Papyrus of Nebseni
(Extracts of Brit. Mus. No. 9,900)
Chapters of the Book of the Dead from the Papyrus of Nebseni
[Extracted from Budge, Book of the Dead, 1898.]
VI, XIII, XVII, XX,
XXXVIII, XLI, L,
LXII, LXIV, LXXI,
LXXII, XCII, CIV,
CXXV, CXXXVII, CLI, CLX, CLXVI, CLXVII, CLXXII, CLXXIII, CLXXVII, CLXXVIII
Vignette: A seated man (see Naville op. cit., Bd. I. Dl. 7).
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING WORK BE DONE IN THE UNDERWORLD by Nebseni, the scribe and draughtsman in the Temple of Ptah, who saith: "I lift up the hand of the man who is inactive. I have come from the city of Unnu (Hermopolis). I am the divine Soul which liveth, and I lead with me the hearts of the apes."
Vignette: A standing, bearded male figure.
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE SHABTI FIGURE TO DO WORK FOR A MAN IN THE
The scribe Nebseni, the draughtsman in the Temples (2) of the North and South,
the man highly venerated in the Temple of Ptah, saith: "O thou shabti figure (3)
of the scribe Nebseni, the son of
the scribe Thena, victorious, and of the lady of the house Mutrestha,
victorious, (4) if I be called, or if I be adjudged to do any work whatsoever of
the labours which are to be done in the
underworld behold, [for thee] opposition will there be (5) set aside-by a man in
his turn, let the judgment fall upon thee instead of upon me always, in the
matter of sowing the fields, of filling (6)
the water-courses with water, and of bringing the sands of this east [to] the
[The shabti figure answereth], "Verily I am here [and will come] whithersoever thou biddest me."
Vignette: This Chapter is without a vignette in both the Theban and Saite Recensions.
Text: [THE CHAPTER OF ENTERING INTO AND OF COMING FORTH FROM AMENTET].
[Osiris, the scribe Nebseni, victorious, saith:] "O mortals I go in like the
Hawk and I come forth like the Bennu bird, the morning star of Ra. May a path be
made for me whereby I may enter in
peace into the beautiful Amentet; and may I be by the Lake of Horus; [and may I
lead the greyhounds of Horus]; and may a path be made for me whereby I may enter
in and adore [Osiris, the
lord of Life]."
In the Theban Recension this Chapter appears without a rubric, but in the Saite Recension as given in the Turin Papyrus (Lepsius, Todtenbuch, Bll. 4 and 45) we have the following: Rubric: [THIS CHAPTER] IS TO BE RECITED OVER A RING [MADE] OF ANKHAH FLOWERS, WHICH SHALL BE LAID ON THE RIGHT EAR OF THE KHU, TOGETHER WITH ANOTHER RING WRAPPED UP IN A STRIP OF BYSSUS CLOTH, WHEREON THE NAME OF OSIRIS, AUF-ANKH, VICTORIOUS, BORN OF THE LADY SHERT-AMSU, VICTORIOUS, SHALL BE DONE [IN WRITING] ON THE DAY OF SEPULTURE.
[From the Papyrus of Ani and from the Papyrus of Nebseni.]
Text: (1) HERE BEGIN THE PRAISES AND GLORIFYINGS OF COMING OUT FROM AND OF GOING
INTO THE GLORIOUS UNDERWORLD WHICH IS IN THE BEAUTIFUL
AMENTET, OF COMING OUT (2) BY DAY IN ALL THE FORMS OF EXISTENCE WHICH PLEASE HIM
(i.e., THE DECEASED), OF PLAYING AT DRAUGHTS AND SITTING IN THE
HALL, AND OF COMING FORTH (3) AS A LIVING SOUL.
Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani, (4) after he hath come to his haven of rest-it is good for [a man] to recite [this work whilst he is] upon earth, for [then] all the words of (5) Tem come to pass: "I am the god Tem in rising; I am the only One. I came into existence in (6) Nu. I am Ra who rose in the beginning, the ruler of .... this."' (7)
Who then is this?
It is Ra when at the beginning he rose in (8) the city of Suten-henen (Heracleopolis Magna) crowned like a king in [his] rising. The pillars of the god Shu were not as yet created, when he was (9) upon the high ground of him that dwelleth in Khemennu (Hermopolis Magna).
"I am the great god who gave birth to himself, even Nu, (10) who made his name[s to become] the company of the gods as god."
Who then (11) is this?
It is Ra, the creator of the name[s] of his limbs, which came into being (12) in the form of the gods who are in the train of Ra.
"I am he who is not driven back among the gods." (13)
Who then is this?
It is Tem the dweller in his disk, or (as others say), (14) It is Ra in his rising in the eastern horizon of heaven. "I am Yesterday; I know (15) To-morrow."
Who then is this?
Yesterday is Osiris, (16) and To-morrow is Ra on the day when he shall destroy the enemies of Neb-er-tcher, (17) and when he shall establish as prince and ruler his son (18) Horns, or (as others say), on the day when we commemorate the festival (19) of the meeting of the dead Osiris with his father Ra, and when the battle of the (20) gods was fought in which Osiris, the lord of Amentet, was the leader.
What then is this? (21)
It is Amentet, [that is to say] the creation of the souls of the gods when Osiris was leader in Set-Amentet; or (22) (as others say), it is Amentet which Ra hath given unto me; when any god cometh, he doth arise and (23) doeth battle for it.
"I know the god who dwelleth therein." (24)
Who then is this?
It is Osiris; or (as others say), Ra is his name, (or) It is the (25) phallus of Ra wherewith he was united to himself.
"I am the Bennu bird (26) which is in Annu (Heliopolis), and I am the keeper of the volume of the book of things which are and of things which shall be."
Who then (27) is this?
It is Osiris; or (as others say), It is his dead body, or (as others say), (28) It is his filth. The things which are and the things which shall be are his dead body; or (as others say), (29) They are eternity and everlastingness. Eternity is the day, and everlastingness is the (30) night.
"I am the god Amsu in his coming forth; may his two plumes (31) be set upon my head for me."
Who then is this?
Amsu is Horus, the avenger (32) of his father, and his coming forth is his birth. The plumes (33) upon his head are Isis and Nephthys when they go forth to set themselves (34) there, even as his protectors, and they provide that which his head (35) lacketh, or (as others say), they are the two exceeding great uraei which are upon the head of their father (36) Tem, or (as others say), his two eyes are the two plumes which are upon his head.
"Osiris Ani, (37) the scribe of all the holy offerings, riseth up in his place in triumph, he cometh into (38) his city."
What then is this?
It is the horizon of his father Tem. (39)
"I have made an end of my short-comings, and I have put away my faults."
What then (40) is this?
"It is the cutting off of the corruptible in the body of Osiris, the scribe Ani, (41) victorious before all the gods; and all his faults are driven out."
What (42) then is this?
It is the purification [of Osiris] on the day of his birth. (43)
"I am purified in my great double nest which is in Suten-henen (Heracleopolis Magna), (44) on the day of the offerings of the followers of the great god who is (45) therein."
What then is this?
"Millions of years" is the name of the one [nest], "Great Green Lake" (46) is the name of the other; a pool of natron, and a pool of nitre (47); or (as others say), "The Traverser of millions of years" is the name of one, "Great Green Lake" (48) is the name of the other; or (as others say), "The Begetter of millions of years" is the name of one, "Great Green Lake" (49) is the name of the other. Now as concerning the great god who dwelleth therein, it is Ra (50) himself.
"I pass over the way, I know the head of the Pool of Maaat." (51)
What then is this?
It is Re-stau; that is to say, it is the underworld on the (52) south of Na-arut-f, and it is the northern door of the tomb.
Now as concerning (53) the Pool of Maaat, it is Abtu (Abydos); or (as others say), It is the boat by which his father (54) Tem travelleth when he goeth forth to Sekhet-Aaru, (55) which bringeth forth the food and nourishment of the gods who are behind [their] shrines. (56) Now the gate of Tchesert is the gate of the pillars of Shu, (57) the northern gate of the Tuat (underworld); or (as others say), It is the two leaves of the door (58) through which the god Tern passeth when he goeth forth to the eastern horizon of heaven. (59)
"O ye gods who are in the presence [of Osiris], grant me your arms, for I am the god who (60) shall come into being among you."
Who then are these?
They are the drops of blood which (61) came forth from the phallus of Ra when he went forth to perform mutilation (62) upon himself. They sprang into being as the gods Hu and Sa, who are in the following (63) of Ra, and who accompany (64) the god Tern daily and every day.
