INSCRIPTION OF KING NASTOSENEN
Translated by G. Maspero

Read 5th January, 1875.

[Extracted from TSBA, 4:2, 203-25]

This stele was found at Dongolah by Dr. Lepsius, and brought to Berlin, where it is now preserved. It has been published in the "Denkmaler aus gypten und thiopien," Abth. V, bl. 16.

King Nastosenen is represented twice on it; first, accompanied by the "Royal sister, royal mother, queen of Kush Pelkha," who "shakes her sistrum to thee": he offers two necklaces to his father, "the god" Amen Ra, lord of the seats of both worlds, residing in Thebes, the giver of life, stability, power all, like unto Ra for ever." Behind the queen is the legend, "She has given the crown of Napita, ....." The god saith: "I give thee all the countries, the foreign lands, the barbarians collected under thy two sandals, like unto Ra, for ever." In the second picture the same king offers two necklaces to "Amen of Napita, residing in [Da]-uab, the great god in the land Kens, that he may give all life and power for ever. The god saith: "I give thee life and power all, all stability, all health, all joy; I give thee [p.204] the years of time, the rising upon the seat of Hor, for ever." Behind the king stands "the royal sister, royal wife, queen of Egypt, Sekhmakh." In both scenes the king is styled "King of Upper and Lower Regions, Rakaankh, son of the Sun, Nastosenen."

Some parts of the inscription have been summarily analysed by Dr. Brugsch, in his "Geographische Inschriften," t. I, pp. 163, 164.

Obverse of the Tablet.

