before the priests in gang fewer people and more poverty, because it had lost its empire, and their homes and private estates.
Going from the crews as we have said, to go in procession, came the Canaris, that although the van with its crew you ride alone, because many Indians of that nation who live in it, and Dell was the leader then Cillchi Francisco, Canari, whom we mentioned in the siege and much predicament Prince Manco Inca had to Hernando Pizarro and his men when Canari killed in the square of that city to the Indian captain of the Inca, who challenged Spanish a unique battle. This gift Francisco climbed the steps of the cemetery very well hidden, covered with his blanket and your hands under them, with his litter, without ornament of silk or gold, most of which were painted in different colors, and the four canvasses were painted spire four battles of Indian and Spanish.
Arriving at the top of the cemetery, right in the city council, where he was Garcilaso de la Vega, my lord, who was mayor then, and discharged Monjaraz lieutenant, who was a scholar of great wisdom and advice, rejected the Indian Canari wearing the blanket instead of a cape, and one of his people took her shoulders, and he was in another blanket tight body (as we have said that a tightening when they want to fight or do anything else of importance); held in his right hand a counterfeit Indian head grabbed by the hair. Just had seen the Incas, when four or five attacked the Canari and lifted him high off the ground to give him head on the ground. Also stirred up the other Indians who were on the one side and the other from the stage where she was the Blessed Sacrament, so that forced the licensed Monjaraz to go to them to make peace. He asked why the Incas were shocked. The elder replied: "This dog auca, instead of solemnizing the feast, comes with this head to remember things that were well past forgotten."
Then the lieutenant asked what this meant canary. Responded by saying: "Lord, I cut the head of an Indian who defied the Spanish who were surrounded in the square in Hernando Pizarro, Gonzalo Pizarro, Juan Pizarro, my lords, and my masters, and another two hundred Spanish. And none of them wanted to leave the challenge of the Indian, as it seemed before that honours infamous fight with an Indian, one by one. Then I asked permission to leave the duel, and gave me the Christians, and so I went out and fought with the challenger, and I beat him and cut his head in this place." Saying this, pointed to the spot where he had been battle. And back to his reply, said: "These four pictures of my litters are four battles of Indian and Spanish, in which I found myself in service of reach. And there is much that a day like today I honour the feat that I did in the service of Christians." The Inca responded: "But traitor, you did this feat with your own forces, but under this lord Pachacámac we have here this, and the good fortune of the Spanish? Do not you know that you and all your lineage Erades our slaves, and not the victory your strength and courage, without which I say? And if you want to experience now that we are all Christians, turn to put in that square with your weapons and we will send a servant, the youngest of us, and will let you and all yours. Do not you know that in those days, and in this square, cut thirty head of Spanish and Inca had surrendered a two spears with two men on horseback and took them off the hand, and Gonzalo Pizarro would have to removed if their effort and skill will not help? Do not you know we do not do the Spanish war and abandoned the siege, and our voluntary and banished prince left his empire to the Christians, seeing so many great wonders such as the Pachacamac was in favour and protection of it? Do not you know we killed those roads up there in that strength? Would it not be good that you looked all these things and many others that I could say for you not to do a scandal, folly and madness like you've done?" Saying this he turned to the lieutenant, and said,"Lord, do yourself justice as must be done lest we stain of those who were our slaves."
The lawyer Monjaraz, having understood what the one and the other said, took his head off the canary in his hand, and told him the blanket wearing tight, and not try more of those things in public or in secret failing to punish him severely. With this, the Incas were satisfied and all the Indians of the party, who had shocked the freedom and shamelessness of the Canary Islands, and all together, men and women, he was called auca, and the voice came across the square. This procession passed on, and ended with the usual solemnity. They tell me that in these times lengthen the trip two more goals that used to walk, because they come to San Francisco and return to church for a very long way. Then walked no more than about two and Huacaypata Cusipata places, we have so often named. Be praised the Divine Majesty, which is worthy of shining pasearlas those nations, and them out of the darkness in which they lived.
AN AMAZING CASE THAT TOOK PLACE IN THE CUZCO
The second event is that we will see very strange, what
happened in the Cuzco in those years after the war of Francisco Hernández Girón,
that sent some serious and religious people had heard me, and told me to be in
Service of Holy Mother Roman Church, mother and mistress of ours, let it written
in the course of our history, I found that I as a child, though unworthy, of
such a mother, was obliged to obey and give an account of the case, which is the
Eight or nine years before what has been referred, held every year on the feast of the divine Cozco San Marcos, as could the inhabitants of that city. Came the procession of the Santo Domingo convent of the blessed, who, as earlier noted, was founded in the house and the Sun temple was in that heathen before the Gospel came to that city. The convent was the procession to a shrine which is next to the houses that were of Don Cristóbal Paullu, Inca. A cleric, former priest on earth, the father was said Porras, a devotee of the blessed evangelist, trying to solemnize his party, had a tame bull each year in the procession, laden with garlands of flowers in many ways. Going both councils, ecclesiastical and secular, with all other city, the year five hundred and fifty-six, was the bull in the midst of all people, as meek as a lamb, and so came and went with the procession. When they got back to the convent (because there was no all people in the church) made the Indian streets and common people in the square before the temple. The Spanish came in by road from the door to the chapel. The bull, who was just ahead of the priests, having entered three or four steps from the doorway of the church as tame as said, hung his head, and one of their weapons seized by the crotch of a Spanish that said John Doe Salazar, and began lifting him high above their shoulders and gave him one of the doors of the church, and then fell out of it without further damage to his person. People are stirred up with the novelty of the bull, flying everywhere, but he was so gentle as he had come and gone throughout the procession, and so came to the chapel. The city was surprised the case, and imagining that it could not be without mystery, diligently sought to know the cause. Found that six or seven months earlier in a lawsuit or quarrel that Salazar had with a priest, had incurred excommunication, and that he, perceiving that it was not necessary, was not absolved from the excommunication. Then it cleared and was chastened for not falling into a similar mistake. I stood in that city, and I was present the fact, saw the procession and then I heard the story that had the longest and best referral that we reported.