"I, Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, (65) have filled for thee the Utchat after it had suffered failure (66) on the day of the combat of the two Fighters" (i.e., Horus and Set).
What then (67) is this?
It is the day on which Horus fought with Set, (68) who cast filth in the face of Horus, and when Horus destroyed the members (69) of Set. Now this Thoth did with his own fingers.
"I lift up the (70) hair[-cloud] when there are storms and quakings in the sky."
What then is this? (71)
It is the right Eye of Ra, which raged against [Set] when (72) he sent it forth.
Thoth raised up the hair[-cloud], and brought the Eye (73) alive, and whole, and sound, and without defect to [its] lord ; or (as others say), It is the Eye of Ra when it is sick and when it (74)
weepeth for its fellow-eye; then Thoth standeth up to cleanse it. (75)
"I behold Ra who was born yesterday from the buttocks of (76) the goddess Meh-urt; his strength is my strength, and my strength is his strength."
What then is this? (77)
It is the watery abyss of heaven, or (as others say), It is the image (78) of the Eve of Ra in the morning at his daily birth. (79) Meh-urt is the Eye (Utchat) of Ra. Therefore Osiris, (80) the scribe Ani, triumphant, is a great one among the gods who are in the train of (81) Horus. The words are spoken for him that loveth his lord.
What (82) then is this?
[The gods who are in the train of Horus are] Mesthzi, Hapi, Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf.
(83) "Homage to you, O ye lords of right and truth, ye sovereign princes who [stand] behind Osiris, who utterly do away with (84) sins and crimes and who are in the following of the goddess Hetep-sekhus, (85) grant [ye] that I may come unto you. Destroy ye [all] the faults which (86) are within me, even as ye did for the seven Khus (87) who are among the followers of their lord Sepa. Anubis appointed (88) their place on the day [when was said], 'Come therefore thither'."
When then (89) is this?
These lords of right and truth are Thoth and (90) Astes, the lord of Amentet. The sovereign princes [who stand] behind Osiris, even Mestha, (91) Hapi, Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf, are they who are (92) behind the Thigh in the northern sky.
Now those who do utterly away with (93) sins and crimes and who are in the
following of Hetep-sekhus (94) are the god Sebek who dwelleth in the water.
The goddess Hetep-sekhus is the Eye of (95) Ra; or (as others say), it is the flame which followeth after Osiris to burn up (96) the souls of his enemies.
As concerning all the faults which are in (97) Osiris, the scribe of the offerings of all the gods, Ani, triumphant, [this is all that he hath done against the lords of eternity] since he came forth from (98) his mother's womb.
As concerning the Seven Khus (99), even Mestha, Hapi, Tuamautef, Qebhsennuf, (100) Maa-atef-f, Kheri-beq-f, and Herukhenti-[an]maati, (101) Anubis appointed them to be protectors of the dead body of Osiris or (as others say), [set them] (102) behind the place of purification of Osiris; or (as others say), those Seven Khus are (103) Netcheh-netchch, Aatqetqet, Anerta-nef-bes-f-khenti-heh-(104)f, Aq-her-ami-unnut-f, Teshermaati-ami-(105)het-Anes, Ubes-hra-per-em-khet-khet, and (106) Maa-em-kerb-an-nef-em-hru.2 The chief of the sovereign princes (107) who are in Na-arut-f is Horus, the avenger of his father.
As concerning (108) the day [upon which was said], "Come therefore thither," it referreth to the words, "Come (109) then thither," which Ra spake unto Osiris. Lo, may this be said unto me in Amentet!
"I am the divine Soul which dwelleth in the two divine Tchafz". (110)
What then is this?
It is Osiris [when] he goeth into Tattu (111) and findeth there the Soul of Ra; there the one god embraceth (112) the other, and divine souls spring into being within the two divine Tchafi.
[The following lines are from the Papyrus of Nebseni]
(16) As concerning the two divine Tehafi they are Heru-netehhra-tef-f (17) and Heru-khent-an-maati; or (as others say), the double divine Soul which dwelleth in the two divine Tchafi is the Soul of Ra and the Soul of Osiris; [or (as others say),] It is the Soul (18) which dwelleth in Shu, [and] the Soul which dwelleth in Tefnut, and these are the double divine Soul which dwelleth in Tattu.
"I am the Cat which fought(?) hard by the Persea tree (19) in Annu (Heliopolis), on the night when the foes of Neb-er-tcher were destroyed."
Who then is this?
The male Cat is Ra (20) himself, and he is called 'Mau' by reason of the speech of the god Sa, [who said] concerning him.
"He is like (mau) unto that which he hath made"; thus his name became 'Maau'; I or (as others say), it is the god (21) Shu who maketh over the possessions of Seb to Osiris.
As concerning the fight (?) hard by the Persea tree in Annu, it concerneth the children of impotent revolt when (22) justice is wrought on them for what they have done.
As concerning the night of the battle [these words refer to] the inroad [of the children of impotent revolt] into the eastern part of heaven, whereupon there arose a battle in heaven and in all the earth.
"O thou who art in thine egg (23) (i.e., Ra), who shinest from thy Disk and risest in thy horizon, and dost shine like gold above the sky, like unto whom there is none among the gods, who sailest over the pillars (24) of Shu (i.e., in the ether), who givest blasts of fire from thy mouth, [who makest the two lands bright with thy radiance, deliver] thou the pious Nebseni from the god (25) whose form is hidden, whose eyebrows are like unto the two arms of the Balance on the night of reckoning destruction."
Who then is this?
It is An-a-f (i.e., the god who bringeth his arm). (26)
As concerning "the night of reckoning destruction", it is the night of the burning of the damned, and of the overthrow of wicked at the block, (27) and of the slaughter of souls.
Who then is this?
It is Nemu, the headsman of Osiris, or (as others say), It is Apep when he riseth up with one head bearing Maat (i.e., right and truth) [upon it]; (28) or (as others say), It is Horus when he riseth up with a double head, whereof the one beareth right and truth and the other wickedness. (29) He bestoweth wickedness on him that worketh wickedness, and right and truth upon him that followeth righteousness and truth; or (as others says), It is Horus the Great who (30) dwelleth in Sekhem (Letopolis); or (as others say), It is Thoth; or (as others say), It is Nefer-Tem; [or (as others say),] It is Sept who doth thwart the acts of the foes of Neb-er-tcher.
"Deliver thou the scribe Nebseni, victorious, from the Watchers who bear
slaughtering knives, and who have cruel fingers, and who slay those who are in
the following of Osiris. (31) May they
never gain the mastery over me, may I never fall under their knives."
What then is this?
It is Anubis, and it is Horus in the form of Khent-(32)inmaati; or (as others say), It is the sovereign princes who thwart the works of their weapons; or (as others say), It is the chiefs of the Sheniu chamber.
"May (33) their knives never gain the mastery over me, may I never fall under their instruments of cruelty, for (34) I know their names, and I know the being Matchet who is among them in the House of Osiris, shooting rays of light from [his] eye, but who himself is unseen. (35) He goeth round about heaven robed in the flame of his mouth, commanding Hapi, but remaining himself unseen. May I be strong upon earth before Ra, may I come happily into haven (36) in the presence of Osiris.
"Let not your offerings be wanting to me, O ye who preside over your altars, for I am among those who follow after Neb-er-tcher according to the writings (37) of Khepera. I fly as a hawk, I cackle as a goose; I ever slay, even as the serpent-goddess Neheb-ka."
What then is this? (38)
Those who preside over their altars are the similitude of the Eye of Ra and the similitude of the Eye of Horus.
"O Ra- (39) Tem, thou lord of the Great House, thou Sovereign (Life, Strength and Health!) of all the gods, deliver thou the scribe Nebseni, victorious, from the god whose face (40) is like unto that of a greyhound, whose brows are as those of a man and who feedeth upon the dead, who watcheth at the Bight of the Lake (41) of Fire, and who devoureth the bodies of the dead and swalloweth hearts, and who shooteth forth filth, but he himself remaineth unseen."
Who then is (42) this?
"Devourer for millions of years" is his name, and he liveth in the Aat. As concerning the Aat, it is that which is in Anrut-f, hard by (43) the Sheniu chamber. The unclean man who would walk thereover doth fall down among the knives; or (as others say), His name is "Mates", (44) and he is the Watcher of the door of Amentet; or (as others say), His name is "Beba" and it is he who watcheth the Bight of Amentet; or (as others say), "Heri-sep-f" is his name.
"Hail, Lord of terror, chief of the lands of the North and South, thou lord of the red glow (or red lands), (45) who preparest the slaughter-block, and who dost feed upon the inward parts!"