1. In the eighth year, the 9th of the first month of Per (1), under the Hor, the powerful bull, the love of the cycle of Gods, risen in Napita, Lord of diadems, Son of the Sun, Nastosenen; the Hor, the bull who tramps his foes under his sandals, (2)
2. the great lion . . . . ,1 the thoughtful, the maintainer of the whole earth, the Son of Amen, [victorious by] his great sword, [the conqueror] who widens his boundaries over all lands ....,2 the [true] seed of Gods, the leveller of whatever is high, the worshipped by the [whole] earth,
3. Lord of the Gods, instructing all beings (?)3 like Thot; coming to build the temples of the whole earth like Pet,4 the giver of life for all creatures, even like unto Amen, son of Isis; crushing whoever affronts the Gods,
4. the Child, protector of the world, Son of the Sun, Nastosenen, Son of Amen, praised even in Heaven: I bid ye know the King of Upper and Lower countries Ra-ka-ankh, Son of the Sun, Lord of both Lands, Nastosenen, overliving, that he saith [saying: When] I [was] the Gracious Child5 in Be[roua],6 He
5. summoned me, (3) Amen of Napita, my gracious father, saying: "Come! I bid them summon the twice gra- [p.205] cious king who is in Be[roua (4)]." Then I spake unto them, saying: "Come, [let us go]
6. "and seek for him amidst us, to show our [zeal]. (5)"
They spoke unto me, saying: "No, we will not go [seeking for him] amidst us. (6) [For] Thou art his Gracious Child whom he loveth, Amen of Napita,
7. thy gracious father. (7)" I left: the morning (8), [I] arrived at Astamouras,7 I put on my kingly garment; (9) when they heard it those who live in Napita, (10) they said: "He
8. "is the Judge sovereign of all Lands. (11)" I went away: the morning I reached Taheh,8 which is the great Lion, the vineyard planted by King Piankhi-Aler, while my hand was [stretched out]
9. upon the spot to relieve [from its distress] the temple of Amen, (?)9 they went [to the place] which [I was in], the men and the priestess of Amen of Napita, with three of the female denizens of the town and all the great men and beings (?) who were there;
10. they spake unto me, (12) saying: "He layeth down before thee the Sovereignty of the Land [of Kens],10 Amen of Napita, thy gracious father." Said the mouths all: "He shall land at Dongoul." (13)
11. I spake unto them, saying: "Go down the river, (14) and be zealous in your praises of Amen of Napita, my gracious father. Go ye, and going, humble yourselves to do [honour] to A-
12. men of Napita." I proceeded [by water] to the landing-place, crossing [the liver] before the house of Ra. (15) I mounted (16) a great horse, I reached the great
temple. They
13. lay down before me the great men (17) and priestess of Amen : Then they shouted for me with all their [p.206]  mouths. I went up, I opened the great door: they did [honour], I did [honour], while
14. they were zealous in their praises of me, the magistrates and great chiefs who live in the Ap, in the Golden House11 (18) I said unto him: "Amen of Napita, my gracious father, the being (?)12
15. "to me, Amen of Napita, (19) my mouth. May Amen of Napita, my gracious father, give me the kingdom of the Land of Kens, the royal helmet of King Hor-si-atef,
16. "the valour (20) of King Piankhi-Aler." The third month of Sha, on a great day, I caused Amen of Napita, my gracious father, to rise: going out of the great temple, (21) He gave me the kingdom of the Land of Kens, Aloa,13
17. the Barbarians, both strips of land on both banks of the Nile, the four quarters of earth, (22) saying: "O my gracious creature, like unto Ra!" (23) I said unto him, "Amen of Napita, the Being (?)! Thou hast
18. "done it for me that all lands, all men, be obedient unto me. Thou summonedst me up in Beroua, and I came to do [honour] unto thee. Grant that the sovereignty of the Land Kens be laid down before me." They
19. did not make him a king, that day. The 24th [they] gave me the sovereignty. There were men fighting with men, offering all kinds of offerings on the way, capering for joy in front of
20. Ra. (24) I reached the spot [of the sacrifice], (25) smote the two bulls, went up [the steps of, and] sat on, the golden throne in the golden Ap, under the shadow of the great royal flabella, that day. Said all men, saying:
21. "He will make all beings happy! Amen of Napita, He gives him the sovereignty l. h. s. of the Land Kens, [p.207] [him] the Son of Sun, Nastosenen; [He grants him] to go up and sit upon the golden throne under the shadow of the great royal flabella, (26)
22. "this day, and he will make a king sit in his place in Beroua." The first month of Sha, the 12th, I went down (27) the river to do [honour] unto Amen of Pakem, my father
23. gracious. I caused Amen of Pakem to rise: coming to me out of the great temple, [he] said, "my gracious creature, even like unto Ra." He gave me the kingdom
24. of Kens; He gave me both strips of land on both banks of the Nile, Aloa, the Barbarians and his own crushing bow. After He had spoken unto me, speaking unto me, Amen of Napita, my gracious father, I went up and sat up-
25. on the golden throne. I went to do [honour] unto Amen of Pnoubs:14 going out of the great temple, he gave me the sovereignty of the Land of Kens
26. and his crushing [mace], saying: "my gracious creature, even like unto Ra!" Going up, I sat upon the golden throne. I went up to do [honour] unto Amen of Napita,

Reverse of the Tablet.

1. my gracious father. The second month of Per, the 19th, [rose]
2. Amen of Napita; going out of the great temple, [He] said: "my gracious
3. "Phra!" [So] He spake unto me, calling me "gracious creature" (?), and then Amen of Pakem, Amen of Pnoubs, the Gods
4. all jumped for joy. Reaching the place of the sacrifice, [I] smote the two bulls, I went down unto the pyramid, and lay wrapped there four nights, and made

[p.208]