EXECUTION OF THE JUDGEMENT AGAINST THE PRINCE.
BAN TO INQUIRIES.
THE VICEROY WOULD NOT LISTEN.
THE GOOD MIND TO RECEIVE THE DEATH OF THE INCA
Viceroy determined to execute his sentence, ordered a very
solemn platform in the main square of that city, and to execute the death of the
prince, because it would serve the security and peace of that empire. He admired
the new entire city, and so sought religious knights and serious all come
together and ask the viceroy was not done something so out of pity, that the
obominaría around the world wherever they knew, and that the king himself
angry. To be content with sending him to Spain in perpetual exile, which was
longer and more painful torment be killed shortly. These things and others
talked of that city, determined to speak to the viceroy with all the price
increases make it possible to request and protest and not to implement the
ruling. But he had placed spies around town to remind you how the residents took
the decision of her, and what he talked and treats about knowing the board was
made to speak and require, he had the door of his home, and his guard at the
door and put an not leave anyone in, on pain of life. Also commanded to bring
forth the Inca and off her head with all speed, because quiet the commotion, he
feared he was not removed from the hands.
The poor prince took a mule with a rope around his neck and hands tied, and a preacher who was preaching before his death and the cause of it, he was a tyrant, traitor to the crown of the Catholic Majesty. The prince, hearing the cry, not understanding the Spanish language, asked the monks who were with him what he was saying that man. Declaráronle killed him because he was auca against the king his master. Then he ordered the man to call him, and when he had nearly said, "Do not say that you're going hawking, you know I lie, I have not betrayed, and I never intend to do it, as everyone knows. Say you kill me because he wants viceroy, not for my crimes, I have not done either against him or against the king of Castile, I call Pachacamac, he knows to be true what they say." This later became the ministers of justice. At the entrance to the plaza came a great band of women of all ages, some of them of royal blood and the other women and hijass of the chiefs of the district of the city, and with loud voices and screaming, with tears (they also caused the religious and secular Spanish), said, "Inca, why do you have to cut off the head, what crimes, what treachery you did to deserve such a death? Calls to whom you give it to send to kill us all because we are yours by blood and nature, happier and blissful we'll be in your company by servants and slaves who kill you. "Then they feared that there was some commotion in the city, according to the noise, shouts and clamour that arose those who watched the execution of that sentence, so no thought or imagined by them. They spent three hundred thousand souls who were in those two squares, streets, windows and roofs so that it can see. The ministers made haste to reach the platform, where the prince came and religious who accompanied him, and executioner in pursuit of them with his cutlass in his hand. The Indians, seeing their Inca so close to death, shame and pain they felt, rose whisper, shout, shouts and screams, so that they could not hear. The priests who spoke with the prince asked her order to shut the Indians. The Inca raised his right arm with an open hand, and put it in right ear, and then lowered slowly to put on the right thigh. Whereupon, feeling the Indians ordered them shut up, stopped their screaming and shouting, and were as silent, it seemed no soul born in the whole city. Therefore, a greatly admired the Spanish viceroy and between them, which was at a window watching the execution of his sentence. Obedience noted with dismay that the Indians had for their heads, that even that step will be shown as all were. Then beheaded the Inca who received this pain and torment to the value and greatness of mind that the Incas and all the noble Indians tend to receive any inhumanity and cruelty that make them, as we have seen some in Florida history and in this and other wars in Chile have been and are the Arawak Indians to the Spanish, as written in verse, the authors of those facts, not many others that were made in Mexico and Peru by the Spanish too qualified, I knew some of them, but said dejámoslos for not hateful history.
Others of good spirit in which death was that poor Prince (once rich and happy, he died a Christian), hurt the religious left who helped him carry his torment, which were those of San Francisco, Our Lady of Mercy, Saint Domingo and San Agustin, not many priests clerics, which everyone, sorry for such a death into a prince so great and wonderful, wept tenderly and said many masses for his soul. And they consoled themselves with magnanimity that that step was, and had to rely on your patience and events that made good Christian, worshipping the images and icons of Christ Our Lord and the Virgin Mother, which the priests carried forward. Thus ended the Inca, the legitimate heir of the empire by direct male line from the first Inca Manco Capac, to him, which, as says Father Blas Valera, were more than five hundred years, and about six hundred. This was the general feeling of the land and the relationship born of compassion and pity for the natives and the Spanish. It may be that the Viceroy has had more reasons to justify his act.
Execution of the sentence on the good prince, executed the banishment of their children and relatives to the city of Kings, and the mixed to various parts of the New World and Old, as mentioned earlier. Who thought first of his place by telling the last of our work and work as pitiful of all that has happened in our land and we have written, because everything is tragedy, as shown by the late books of the second part of our comments.
God be praised for everything.