Who then is this?
The guardian of the Bight of Amentet. (46)
What then is this?
It is the heart of Osiris, which is the devourer of all slaughtered things. The Ureret crown hath been given unto him with gladness of heart as lord of Suten-henen (Heracleopolis Magna).
What then (47) is this?
He to whom hath been given the Ureret crown with gladness of heart as lord of Suten-henen is Osiris. He was bidden to rule among the gods on the day of the union of earth (48) in the presence of Neb-er-tcher.
What then is this?
He that was bidden to rule among the gods is [Horus] the son of Isis, who was appointed to rule in the place of his father (49) Osiris. As concerning the "day of the union of earth with earth", it is the mingling of earth with earth in the coffin of Osiris, the Soul that liveth in Suten-henen, the giver of meat and drink, the destroyer of wrong, and the guide of the everlasting paths.
Who then is this?
It is Ra himself.
"Deliver thou the Osiris Nebseni, victorious."
Vignette: This Chapter, in the Theban Version, has neither vignette nor title.
Text: (1) "Hail, Thoth, who didst make Osiris (2) to triumph over his enemies,
snare thou the enemies of Osiris, the scribe Nebseni, the lord of piety, in the
presence of the great sovereign princes
of every god and of every goddess; (3) in the presence of the great sovereign
princes who are in Annu (Heliopolis) on the night of the battle and of the
overthrow of the Sebau-fiend in Tattu; on
(4) the night of making to stand up the double Tet in Sekhem (Letopolis); on the
night of the things of the night in Sekhem, in Pe, (5) and in Tepu; on the night
of the stablishing of Horus in the
heritage of the things of his father in the double land of Rekhti; (6) on the
night when Isis maketh lamentation at the side of her brother Osiris in Abtu
(Abydos); on the night of the Haker festival
(7) of the distinguishing [between] the dead (i.e., the damned) and the Klus on
the path of the dead (i.e., the damned); on the night of the judgment of those
who are to be annihilated at the great
[festival of] the ploughing and the turning up of the earth (8) in Naarerut-f in
Re-stau; and on the night of making Horus to triumph over his enemies. Horus is
mighty, the northern and southern
halves of heaven rejoice, (9) Osiris is content thereat and his heart is glad.
Hail, Thoth, make thou to triumph Osiris, the scribe Nebseni, over his enemies
(10) in the presence of the sovereign
princes of every god and every goddess, and in the presence of you, ye sovereign
princes who passed judgment on Osiris behind the shrine."
In the Saite Recension this Chapter has no vignette, but it has the title, "Another Chapter of the Chaplet of victory", and is arranged in tabular form. The words, "Hail, Thoth, make Osiris Auf-ankh, triumphant, to triumph over his enemies even as thou didst make Osiris to triumph over his enemies," which are written in two horizontal lines, are to be repeated before each column of text. The "great sovereign princes" invoked are those of: (1). Annu (Heliopolis), (2). Tattu, (3). Sekhem (Letopolis), (4). Pe and Tep, (5). An-arut-f, (6). the double land of Rekhti, (7). Re-stau, (8). Abtu, (9). the paths of the dead, (10). the ploughing festival in Tattu, (11). Kher-aba, (12). Osiris, (I3). heaven and earth, (14). every god and every goddess. The rubric reads:
IF THIS CHAPTER BE RECITED REGULARLY AND ALWAYS BY A MAN WHO HATH PURIFIED HIMSELF IN WATER OF NATRON, HE SHALL COME FORTH BY DAY AFTER HE HATH COME INTO PORT (I.E., IS DEAD), AND HE SHALL PERFORM ALL THE TRANSFORMATIONS WHICH HIS HEART SHALL DICTATE, AND HE SHALL COME FORTH FROM EVERY FIRE.
Vignette: The deceased holding a sail, symbolic of air.
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF LIVING BY AIR IN THE UNDERWORLD. The scribe Nebseni, the lord to whom veneration is paid, saith: "[I am the god Tem], who cometh forth out of (2) Nu into the watery abyss. I have received [my habitation of Amentet, and have given commands] with my words to the [Khus] whose abiding places are hidden (3), to the Khus and to the double Lion-god. I have made journeys round about and I have sung hymns of joy in the boat of Khepera. I have eaten therein, I have gained power (4) therein, and I live therein through the breezes [which are there]. I am the guide in the boat of Ra, and he openeth out for me a path; he maketh a passage for me through the gates (5) of the god Seb. I have seized and carried away those who live in the embrace of the god Ur (i.e., Mighty One); I am the guide of those who live in their shrines, the two brother-gods Horus and Set; and I bring the (6) noble ones with me. I enter in and I come forth, and my throat is not slit; I go into the boat of Maat, and I pass in among (7) those who live in the Atet boat, and who are in the following of Ra, and are nigh unto him in his horizon. I live after my death day by by, and I am strong even as is the double Lion-god. (8) I live, and I am delivered after my death, I, the scribe Nebseni, the lord of piety, who fill the earth and come forth like the lily of mother-of-emerald, of the god Hetep of the two lands."
Vignette: The deceased armed with a knife and a short staff; see Naville,
cit., Bd. I. Bd. 55.
In the Turin Papyrus the deceased is piercing a serpent which lies writhing on a barred instrument
(see Lepsius, op. cit., BI. 55).
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF DRIVING AWAY THE SLAUGHTERINGS WHICH ARE PERFORMED IN
THE UNDERWORLD. Nebseni, the scribe and designer in the Temples of Upper and
Lower Egypt, he to whom fair veneration is paid, (2) the son of the scribe and
artist Thena, triumphant, saith:
"Hail, Tem, I have become glorious (or a Khu) in the presence of the double Lion-god, the great (3) god, therefore open thou unto me the gate of the god Seb. I smell the earth (i.e., I bow down so that my nose toucheth the ground) of the great god who dwelleth in the underworld, and I advance (4) into the presence of the company of the gods who dwell with the beings who are in the underworld. Hail, thou guardian of the divine door of the city of Beta, thou [god] Neti who dwellest in Amentet, (5) I eat food, and I have life through the air, and the god Atch-ur leadeth me with [him] to the mighty boat of (6) Khepera. I hold converse with the divine mariners at eventide, I enter in, I go forth, (7) and I see the being who is there; I lift him up, and I say that which I have to say unto him, whose throat stinketh [for lack of air]. I have life, (8) and I am delivered, having lain down in death. Hail, thou that bringest offerings and oblations, bring forward thy mouth and make to draw nigh the writings (9) (or lists) of offerings and oblations. Set thou Right and Truth firmly upon their throne, make thou the writings to draw nigh, and set thou up the goddesses (10) in the presence of Osiris, the mighty god, the Prince of everlastingness, who counteth his years, who hearkeneth unto those who are in the islands (or pools), who raiseth his (11) right shoulder, who judgeth the divine princes, and who sendeth [Osiris] into the presence of the great sovereign princes who live in the underworld.
Vignette: In the Papyrus of Ani, sheet 16, and in the Turin Papyrus (Lepsius,
op. cit., Bd. 61)
the deceased is represented standing with his back to a gory knife which rests on its block.
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF (2) NOT ENTERING IN UNTO THE BLOCK OF THE GOD. Nebseni saith: "The four bones (or knots) of my neck and back have been joined together for me by the (3) Guardian of heaven, who stablished the knot for him who lay helpless at the breasts [of his mother] on the day of cutting off the hair. The bones of my neck and back (4) have been knit together by the god Set and by the company of the gods as strongly as they were in the time that is past; may nothing happen to break them apart! Make ye me strong! The goddess Nut hath joined together the bones of my (5) neck and back, [and they arc] even as they were in the time that is past, when I saw the true birth of the gods in visible forms take place in its true and right order. I am Peti, and I am in the presence of the great god."
Vignette: The deceased scooping up running water out of a stream into his mouth with both hands.
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF DRINKING WATER IN THE UNDERWORLD. The scribe Nebseni
"May be opened [to me] the mighty flood by Osiris, and may the abyss of water be
opened [to me] by Tehuti-Hapi, (4) the lord of the horizon, in my name of
'Opener'. May there be granted [to
me] mastery over the water-courses as over the members (5) of Set. I go forth
into heaven. I am the Lion-god Ra. I am the Bull. (6) [I] have eaten the Thigh,
and I have divided the carcase. I have
gone round about among the islands (or lakes) of Sekhet-(7)Aaru. Indefinite
time, without beginning and without end, hath been given to me; I inherit
eternity, and everlastingness hath been
bestowed upon me."