5. all kind of offerings, four days. [Then] going up, He reached the place of the sacrifice, smote the two bulls, [and] entering the temple, sat upon the chair of state in
6. the House of the Golden Wine (?). The 24th, I went up to do [honour] unto Bast of Tel,15 my gracious mother: (28) She gave me Life, a long and happy old age.
Her breast [to suck];
7. She gave it to me m her embrace, a happy life (30); She gave me Her crushing club. I went unto Napita, the 29th, I caused
8. Amen of Napita to rise: He gave me the whole of Heaven, the whole of earth, the Nile all, the men all. Going up [I] sat on the golden throne; I caused the
four qema-s (31) to be done unto thee,
9. Amen of Napita, in Napita, and there were thirty-six men in it. I gave thee three great vessels of brass [full of] incense, four jugs [full of] honey, three ditto of essence,
10. One image of Amen of Paqem-aten in gold, two of Hor in gold, [the three weighing] three ten,16 three scent-bottles of electrum, three vials of electrum, seven cups of electrum, making in all, thirteen [pieces and weighing] one hundred thirty and four ten;17 two great jugs of bronze,
11. thirteen basins of bronze to preserve milk, two bronze mugs for [drinking] beer, six bronze vessels, [six] bronze jugs, six scent-bottles in bronze. I offered thee, Amen-em-ap, in the first month of Sha (?), in a great day, two bullocks
12. and two fine (?) bulls, in all four; two milch-cows (?) and two heifers (?), being four in all; one calf fed with herbs and another sucking, being two in all ...... 18 sixteen bronze khirolteh, two bronze tekhtet, ten bronze rob,
13. two bronze hats, two bronze ap (32). Going up like a [p.209] fleet (?) bull, my bow[men] went to Aloa (?). (33) They made a great slaughter amongst its [men] all, and took the .... ship19 of the chief; they smote what there was in all his laud; (34)
14. All the beasts of burthen (35) and horned cattle (36) which had been spared,20 [even] those the towns of Kartep the great and Teloureq21 gave [unto me]. The town of n. . . . ka22 (37) sent men: there was slaughter [done] amongst them, and there was sparing of life
15. done amongst them, and I cut down all the timber. The town of Tormenmou gave me twelve . . . .23 bulls for Amen of Napita and they were brought to Napita.
The fourth mouth
16. of Sha, the 26th, on the birth-day of the Son of the Sun, Nastosenen, the town of Saqsaqdimou gave six out of its bulls for Amen of Napita, my gracious father,
and they were led to Napi-
17. ta. The fourth month of Sha, the great day, [being the return of] the day on which the crown had been given unto the Son of the Sun, Nastosenen, people offered unto thee. Amen of Napita, twelve victims (?) with flour (?) and garlands of flowers (?), the people of Kalo-
18. tep the great and Terouleq; people offered unto thee. Amen of Napita, my gracious father, a big lamp from the town of Taqtat; people brought thee .... bulls 400, horned cattle 300, men 200, [for], Amen of Napi-
19. ta, thy two thighs are prospering, and thy virtue is beneficent; people gave thee, Amen of Napita, the land Reteq in offering of the people of Kasoua,24 together with poultry (?) and

[p.210]

20. female slaves for thee, 110 in all.25 And again, (38) I sent my bow[men] against the foes in the town of Makhendnen: they smote it and made a great slaughter amongst that which was with the (39)
21. chief of Aikhentka; taking all the women prisoners, all the beasts of burthen, a deal of gold, bulls 209659, horned cattle 505349, women
22. 2236, aqit26 belonging to the town of Katoldi, 3229; I obliged [the chief] Pekak to give it all unto me. After I had smitten all lands (?), I caused a lamp to be made unto thee, Amen of Napita, with Katol-
23. di twelve of its aqit; I made thee two big bronze censers, which I caused to be set up in the Theban temple, Amen of Napita, my gracious father; I offered thee six victims (?) from amongst [the spoils of] Katoldi;
24. I opened the house of the Golden Bull [to put in] the aqit belonging to Amen of Napita, my gracious father. And once more again I sent my bow[men] against the hostile lands of Robal and Aka-
25. Ikar. I made a great slaughter amongst that which was with the chief of the land of Lobarden; all the gold he had, which was considerable [and even] more than could be counted, bulls 203246, horned cattle 603108, all the women whom
26. they spared from the rest, the chief gave it to me, [for], Amen of Napita, my gracious father, thy khopesh is crushing and thy counsel is beneficent. And once more again, I sent the multitude
27. [of my soldiers] against the hostile lands of Arrosa. I made a great slaughter, I made, amongst those who were with the chief of the town of Mesha in the land
Abeskhent, taking all women prisoners, all the beasts of burthen, ten of gold 1212,27 bulls 22110,

[p.211]

28. all the women, horned cattle 45200; the chief gave it [all] to me, which was all he possessed (?), [for], Amen of Napita, mj gracious father, thy name is right gracious and thy virtue is beneficent. And once more again, I
29. sent my bow[men] against the hostile land of Makhi-sherkhert. I made a great slaughter, and the chief gave me from what was his whatever had been spared, all [the men], all the women. He gave it unto me, and I
30. took bulls 203146, horned cattle 33400, [for], Amen of Napita, my gracious father, thy khopesh is crushing, and whatever thou dost for me is greatly magnificent. Once more a-
31. gain, I sent the multitude of my soldiers against the hostile land of Mikhentka. The foe made a stand against me in the town of Nehasarsar. I struck a blow against it, I made a great slaughter:
32. I made [the same] against those who were with the chief of Tamakhi. I took all their wives, all their horses, gold [to the value of] ten 2000,28 bulls 35330, horned cattle 555
33. 26, whatever was spared amongst them; for, Amen of Napita, my gracious father, giveth me all the lands: His khopesh is crushing. His virtue is beneficent,
34. His names are greatly beneficent, and He caused me to act, Amen of Napita, my gracious father. And once more again, they upset (40) the things of Amen residing in Paqem-A-
35. ten. I sent the multitude of my soldiers the prowess (?) of king, 1. h. s. Aspalut [I sent my bowmen] against the hostile land of Madi,29 and it gave to them
36. [all] its things. My great prowess (?) which my gracious father Amen of Napita had given unto me, my gracious father Amen of Paqem-aten gave it unto me;

[p.212]

37. He said unto me, my gracious father Amen of Paqeraten, sapng, "I give thee my bow and the strength which is in it, and my valour. I give thee all hostile lands in captivity,
38. under thy two sandals." And once more again, the foes of Madi (41) robbed the things of the estates of Bast residing in Ter, [which had been conquered] by the prowess (?) of King
39. Aspalut. My prowess (?) came: she granted it to me, Bast residing in Ter, my gracious mother; she gave me her greatly gracious, a happy old age, the light
40. of her excellent virtues, for, thy Majesty it is, thy great splendour it is that made me, Amen of Napita, my gracious father, that
41. made my prowess (?) excellent, and my khopesh crushing, truly, Amen of Napita my gracious father, the being that
42 .....

[p.213]

Notes.

The tablet of Nastoseuen is not written like Pianklii's, Nuat Miamonn's and Aspalut's texts, in the conventional style of Egyptian epigraphy: the inscription thereon is mixed from the beginning to the end with a great many forms peculiar to the dialect of Ethiopia. Since the days of early colonisation by the great sovereigns of the XIIth Dynasty, and even since the less remote times of Thotmes III and Ramses II, the pure Egyptian first spoken by the settlers had been sadly corrupted, both by a slow but steady infiltration of alien words and by the natural work of years. So long as Ethiopia was a part of Egypt, or remained in direct relations with Egypt, the priesthood of Napata kept intact the formulas of classical Theban language: Tahraqa's or Piankhi's deeds are told in the same phrases and with nearly the same words as Thotmes's or Seti's conquests. But immediately after Nuat Miamouu's retreat, when communications between the lands to the north and the lands to the south of the first cataract became scarce and difficult enough to change the province of To-Qens and vice-royalty of Koush into the distant and almost fabulous kingdom of Napata, the literary and grammatical traditions began to be put aside, and soon ended in being utterly forgotten: new words drawn from the popular stock of words filled up the place of the old unintelligible vocables, new idioms superseded the turns and shades of expressions in which the scribes, heaux-esprits of Thebes, had delighted hundreds of years before.