The last three Chapters, with a single vignette, are grouped in one in the Papyrus of Nefer-uben-f (see Naville, op. cit., Bd. I . BI. 72); but the order of them as there given is 61, 60, 62. In the Turin Papyrus (Lepsius, op. cit., Bl. 23) the vignette of each is the same, i.e., the deceased holding a sail in his left hand.
Vignette: The deceased adoring the sun's disk which rises above the top of a tree.
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY IN THE UNDERWORLD. Nebseni, the
lord of reverence, saith: (2) "I am Yesterday, To-day, and To-morrow, [and I
have] the power
(3) to be born a second time; [I am] the divine hidden Soul who createth the
gods, and who giveth sepulchral meals unto the denizens of the Tuat
(underworld), Amentet, and heaven. [I am] the
rudder (4) of the east, the possessor of two divine faces wherein his beams are
seen. I am the lord of the men who are raised up; [the lord] who cometh forth
from out of the darkness, and (5)
whose forms of existence are of the house wherein are the dead. Hail, ye two
hawks who are perched upon your resting-places, who hearken unto (6) the things
which are said by him, who guide
the bier to the hidden place, who lead along Ra, and (7) who follow [him] into
the uppermost place of the shrine which is in the celestial heights! [Hail,]
lord of the shrine which standeth in the
middle of the earth. (8) He is I, and I am he, and Ptah hath covered his sky
with crystal. [Hail] Ra, thou who art content, thy heart (9) is glad by reason
of thy beautiful law of the day; thou
enterest in by Khemennu (?) and comest forth at the cast, and the divine (10)
first-born beings who are in [thy] presence cry out with gladness [unto thee].
Make thou thy roads glad for me, and
make broad for me thy paths (11) when I shall set out from earth for the life in
the celestial regions. Send forth thy light upon me, O Soul unknown, for I am
[one] of those who are about to enter
in, and the divine speech is in (12) [my] ears in the Tuat (underworld), and let
no defects of my mother be [imputed] unto me; let me be delivered and let me be
safe from (13) him whose divine
eyes sleep at eventide, when [he] gathereth together and finisheth [the day] in
night. I flood [the land] with water and 'Qem-ur' is (14) my name and the
garment wherewith I am clothed is
complete. Hail, thou divine prince Ati-she-f, cry out unto those divine beings
who dwell in their hair at the (15) season when the god is [lifted upon] the
shoulder, saying 'Come thou who [dwellest]
above thy divine abyss of water, for verily (16) the thigh [of the sacrifice] is
tied to the neck, and the buttocks are [laid] upon the head of Amentet.' May the
Ur-urti goddesses (i.e., Isis and
Nephthys) grant [such] gifts unto me when my tears start from me as I see myself
(17) journeying with the divine Tend in Abydos, and the wooden fastenings which
fasten the four doors above
thee are in thy power (18) within thy garment. Thy face is like that of a
greyhound which scenteth with his nose the place whither I go on my feet. The
god (19) Ahau transporteth me to the
chamber(?), and [my] nurse is the divine double Lion-god himself. I am made
strong and I (20) come forth like him that forceth a way through the gate, and
the radiance which my heart hath
made is enduring; 'I know the abysses' is thy name. I work for you, (21) O ye
Khus—four millions, six-hundred thousand, one thousand and two hundred are
they—concerning the things which are
there. [I am] over their affairs working (22) for hours and days in setting
straight the shoulders of the twelve Sah gods, (23) and joining the hands of
their company, each to each; the sixth who is at
the head of the abyss is the hour of the defeat of the Fiends. [I] have come
(24) there in triumph, and [I am] he who is in the halls (or courtyards) of the
underworld, and I am he who is laid under
tribute to (25) Shu. I rise as the Lord of Life through the beautiful law of
this day and it is their blood and the cool water of [their] slaughter (26)
which make the union of the earth to blossom. I
make a way among the horns of all those who make themselves strong against me,
and [among] those who in secret (27) make themselves adversaries unto me, and
who are upon their bellies. I
have come as the envoy of my Lord (28) of lords to give counsel [concerning]
Osiris; the eye shall not absorb, its tears. I am the divine envoy (?) of (29)
the house of him that dwelleth in his
possessions, and I have come from Sekhem to Annu to make known to the Bennut
bird therein concerning the events of (30) the Tuat (underworld). Hail, thou
Aukert, (underworld) which hidest
thy companion who is in thee, thou creator of forms of existence like the god
Kheperd, grant thou that (31) Nebseni, the scribe and designer to the temples of
the South and of the North, may
come forth (32) to see the Disk, and that his journeyings forth (?) may be in
the presence of the great god, that is to say, Shu, who dwelleth in
everlastingness. Let me journey on in peace; (33) let
me pass over the sky; let me adore the radiance of the splendour [which is in]
my sight; let me soar like a bird to see (34) the companies (?) of the Khus in
the presence of Ra day by day, who
vivifieth every human being (35) that walketh upon the regions which are upon
the earth. Hail, Hemti (i.e., Runner); Hail, Hemti; who carriest away the shades
of the dead (36) and the Khus from
earth, grant thou unto me a prosperous way to the Tuat (underworld), such as is
made for the favoured ones [of the god], because (37) [I am] helpless to gather
together the emanations which
come from me. Who art thou, then, who consumest in its hidden place? (38) I am
the Chief in Re-stau, and 'He that goeth in in his own name and cometh forth in
that of Hehi (?), the lord of
millions of years, and of the earth,' is my name. The pregnant goddess bath (39)
deposited [upon the earth] her load, and hath given birth to it straightway; the
closed door which is by the wall is
overthrown, (40) it is turned upside down and I rejoice thereat. To the Mighty
One hath his eye been given, and it sendeth forth light from his face when the
earth becometh light (or at day-break).
I shall not become corrupt (41), but I shall come into being in the form of the
Lion-god and like the blossoms of Shu; I am the being who is never overwhelmed
in the waters. Happy, yea happy is
he that looked upon the funeral couch which bath come to its place of rest, upon
the happy day (42) of the god whose heart resteth, who maketh his place of
alighting [thereon]. I am he who
cometh forth by day; the lord of the bier which giveth life in the presence of
Osiris. (43) In very truth the things which are thine are stable each day, O
scribe, artist, child of the Seshet chamber,
Nebseni, lord of veneration. I clasp the sycamore tree, (44) I myself am joined
unto the sycamore tree, and its arms] are opened unto me graciously. I have come
and I have clasped the Utchat,
(45) and I have caused it to be seated in peace upon its throne. I have come to
see Ra when he setteth, and I absorb into myself the winds [which arise] (46)
when he cometh forth, and both my
hands are clean to adore him. I have gathered together [all my members], I have
gathered together [all my members]. I soar like a bird (47) and I descend upon
the earth, and mine eye maketh me
to walk thereon in my footsteps. I am the child of yesterday and the Akeru (48)
gods of the earth have made me to come into being, and they have made me strong
for my moment [of coming
forth]. I hide with the god Aba-aaiu who will walk (49) behind me, and my
members shall germinate, and my khu shall be as an amulet for my body and as one
who watcheth [to protect] my soul
(50) and to defend it and to converse therewith; and the company of the gods
shall hearken unto my words."
Rubric: IF THIS CHAPTER BE KNOWN [BY THE DECEASED] HE SHALL BE VICTORIOUS BOTH UPON EARTH AND IN (51) THE UNDERWORLD. HE SHALL DO WHATSOEVER A MAN DOETH WHO IS UPON THE EARTH, AND HE SHALL PERFORM ALL THE DEEDS WHICH THOSE DO WHO ARE [ALIVE]. NOW IT IS A GREAT PROTECTION [GIVEN] BY THE GOD. THIS CHAPTER WAS FOUND (52) IN THE CITY OF KHEMENNU INSCRIBED UPON THE BLOCK OF IRON IN LETTERS OF LAPIS-LAZULI WHICH WAS UNDER THE FEET OF THIS GOD.
In the Rubric to this Chapter as found in the Papyrus of Mes-em-neter, the Chapter is said to have been "discovered in the foundations of the shrine of the divine Hennu boat by the chief mason in the time of the king of the North and of the South, Hesepti, triumphant," and it is there directed that it shall be recited by one who is ceremonially pure and clean, and "who hath not touched women, and who hath not eaten flesh of animals or fish."
Vignette: The deceased kneeling, with both hands raised in adoration, before the
the legend reads: "the homage of the scribe Nebseni to the goddess Meh-urt, lady of heaven, and mistress of earth."
Elsewhere (Naville, op. cit., Bd. I . Bt. 83) the deceased is seen adoring Ra in the presence of Thoth and Osiris.
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY. The libationer, the lord of
reverence, Nebseni, saith:
"Hail, thou hawk who risest in heaven, thou lord of the goddess Meb-urt! (2)
Strengthen thou me according as thou hast strengthened thyself, and shew thyself
upon the earth, O thou that
returnest and withdrawest thyself, and let thy will be done."
"Behold the god of One Face (3) is with me. [I am] the hawk which is within the shrine; and I open that which is upon the hangings thereof. Behold Horus, the son of Isis." [Behold] Horus the son of Isis! (4) Strengthen thou me, according as thou hast strengthened thyself, and shew thyself upon earth, O thou that returnest and withdrawest thyself, and let thy will be done."
"Behold, (5) the god of One Face is with me. [I am] the hawk in the southern heaven, and [I am] Thoth in the northern heaven; I make peace with the raging fire and I bring Maat (6) to him that loveth her."
"Behold Thoth, even Thoth! Strengthen thou me according as thou hast strengthened thyself, and shew thyself upon earth, 0 thou that returnest and (7) withdrawest thyself, and let thy will be done."
"Behold the god of One Face is with me. I am the Plant (8) of the region where nothing sprouteth, and the Blosson of the hidden horizon."
"Behold Osiris, yea Osiris! Strengthen thou me according as thou hast strengthened thyself, (9) and shew thyself upon earth, O thou that returnest and withdrawest thyself, and let thy will be done."
"Behold, the god of One Face (10) is with me. Hail, thou who [standest] upon thy legs, in thine hour," or (as others say), "Hail, thou who art victorious upon thy legs in thine (11) hour, thou lord of the two divine Tchafi, who livest [in] the two divine Tchafi, strengthen thou me according as thou halt strengthened thyself, and (12) shew thyself upon earth, O thou that returnest and withdrawest thyself, and let thy will be done."
"Behold, the god of One Face is with me. (13) Hail, thou Nekhen who art in thine egg, thou lord of the goddess Meh-urt, strengthen thou me according as thou fast strengthened thyself, (14) and show thyself upon earth, O thou that returnest and withdrawest thyself, and let thy will be done."
"Behold, the god of One Face is with (15) me. The god Sebek hath stood up within his ground, and the goddess Neith hath stood up within her plantation, 0 thou that returnest and withdrawest (16) thyself, shew thyself upon earth and let thy will be done."
"Behold, the god of One Face is with me. Hail, ye seven beings who make decrees,
who (17) support the Scales on the night of the judgment of the Utchat, who cut
off heads, who hack necks in
pieces, who take possession of hearts by violence and rend the places (18) where
hearts are fixed, who make slaughterings in the Lake of Fire, I know you and I
know your names, therefore know
ye me even as (19) I know your names. I come forth to you, therefore come ye
forth to me, for ye live in me and I would live in you. Make ye me to be
vigorous by means of that which is in your
hands, that is to say, by the rod of power which is (20) in your hands. Decree
ye for me life by [your] speech year by year; give me multitudes of years over
and above my years of life, and
multitudes of months over and above my months (21) of life, and multitudes of
days over and above my days of life, and multitudes of nights over and above my
nights of life; and grant that I may
come forth and shine upon my statue; and [grant me] (22) air for my nose, and
let my eyes have the power to see among those divine beings who dwell in the
horizon on the day when evil-doing
and wrong are justly assessed."
Rubric: IF THIS CHAPTER BE RECITED FOR THE DECEASED HE SHALL BE STRONG UPON EARTH BEFORE RA, AND HE SHALL HAVE A COMFORTABLE BURIAL (OR TOMB) WITH OSIRIS, AND IT SHALL BE OF GREAT BENEFIT TO A MAN IN THE UNDERWORLD. SEPULCHRAL BREAD SHALL BE GIVEN UNTO HIM, AND HE SHALL COME FORTH INTO THE PRESENCE [OF RA] DAY BY DAY, AND EVERY DAY, REGULARLY, AND CONTINUALLY.
Vignette: The soul of the deceased, in the form of a human-headed bird, flying
out from the doorway of the tomb.
Variant vignettes represent the deceased as having opened the door of the tomb and having his soul by his side,
or as standing before the open door with hands stretched out to embrace his soul.
An interesting vignette represents the disk of the sun with rays shooting forth from it above the tomb,
and the soul of the deceased hovering over his shade, drawn in solid black colour,
which has just emerged therefrom (see Naville, op. cit., Bd. I. 131. 104).
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF OPENING THE TOMB TO THE SOUL [AND] TO THE SHADE OF OSIRIS the scribe Nebseni, the lord of reverence, born of the lady of the house Mut-restha, triumphant, SO THAT HE MAY COME FORTH BY DAY AND (2) HAVE DOMINION OVER HIS FEET. [He saith:] "That which was shut fast bath been opened, that is to say, he that lay down in death [path been opened]. That which was open hath been shut to my soul through the command of the Eye of Horus, (3) which hath strengthened me and which maketh to stand fast the beauties which are upon the forehead of Ra, whose strides are long as [he] lifteth up [his] legs [in journeying]. I have made for myself a way, my members are mighty (4) and are strong. I am Horus the avenger of his divine father. I am he who bringeth along his divine father, and who bringeth along his mother by means of his sceptre(?). And the way shall be opened unto him who hath (5) gotten dominion over his feet, and he shall see the Great God in the Boat of Ra, [when] souls are counted therein at the bows, (6) and when the years also are counted up. Grant that the Eye of Horus, which maketh the adornments of light to be firm upon the (7) forehead of Ra, may deliver my soul for me, and let there be darkness upon your faces, O ye who would hold fast Osiris. O keep not captive my soul, O keep not ward (8) over my shade, but let a way be opened for my soul [and] for my shade, and let [them] see the Great God in the shrine (9) on the day of the judgment of souls, and let [them] recite the utterances of Osiris, whose habitations are hidden, to those who guard the members of Osiris, and (10) who keep ward over the Khus, and who hold captive the shades of the dead who would work (11) evil against me, so that they shall [not] work evil against me. May a way for thy double (ka) along with thee and along with [thy] soul be prepared by those who keep ward over the members of Osiris, and who hold captive (12) the shades of the dead. Heaven shall [not] keep thee, the earth shall [not] hold thee captive, thou shalt not have thy being with the divine beings who make slaughter, (13) but thou shalt have dominion over thy legs, and thou shalt advance to thy body straightway in the earth [and to] those who belong to the shrine and guard the members of Osiris."
Vignette: Two "great gods" seated on thrones facing each other: on the ground
between them sits the deceased.
In the Saite Recension the deceased is seated on a low pedestal before three gods (see Lepsius, op. cit., Bl. 38.)
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF SITTING AMONG THE GREAT GODS. Behold Nebseni, (3) who saith: "I sit among the great gods, and I have made a way for myself (4) through the house of the Sektet boat; and behold, the mantis hath brought me to see the great gods (5) who dwell in the underworld, and I shall be triumphant before them, for am pure."
Vignette: The Sekhet-hetepet or "Fields of peace", commonly called the "Elysian Fields", surrounded and intersected by streams. The divisions contain the following: (a) Nebseni, the scribe and artist of the Temple of Ptah, with his arms hanging by his sides, entering the Elysian Fields. (b) The scribe Nebseni making an offering of incense to the "great company of the gods". (c) Nebseni seated in a boat paddling; above the boat are three symbols for "city". (d) The deceased addressing a bearded, mummied figure. (e) Three Pools or Lakes called Urti, Hetep, and Qetget respectively. (f) Nebseni reaping in Sekhet-hetepet. (g) Nebseni grasping the Bennu bird which is perched upon a stand; in front are three kas and three khus. (h) Nebseni seated and smelling a flower, the text reads "Thousands of all good and pure things to the ka of Nebseni." (i) A table of offerings. (j) Four Pools or Lakes called Nebt-taui, Uakha, Kha(?), and Hetep. (k) Nebseni ploughing with oxen by the side of a stream which is one thousand [measures] in length, and the width of which cannot be said; in it there are neither fish nor worms. (l) Nebseni ploughing with oxen on an island "the length of which is the length of heaven". (m) A division shaped like a bowl in which is inscribed: "The birth-place of the god of the city, Qenqen[et nebt]". (n) An island whereon are four gods and a flight of steps; the legend reads: "The great company of the gods who are in Sekhet-hetep." (o) The boat Tchetetfet with eight oars, four at the bows and four at the stern, floating at the end of a canal; in it is a flight of steps. The place where it lies is called the "Domain of Neth". (p) Two Pools, the names of which are illegible.