The Demotic inscriptions of Candace are mute till now: Nastosenen's and Horsiatef's records are the only monuments of the Ethiopian dialect known to me. It would be difficult to gather, from two texts only, the elements for a grammatical outline of Ethiopian dialect. I must content myself with explaining as well as possible some of the new [p.214] forms I have been able to find in the stele of Nastosenen, leaving to others the care of correcting and completing my work.

1. In [glyph], the first month of Per, [glyph] is evidently written for [glyph]. Cf. line 8, [glyph] instead of [glyph] instead of [glyph] and [glyph] instead of [glyph].

2. [glyphs] It was known already that [glyphs]; (from [glyphs] facere) was used frequently to build the causative or intensive form of the verbs: thus [glyphs] is found concurrently with [glyphs] and [glyphs] from [glyphs] inclinare, admovere. Phrases in which it is used to form substantive nouns are to this day peculiar to the Ethiopic dialect. Besides [glyphs] [Coptic] we find, line [glyphs] [Coptic], and [glyphs] [Coptic] which phrases I have transcribed in Coptic characters to show that I consider the [glyphs]; to be identical with the Coptic [Coptic]. I think, but I would not affirm, that the of such phrases as (line 5) [glyphs] he caused me to be called, (line 8) [glyphs]. He governs all earth, is not the preposition (Coptic e) of the old conjugation, but the R of [Coptic] [glyphs] [p.215] It must be said, once for all, that in Ethiopian texts has exactly the value of the old Egyptian " and vice versa, # the sense of "

3. [glyphs]

4. [glyphs]

5. The text gives [glyphs] To understand and to restore this phrase, one must put oneself into the spirit of Ethiopic etiquette. The priests ot Ammon send from Napita to Meroe to call in the name of God the Gracious Child who dwells in that town. The gracious child, being no other than Prince Nastosenen, feigns not to understand that the call is intended for him, and addresses his subordinates with the half-broken formula. They answer, as in duty bound, that he is the twice gracious king whom Ammon loves. By the help of their answer, I restore the end of the line: [glyphs], related either to the gracious child or to the word [glyphs] king, is not the feminine pronoun [glyphs], but the masculine[glyphs] The last half of the phrase is of doubtful meaning. The lost character after [glyphs] for Egyptian is probably [glyphs] for Egyptian [glyphs]; but [glyphs] is a word of rare occurrence. It seems to signify to dispose (with [glyphs] for a determinative, to dispose one's thoughts or words), hence to resolve, and even to praise (?). If so, [glyphs] translated "Let us manifest (lit. open) our resolutions," or perhaps, "our zeal."

[p.216]

6. [glyphs] We will not go [to search] amongst me." Sudden changes of pronouns are very frequent in Egyptian. The officers of King Nastosenen begin with speaking collectively "We will not," and before the end of the phrase is reached every one of them, thinking only of himself, subsides into the first person singular, "amongst me."

7. For the explication of the form [glyphs] see Melanges d'Archeologie Egyptienne, t. i, p. 327 note 1.

8. [glyphs] is given by Brugsch (Dictionary, p. 1564), It has two meanings: 1, pellere, pulsare, pede, (Papyrus gnostique du Louvre a transcriptions grecques, pi. v, lines 13 and 14) Au-ar-k teham n p a'iten n rat-tu-h, Pulsas terram pede tuo; 2, hence, abire, proficisci, as is the case here.

9. [glyphs] The lion passant [glyphs] often the value of [glyphs] (Brugsch, Dict., p. 1705). [glyphs] ideographical variant of [glyphs] (Brugsch, Dict., p. 1705 and 1358) involvere, involvere sese. I do not know the precise meaning of [glyphs]: it must be a kind of garment, perhaps the great royal cloak of the Ethiopic kings.

10. [glyphs] The subject of [glyphs] heard that, is [glyphs] which is built after the fashion [glyphs]. The word [glyphs] is borrowed from a Semitic root which has been preserved in the Arabic [Arabic]. coluit, incoluit. [glyphs] are "the citizens of Napita."