In the Papyrus of Nebseni are two scenes, one on each side of "Sekhethetepet",
or the Elysian Fields. In the first (A) Nebseni stands, with both hands raised
in adoration, and adores the company
of the gods who dwell in Sekhet-hetep, saying: "Homage to you, O ye lords of
food, I have come in peace to your Field to receive tchefau food . Grant ye that
I may come to the Great God daily,
and grant that I may attain to the offerings, that is to say, to the cakes, and
ale, and oxen, and ducks, and bread, which are offered unto his ka". The three
short lines of hieroglyphics (B) in front of
Nebseni read: "Nebseni, the lord of reverence, the scribe and artist in the
temples of the South and of the North, ascribeth praise to the company of the
gods and adoreth the great god." In the
second scene Nebseni is standing upright and a youth is pouring a libation over
him; at the same time another youth is bringing to him an offering of raiment.
The text above him (C) reads: "May
the god Osiris and all the companyof the gods who dwell in Sekhet-hetep grant
offerings of cakes, and ale, and oxen, and ducks, and bread, and all good
things, and linen garments, and incense
each day, and an offering on the altar each day, and the receiving of cakes of
various kinds, and milk, and wine, and tchefau food, and the following of the
god at his coming forth during his
festivals of Re-stau along with the favoured ones of the great god, to the ka of
the scribe Nebseni," etc.
Text: (1) HERE BEGIN THE CHAPTERS OF SEKHET-HETEPET, AND THE CHAPTERS OF COMING FORTH BY DAY; OF GOING INTO AND OF COMING OUT FROM THE UNDERWORLD; OF COMING TO SEKHET-AARU; OF BEING IN SEKHET-(2)HETEPET, THE MIGHTY LAND, THE LADY OF WINDS; OF HAVING POWER THERE; OF BECOMING A KHU THERE; OF PLOUGHING THERE; OF REAPING THERE; OF EATING THERE; OF DRINKING THERE; OF MAKING LOVE (3) THERE; AND OF DOING EVERYTHING EVEN AS A MAN DOETH UPON EARTH. Behold the scribe and artist of the Temple of Ptah, Nebseni, who (4) saith:
"Set hath taken possession of Horus, who looked with the two eyes upon the building(?) round Sekhet-hetep, but I have unfettered Horus [and taken him from] Set, and Set hath opened the ways of the two eyes [which are] in heaven. (5) Set hath cast (?) his moisture to the winds upon the soul [that hath] his day (or his eye) and who dwelleth in the city of Mert, and he hath delivered the interior of the body of Horus from the gods of Alert. Behold me (6) now, for I make this mighty boat to travel over the Lake of Hetep, and I brought it away with might from the palace of Shu; the domain of his stars groweth young and reneweth its former strength. I have brought the boat (7) into the lakes thereof so that I may come forth into the cities thereof, and I have sailed into their divine city Hetep. And behold, it is because I, even I, am at peace with his seasons, and with his guidance, and with his territory, and with the company of the gods who (8) are his firstborn. He maketh the two divine fighters (i.e., Horus and Set) to be at peace with those who watch over the living ones whom he hath created in fair form, and he bringeth peace [with him]; he maketh the two divine fighters to be at peace with those who watch over (9) them. He cutteth off the hair from the divine fighters, he driveth away storm from the helpless, and he keepeth away harm from the Khus. (10) Let me gain dominion within that Field, for I know it, and I have sailed among its lakes so that I might come into its cities. My mouth is strong; and I am equipped [with weapons to use] against the Khus; let them not have dominion over me. (11) Let me be rewarded with thy fields, O thou god Hetep; that which is thy wish, shalt thou do, O lord of the winds. May I become a khu therein, may I eat therein, may I drink therein, (12) may I plough therein, may I reap therein, may I fight therein, may I make love therein, may my words be mighty therein, may I never be in a state of servitude therein, (13) but may I be in authority therein. Thou hast made strong (?) the mouth and the throat (?) of the god Hetep; Qetetbu is its (?) name. He is stablished upon the watery supports (?) of the god Shu, and is linked unto the pleasant things of Ra. (14) He is the divider of years, he is hidden of mouth, his mouth is silent, that which he uttereth is secret, he fulfilleth eternity and taketh possession of everlastingness of existence as Hetep, the lord Hetep. The god Horns (15) maketh himself to be strong like unto the Hawk which is one thousand cubits in length and two thousand [cubits in width] in life; he hath equipments with him, and he journeyeth on and cometh where the seat of his (16) heart wisheth in the Pools thereof and in the cities thereof. He was begotten in the birth-chamber of the god of the city, he hath offerings [made unto him] of the food of the god of the city, he performeth that which it is meet to do therein, and the union thereof, in the matter of everything of the birth-chamber (17) of the divine city. When [he] setteth in life like crystal he performeth everything therein, and these things are like unto the things which are done in the Lake of double Fire, wherein there is none that rejoiceth, and wherein are all manner of (18) evil things. The god Hetep goeth in, and cometh out, and goeth backwards [in] that Field which gathereth together all manner of things for the birth-chamber of the god of the city. When he setteth in life like (19) crystal he performeth all manner of things therein which are like unto the things which are done in the Lake of double Fire, wherein there is none that rejoiceth, and wherein are no evil things whatsoever. (20) [Let me] live with the god Hetep, clothed and not despoiled by the lords of the north (?), and may the lords of divine things bring food unto me; may he make me to go forward and may I come forth, and may he bring my power to me (21) there, and may I receive it, and may my equipment be from the god Hetep. May I gain the mastery over the great and mighty word which is in my body in this my place, and by it I will (22) remember and I will forget. Let me go forward on my journey, and let me plough. I am at peace in the divine city, I and I know the waters, cities, (23) nomes, and lakes which are in Sekhet-hetep. I exist therein, I am strong therein, I become a khu therein, I eat therein, I sow (24) seed therein, I reap the harvest therein, I plough therein, I make love therein, I am at peace with the god Hetep therein. Behold (25) I scatter seed therein, I sail about among its Lakes and I come forward to the cities thereof, O divine Hetep. Behold, my mouth is equipped with my horns[for teeth], grant me an overflowing supply of the food whereon the kas and khus (26) [live]. I have passed the judgment of Shu upon him that knoweth him, so that I may go forth to the cities thereof, and may sail about among its lakes and may walk about in Sekhet-hetep; (27) and behold, Ra is in heaven, and behold, the god Hetep is its double offering. I have come onward to its land, I have put on my girdle(?), I have come forth so that the gifts which are about to be given unto me may be (28) given, I have made gladness for myself. I have laid hold upon my strength which the god Hetep hath greatly increased for me. O Unen-em-hetep, I have entered in to thee and my soul (29) followeth after me, and my divine food is upon both my hands, O Lady of the two lands, who stablishest my word whereby I remember and forget; (30) I would live without injury, without any injury [being done] unto me, O grant to me, O do thou grant to me, joy of heart. Make thou me to be at peace, bind thou up my sinews and muscles, and make me to receive the (31) air. O Un[en]-em-hetep, thou Lady of the winds, I have entered in to thee and I have opened (i.e., shewn) my head. Ra falleth asleep, but I am awake, and there is the goddess Bast at the gate of heaven (32) by night. Obstacles have been set before me, but I have gathered together what he hath emitted. I am in my city. O Nut-urt, I have entered into thee and I have counted my harvest, (33) and I go forward to Uakh. I am the Bull enveloped in turquoise, the lord of the Field of the Bull, the lord of the divine speech of the goddess Septet (Sothis) (34) at her hours. O Uakh, I have entered into thee, I have eaten my bread, I have gotten the mastery over choice pieces of the flesh of oxen and of feathered fowl, and the birds of Shu have been given unto (35) me; I follow after the gods and [I come after] the divine kas. O Tchefet, I have entered in to thee. I array myself in apparel (36), and I gird myself with the sa garment of Ra; now behold, [he is] in heaven, and those who dwell therein follow Ra, and [I] follow Ra in heaven. O Unen-em-(37)hetep, lord of the two lands, I have entered in to thee, and I have plunged into the lakes of Tchesert; behold me, for all filth hath departed from me. The Great God (38) groweth therein, and behold, I have found [food therein]; I have snared feathered fowl and I feed upon the finest [of them]. O Qenqentet, (39) I have entered into thee, and I have seen the Osiris [my father], and I have gazed upon my mother, and I have made love. I have caught the worms and serpents, and I am delivered. (40) And I know the name of the god who is opposite to the goddess Tchesert, and who hath straight hair and is equipped with two horns; he reapeth, and I both plough (41) and reap. O Bast, I have entered in to thee, I have driven back those who would come to the turquoise [sky], and I have followed the winds of the company of the gods. The Great God bath given my head (42) unto me, and he who hath bound on me my head is the (i.e., he doeth as he pleaseth). O Usert, I have come into thee at the head of the house wherein (43) divine food is brought for me. O Smam, I have come into thee. My heart watcheth, my head is equipped with the white crown, I am led into celestial regions, and I make to flourish (44) terrestrial objects, and there is joy of heart for the Bull, and for celestial beings, and for the company of the gods. I am the god who is the Bull, the lord of the gods, as he goeth forth from the turquoise [sky]. O divine nome of wheat and barley, (45) I have come into thee, I have come forward to thee and I have taken up that which followeth me, namely, the best of the libations of the company of the gods. I have tied up my boat in the celestial lakes, (46) I have lifted up the post at which to anchor, I have recited the prescribed words with my voice, and I have ascribed praises unto the gods who dwell in Sekhet-hetep."
Vignette: Three ibis-headed gods. In the Saite Recension the deceased is
standing, with both hands raised in adoration,
before the gods Thoth, Sa, and Tem (see Lepsius, op. cit., BI. 43).
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF KNOWING THE SOULS OF KHEMENNU (Hermopolis). "(2) The goddess Maat is carried by the arm at the shining of the goddess Neith in the city of Mentchat, and at the shining (3) of the Eye when it is weighed. I am carried over by it and I know what it bringeth from the city of Kesir (4) and I will neither declare it unto men nor tell it unto the gods. I have come, being the envoy of Ra, to stablish (5) Maat upon the arm at the shining of Neith in the city of Mentchat and to adjudge the eye to him that shall scrutinize it. I have come as (6) a power through the knowledge of the Souls of Khemennu (Hermopolis) who love to know what ye love. I know Maat, (7) which hath germinated, and hath become strong, and hath been judged, and I have joy in passing judgment upon the things which are to be judged. Homage to you, O ye Souls of Khemennu, I, even I, know (8) the things which are unknown on the festivals of the month and half month. Ra knoweth the hidden things of the night, and know ye that it is Thoth who hath made me to have knowledge. (9) Homage to you, O ye Souls of Khemennu, since I know you each day."
The Negative Confession.
Vignette: The Hall of double Maati, that is to say the Hall of the goddesses
Isis and Nephthys who symbolize Right and Truth; herein are seated or stand
forty-two gods, to each of whom the
deceased must address a prescribed negative statement. At each end is one half
of a folding door, one having the name of NEB-MART-MERI-TEP-RETUI-F and the
other of NEB-PEHTT-QESU-RIENMFNET. On the centre of the roof, which has a cornice of uraei,
typifying divinity, and feathers, symbolic of Maat, is a seated deity, painted
bluish-green, with hands extended,
the right over the Eye of Horus, and the left over a pool. At the end of the
Hall are four small vignettes, in which are depicted: 1. The Maati goddesses,
each seated upon a throne and holding a sceptre in her right hand, and the
emblem of life in her left. 2. The deceased, arrayed in white, standing before
the god Osiris with both hands raised in adoration. 3. A balance with the heart,
symbolizing the conscience of the deceased, in one scale, and the feather,
emblematic of Right and Truth, in the other. The god Anubis is testing the
tongue of the balance, and close by stands the monster Am-met. 4. Thoth,
ibis-headed, seated upon a pylon-shaped pedestal, painting a large feather of
Text: The scribe Nebseni, triumphant, saith:
1. "Hail, thou whose strides are long, who comest forth from Annu (Heliopolis), I have not done iniquity.
2. "Hail, thou who art embraced by flame, who comest forth from Kher-aba, I have not robbed with violence.
3. "Hail, thou divine Nose (Fenti), who comest forth from Khemennu (Hermopolis), I have not done violence [to any man].
4. "Hail, thou who eatest shades, who comest forth from the place where the Nile riseth, I have not committed theft.
5. "Hail, Neha-hau, who comest forth from Re-stau, I have not slain man or woman.
6. "Hail, thou double Lion-god, who comest forth from heaven, I have not made light the bushel.
7. "Hail, thou whose two eyes are like flint, who comest forth from Sekhem (Letopolis), I have not acted deceitfully.
8. "Hail, thou Flame, who comest forth as [thou] goest back, I have not purloined the things which belong unto God.
9. "Hail, thou Crusher of bones, who comest forth from Suten-henen (Heracleopolis), I have not uttered falsehood .
10. "Hail, thou who makest the flame to wax strong, who comest forth from Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis), I have not carried away food.
11. "Hail, Qerti, (i.e., the two sources of the Nile), who come forth from Amentet, I have not uttered evil words.
12. "Hail, thou whose teeth shine, who comest forth from Ta-she (i.e., the Fayyum), I have attacked no man.
13. "Hail, thou who dost consume blood, who comest forth from the house of slaughter . I have not killed the beasts [which are the property of God] .
14. "Hail, thou who dost consume the entrails, who comest forth from the mabel chamber, I have not acted deceitfully.
15. "Hail, thou god of Right and Truth, who comest forth from the city of double Maati, I have not laid waste the lands which have been ploughed (?).
16. "Hail, thou who goest backwards, who comest forth from the city of Bast (Bubastis), I have never pried into matters [to make mischief].
17. "Hail, Aati, who comest forth from Annu (Heliopolis), I have not set my mouth in motion [against any man].
18. "Hail, thou who art doubly evil, who comest forth from the nome of Ati, I have not given way to wrath concerning myself without a cause.
19. "Hail, thou serpent Uamemti, who comest forth from the house of slaughter, I have not defiled the wife of a man.
20. "Hail, thou who lookest upon what is brought to him, who comest forth from the Temple of Amsu, I have not committed any sin against purity.
21. "Hail, Chief of the divine Princes, who comest forth from the city of Nehatu, I have not struck fear [into any man].
22. "Hail, Khemiu (i.e., Destroyer), who comest forth from the Lake of Kaui, I have not encroached upon [sacred times and seasons].
23. "Hail, thou who orderest speech, who comest forth from Urit, I have not been a man of anger.
24. "Hail, thou Child, who comest forth from the Lake of Heq-at, I have not made myself deaf to the words of right and truth .
25. "Hail, thou disposer of speech, who comest forth from the city of Unes, I have not stirred up strife .
26. "Hail, Basti, who comest forth from the Secret city, I have made [no man] to weep.
27. "Hail, thou whose face is [turned] backwards, who comest forth from the Dwelling, I have not committed acts of impurity, neither have I lain with men.
28. "Hail, Leg of fire, who comest forth from Akhekhu, I have not eaten my heart.
29. "Hail, Kenemti, who comest forth from [the city of] Kenemet, I have abused [no man],
30. "Hail, thou who bringest thine offering, who comest forth from the city of San (Sais), I have not acted with violence.
31. "Hail, thou god of faces, who comest forth from the city of Tchefet, I have not judged hastily.
32. "Hail, thou who givest knowledge, who comest forth from Unth, I have not and I have not taken vengeance upon the god.
33. "Hail, thou lord of two horns, who comest forth from Satin, I have not multiplied [my] speech overmuch.
34. "Hail, Nefer-Tem, who comest forth from Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis), I have not acted with deceit, and I have not worked wickedness.
35. "Hail, Tem-Sep, who comest forth from Tattu, I have not uttered curses [on the king].
36. "Hail, thou whose heart doth labour, who comest forth from the city of Tebti, I have not fouled(?) water.
37. "Hail, Ahi of the water, who comest forth from Nu, I have not made haughty my voice.
38. "Hail, thou who givest commands to mankind, who comest forth from [San (?)], I have not cursed the god.
39. "Hail, Neheb-nefert, who comest forth from the Lake of Nefer (?), I have not behaved with insolence.
40. "Hail, Neheb-kau, who comest forth from [thy] city, I have not sought for distinctions.
41. "Hail, thou whose head is holy, who comest forth from [thy] habitations, I have not increased my wealth, except with such things as are [justly] mine own possessions.
42. "Hail, thou who bringest thine own arm, who comest forth from Aukert (underworld), I have not thought scorn of the god who is in my city."
Vignette: The goddess Api, the lady who giveth protection, in the form of a
hippopotamus, setting light to a vessel of incense.
In the Saite Recension the deceased is seen sitting upon a chair with two burning lamps on each side of him (see Lepsius, Todtenbuch, Bl. 56);
there the Chapter is called, "Chapter of making the flame to burn up".