[p. 217]

11. [glyphs] I think is probably identical in regard of [glyphs] the form to [glyphs]. As for [glyphs] it is [Heb.] [Arabic] a province, a town, from [Heb.] to judge, to govern: [glyphs] [Coptic], seems to signify "to govern, to judge" all earth.

12. [glyphs]

13. [glyphs] The sign[glyph] is a rectified form of the hieratic [glyphs]: thus we may restore [glyphs] instead of [glyphs] "May he land!" or "he will land." [glyphs] must be the name of a place, though the determinative [glyphs] be wanting by some inadvertence of the scribe. Such omissions are by no means uncommon at the end of a line. At the end of line 16 we have [glyphs] for the [glyphs] of line 24. The whole phrase must be read [glyphs] "He will land at Dengour. [glyphs] is old Donqolah, where the stele of King Nastosenen has been found.

14. [glyphs].

15. Read [glyphs] for [glyphs]. The subsequent characters want some explication to be [p.218] correctly understood. They are written [glyphs] I take [glyphs] to be the ideograph of [glyphs] or some other verb of the same meaning. [glyphs] would be totally unintelligible unless we had further a phrase in which it occurs [glyphs] as the determinative of [glyphs] versus, adversus: [glyphs] dancing, dancing to the face of Ra, before Ra. or [glyphs] must be evidently intended for the usual [glyphs] determinative of [glyphs] or [glyphs]. The meaning of the whole phrase must be therefore: "I proceeded to ([glyphs] lit., at the spot of) the landing-place of the Nile, crossing [the river] before the temple of Ra."

16. [glyphs] or even [glyphs] is the verb of motion generally used by the Ethiopic scribe. It has been found only once under the form [glyphs] Egyptian monuments (Brugsch, Dict., p. 1162). It is the Coptic se transire, transgredi. We have here the compound [glyphs] written otherwise (1. 13) [glyphs] supra, to ascend; and further (Obv. 1. 4) [glyphs] infra, to descend. In compound verbs of that form, the subject is either inserted between the root and the preposition, or put immediately after the preposition, as in [glyphs] (1.26) to do honour unto Amen of Napita, and [glyphs] (1.6) [glyphs] I went up to do honour unto Bast.

17. The form [glyphs] is very curious, as being brought to triliteration by intercalation of . The inserted dental is sometimes a as in [glyphs] [p.219] instead of [glyphs]' but commonly a [glyphs] for [glyphs] (Brugsch, Dict., p. 1339) for [glyphs] (W., p. 1217),[glyphs] (Id., p. 1344) for [glyphs] (Id., p. 1386) for [glyphs], and many others which I have cited elsewhere.

18. [glyphs] The chief difficulty of the phrase lies with [glyphs] . . . . If we were to judge after other passages [glyphs] would be the [glyphs] of Egyptian texts, and [glyphs] should be read [glyphs]; I take it, however, to be the sign of reduplication [glyphs] or [glyphs] or [glyphs] sep sen, his, [glyphs] ser (sep sen) must be read srsr, which is the quadriliteral form of the above quoted [glyphs]. As for [glyphs], it is to be found frequently in our stele (B, lines G-7) [glyphs] (B, line 26) [glyphs]. (B, line 28) [glyphs], where the variants prove it to be meant for [glyphs]. Indeed, it is only the common hieratic form [glyphs] of [glyphs] slightly rectified to suit the style of hieroglyphic characters. [glyphs] same as [glyphs] preceded by the possessive [glyphs] is one of those nouns formed by the suffixion of the pronouns [glyphs] masculine [glyphs] to a root. In old Egyptian each part of the compound retains its own value, so that the root, although turned into a noun, keeps its verbal power and remains able to take a regime: [p.220] (Pap. Anastasi, pl, V, line 1), he is loved by him who curves his back [before him]. [glyphs] is a noun [glyphs]. The: he has curved, with a regime [glyphs] formed with the root [glyphs] and the pronoun [glyphs]; [the] [glyphs] has praised or [glyphs] it has been praised: [glyphs] doing my it is praised, doing my praise.

19. In the variant [glyphs] compared with [glyphs] is evidently a homophone of [glyphs] to, ta. Now the temple of Amen of Napata was situated upon a hill called [glyphs] du-nab, the Sacred Hill. I think that [glyphs] is a picture of the hill upon which the temple stood; in which case it would be easy to understand how it is that [glyphs]; a hill, variant of [glyphs], du a hill, has been substituted for [glyphs] in the name of [glyphs].

20. [glyphs] is evidently a mistake of the Ethiopia scribe for [glyphs] it must have originated in the hieratic original of the inscription [glyphs] where [glyphs] = [glyphs] may be easily mistaken for [glyphs] = [glyphs].

21. [glyphs] is identical with [glyphs]. Indeed, we have but to turn the determinatives [glyphs] into hieratic to feel convinced that [glyphs] a variant of [glyphs]. The engraver seeing [glyphs] and perhaps [p.221] not knowing how to transcribe it, rectified a little the hieratic and transformed [glyphs] into [glyphs].

22. The gifts of Amen to the king are enumerated twice m this stele. 1st (line 16-17), [glyphs] (line23-24), [glyphs]. As I have observed already, the [glyphs] of line 16 is the [glyphs] of line 24: the engraver forgot to put the determinative after [glyphs]. The name of the country has been preserved in the [Arabic] Aloah of Arabian geographers. The kingdom of Aloah lay along the banks of the Bahrel-Azrek, and Cailliaud founnd two sphinxes of red granite in the ruins of its capital [Arabic]. Aloah was the south part of Kush, and [glyphs], the Nubia, the north part of it, [glyphs] must be the same, and is a dialectic variant of [glyphs]. In Ethiopic, the phonetic value of [glyphs] was [glyphs], (A, line 24), (B. line 20-29), [glyphs] (B, line 24), [glyphs] (B, line 37) : [glyphs] being thus a homophone of [glyphs] becomes only a phonetic variant of in [glyphs]. The question is: Was the reading [glyphs] peculiar to Ethiopian people, or is it to be extended to Egyptian monuments? Ethiopian people seem to have frequently inverted the order of letters in alliterative words; thus we have (B, line 8) [glyphs] tep, heaven for [p.222] pet. It is highly probably that the Ethiopian [glyphs] is only an inversion of the Egyptian [glyphs] Coptic (Coptic).

I have not found elsewhere the y which begins the word [glyphs], and I feel unable to decipher it, though it occurs very frequently in this stele.

24. [glyphs] The group [glyphs] is for [glyphs] or [glyphs] people: [glyphs] is a hoard for offerings and an ideographic variant of [glyphs] to offer. Instead of [glyphs]he text gives [glyphs] the first sign being a kind of goose holding a bud of lotus. The determinative [glyph] proves that the whole group must be read zewau. I think that [glyphs] is not a legitimate variant, but only a fault of transcription. [glyphs] written in hieratic is [Hieratic] now there are many birds which assume in hieratic a form not unlike that of [glyphs], lit; [glyphs] the [glyphs] the [glyphs] &c. It is highly probable that the engraver took [glyphs] for a bird holding a lotus-bud, making a new sign of what ought to have been [glyphs]. At all events, the sense offerings is certain.

25. [glyphs]. I do not know the reading of [glyphs] "the spot of sacrifice." [glyphs] is only [p.223] an erroneous form of article [glyphs] derived from hieratic [glyphs], Line 35 p.f there is [glyphs] for [glyphs] owing to a confusion between [glyphs] and [glyphs].

26. Correct [glyphs]. The last word [glyphs] is lit. "a shade."

27.  [glyphs] is called [glyphs] in the stele of Horsiatef (line 20, 160). It must have been situated between Dongolah and [Greek] of Ptolemy (Brugsch, G. Ins., t. i, p. 104), but I have not been able to identify its exact site.

28.  [glyphs] have been  [glyphs] with a feminine article; but the Ethiopians had lost the notion of gender as well as that of number. We have in line 36 another instance of [glyphs].

29. [glyphs] The sign [glyph] or [glyph] (cf. p. 219, note 17) is used here as in Egyptian Demotic texts for feminine [glyphs]. For the explanation of that gift, see the numerous wall-pictures in which goddesses are represented suckling a king, and giving him, with their milk, life and power.

30. [glyphs] "She gave it to me, in [her] embrace, the good life " The unknown determinative [glyphs] only a hieratic form of the usual [p.224] [glyphs].

31. [glyphs] I cannot guess of what kind the four kema were, in each of which nine men were, unless the scribe has designated by it the mats de cocagne, which are not unfrequently seen in the representations of Ptolemaic times.

32. For the names of vases and other metallic objects, see Lepsius, Die Metalle, p. 100-101.

33. It is necessary to correct thus [glyphs].

34. [glyphs] is another form for [glyphs] and the whole passage must be translated "it killed [Greek]." I do not remember having seen in Egyptian a phrase in which [glyphs] had the sense it has in Nastosenen's narrative; but there are numerous instances of such like constructions in Ethiopia text. Thus (line 24): [glyphs] (line 20) [glyphs]. In the last phrase, the possessive pronoun [glyphs] takes the final [glyphs] &c., and governs its regimen by means of the preposition [glyphs].

[p.225]

35. [glyphs] var. [glyphs] is the prototype of Coptic [Coptic], jumentum; pl. [Coptic], jumenta, quadrupeda, not to be found in Brugsch's Dictionary.

36. [glyphs] Correct [glyphs].

37. [glyphs] Correct [glyphs].

38. [glyphs] is for [glyphs] on, rursus, iterum. Translated into hieratic [glyphs] becomes [Hieratic] which accounts for the confusion between [glyphs] and [glyphs].

39. [glyphs] is exactly the form of the Theban article pe, as well as [glyphs] is the exact form of pe to be, and [glyphs] of ere. The old at the end of words becomes e in middle Egyptian and in Coptic.

40. Read: [glyphs] instead of [glyphs].

41. Read [glyphs] instead of [glyphs].


NOTES

1 An indistinct word.
2 Two words wanting.
3 An unknown sign of uncertain value: the translation of the word is given conjecturally.
4 Heaven.
5 A common title for Hereditary Chief, Crown-prince.
6 The Meroe of classical geography, near Shendy.
7 It is a town near the Astahoras of Grecian writers; perhaps the Primis Major of Ptolemy.
8 A town, of site unknown, between Napita (Gebel-Barkal) and Dengoul (Dongolah), if not a part of Napita itself.
9 The sense is doubtful, owing to a lacunae at the end of line 8.
10 Kens, wanting in the original.
11 That is, in the consecrated ground of the town, in or near the temples.
12 One-third of the line is wanting.
13 The Kingdom of Aloali, and the town of Suboh.
14 [Greek] of Ptolemy, near Ouadi-Haifa.
15 A town on the Nile, near Napita; also called Ter.
16 After Chabas' evaluation, 274.14 grammes.
17 122l.92 grammes.
18 Six or seven words wanting.
19 A mutilated word.
20 The text appears to be corrupt here. I corrected it after the passages in lines 25, 26, 29, 33.
21 Perhaps Kartep and Sateloureq. The site of these towns is unknown to me.
22 The name of the town has been partially erased.
23 An illegible word.
24 Kasoua appears to be the Kacrou of Axumitan inscriptions, erroneously printed Kaeov in Salt's Travels and Boeckh's Corpus (t. iii, p. 515) , the Khasas of Maoudi (Quatremere, Memoires sur l'Egypte, t. ii, p. 155) between Souakiu and the Tacazze; to-day, Gash or Khas.
25 Lit., "with thy poultry and thy women."
26 I do not know what these aqit are.
27 109752.56 grammes.
28 182740 grammes.
29 The so-called Maddi of the Horsiatef inscription.