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF KINDLING A FLAME BY NEBSENI, THE SCRIBE AND DRAUGHTSMAN IN THE TEMPLE OF PTAH. [He saith]: "The white (or shining) Eye of Horus cometh. (2) The brilliant Eye of Horus cometh. It cometh in peace, it sendeth forth rays of light unto Ra in the horizon, and it destroyeth the powers (3) of Set according to the decree(?). It leadeth them on, and it taketh possession [of him], and its flame is kindled against him. [Its] flame cometh and goeth about, and bringeth (4) adoration(?); [it] cometh and goeth about heaven in the train of Ra upon the two hands of thy two sisters, O Ra. The Eye of Horus liveth, yea liveth within the great hall; the Eye of Horus liveth, yea liveth, and is An-Maut-f."
Vignette: The god Anpu (Anubis) standing by the mummy of the deceased which lies on a bier.
Text: (1) The god Anpu, who dwelleth in the [city of] embalmment, the governor of the divine house, placeth his two hands upon the lord of life (2) of Nebseni, the scribe and of the scribe and designer Thena, triumphant, born of the lady of the house Mut-resth, triumphant, (3) and he furnisheth him with the things which belong to him. "Homage to thee, O happy one, divine lord, who art endowed with the sight of the Utchat (?), (4) Ptah-Seker bath bound thee up, Anpu hath exalted thee, and Shu hath caused thee to be lifted up, O (5) Face of beauty, thou divine prince of eternity. Thou hast thine eye, O scribe Nebseni, thou lord of piety, and beautiful it is. Thy right eye is (6) in the Sektet boat, and thy left eye is in the Atet boat; and thine eyebrows are of fair appearance in the presence of the (7) company of the gods. Thy brow is in the protection of Anpu; and the back of thy head, O beautiful one, (8) is before the holy Hawk. Thy fingers are stablished with written works in the presence of the lord of Khemennu, Thoth, (9) who bath given to me the speech of the sacred books. Thy hair is beautiful before Ptah-Seker, and thou, O scribe Nebseni, thou lord of piety, art beautiful before (10) the great company of the gods. The great god looketh upon thee, and he leadeth thee along the path of happiness, and sepulchral meals are bestowed upon thee; he overthroweth for thee [all] thine enemies, (11) and setteth them under thee in the presence of the great company of the gods who dwell in the mighty House of the Aged One which is in Annu (Heliopolis)."
Vignette: Thoth, the great god, giving an Uatch amulet of mother-of-emerald to the deceased.
Text: (1) [THE CHAPTER OF] GIVING AN UATCH OF MOTHER-OF-EMERALD to the scribe Nebseni, triumphant [who saith]: (2) "I am the Uatch of mother-of-emerald which cannot be injured, and which the (3) hand of Thoth adoreth; injury is a thing which I abominate. It is in sound state and I am in sound state; it is not injured and I am not injured; it is not [worn away] and I am not worn away. The words of Thoth [are at] thy back, O thou who comest in peace, O divine Prince of Annu (Heliopolis), thou mighty god who dwellest in the city of Pe. The god Shu advanceth to him and findeth him in the city of Shenmu in his name 'Neshem' (i.e., mother-of-emerald); he maketh his place in the fortress of the mighty god. The god Tem resteth upon his eye, and his members shall not suffer injury."
Vignette: A head-rest.
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF THE PILLOW. "Thou art lifted up, O sick one that liest prostrate, (2) O scribe Nebseni. (3) They lift up thy head to the horizon, thou art raised up, and dost triumph by reason of what hath been done for thee. Ptah hath overthrown (4) thine enemies [according to what] was ordered to be done for thee. Thou art Horus, the son of Hathor, Nesert, Nesertet, who giveth [back] the head (5) after the slaughter. Thy head shall not be carried away from thee after [the slaughter], thy head shall never, never be carried away from thee."
Vignette: An Utchat resting upon the emblem of gold (?).
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF BRINGING THE UTCHAT. (2) Nebseni, the scribe, saith: "The god Thoth hath brought the Utchat, (4) and he hath made it to rest (or to be at peace) after it departed, [O] (5) Ra. It was grievously afflicted by storm, but Thoth (6) made it to be at rest after it had departed from the storm. I am sound, (7) and it is sound; I am sound, and it is sound; and Nebseni, the lord of piety, is sound."
Vignette: This Chapter has no Vignette.
Text: (1) THE FIRST OF THE CHAPTERS OF THE ARRANGEMENTS (OR PRAISINGS) WHICH ARE
TO BE PERFORMED IN THE UNDERWORLD. "[I snuff] the bet incense, I inhale
the scent of hesmen (natron) and (2) incense I am pure with the purity of [pure
are] the praises which come forth from my mouth, more pure than mat (?) itself
(3) of the fish that are in the river;
to the statue of the Temple of Hesmen (natron). Pure are the praises (4) of the
scribe Nebseni, the designer of the house of gold, begotten of the scribe and
designer Thena, triumphant, born of the
lady of the house Mut-restha, triumphant. And as for the scribe Nebseni, the
lord of piety, who is happy with a two-fold happiness, (5) Ptah hath a favour
unto him, and He of the Southern Wall
hath a favour unto him, and every god hath a favour unto him, and every goddess
hath a favour unto him. Thy beauties are a stream (6) [bearing] things which
cause rest and are like unto water
which floweth nearer(?); thy beauties are like a hall of festival wherein each
man may exalt his [own] god; thy beauties are like unto the pillar of the god
Ptah (7) and like the courtyard of incense
(?) of Ra. Nebseni, the scribe and designer of the Temple of Ptah, hath been
made a pillar of Ptah, and the libation vase of the god of the Southern Wall."
I. (8) "Hail, verily thou art invoked; hail, verily thou art invoked. Hail, verily thou art lamented. Verily, thou art praised; verily, thou art exalted; verily, thou art glorious; verily, thou art strong. Hail, thou scribe Nebseni, thou who hast been raised up, (9) thou art raised up by means of the ceremonies which have been performed for thee. Thine enemies have fallen and the god Ptah hath thrown down headlong (10) thy foes; thou hast triumphed over them and thou hast gained power over them. They obey thy words and they perform that which thou orderest them [to do]; thou art raised up, and thy word is a law unto the divine sovereign chiefs of every god, and of every goddess." (11)
II. "Hail, verily thou art invoked; hail, verily thou art invoked. Thy head, O my lord, is a standard with locks of rippling hair like unto the hair of a woman of Asia; thy face shineth more brightly than the House (12) of the Moon-god; the upper part of thy head is azure in colour; thy locks are blacker than the doors of the underworld; thy hair is dark as night; thy visage is decorated with an azure blue; (13) the rays of Ra are upon thy face; thy garments are of gold which Horus hath deftly ornamented with azure blue; thine eye-brows are the two sister goddesses who are at peace with each other and whom Horus (14) hath deftly ornamented with azure blue; thy nose snuffeth in and thy nostrils exhale as it were the winds from heaven. Thine eyes look towards (15) Mount Bakhau of the rising sun; thine eyelashes are fixed each day, and the upper eyelids to which they belong are of veritable lapis-lazuli; the apples of thine eyes are [as] offerings of peace(?); and the lower eyelids are filled with (16) eye-paint of mestchem. Thy two lips give unto thee law, they repeat unto [thee] the law of Ra, and they make to be at peace the hearts of the gods. Thy teeth are the two heads (17) of the serpent goddess Mehen which sport(?) with the Horus gods; thy tongue is made skilful thy speech is more shrill than that of the tcheru bird of the field; thy jawbones are starry lamps; (18) thy breasts(?) are stablished upon their seats; and they journey unto the funeral mountain of Amentet."
III. "[Hail, verily thou art invoked; hail, verily thou art invoked.] Thy neck is decorated with gold, and (19) it is girt about (?) with refined copper. Thy gullet and throat are those of Anpu; thy bones are the bones of the two Uatch goddesses; thy backbone is (20) studded with gold, and is girt about (?) with refined copper; thy loins(?) are those of Nephthys; thy ... is a Nile which is without water; thy buttocks (21) are two crystal eggs; thy thighs are strong for walking; thou sittest upon thy seat; and the gods [give] (22) unto thee thine eyes, O scribe Nebseni, thou lord of piety."
IV. "[Hail, verily thou art invoked; hail, verily thou art invoked.] Thy throat
is the throat of Anpu; thy members (23) are plated with gold; thy breasts are
two crystal eggs which Horus hath deftly
ornamented with azure blue; thy shoulders are made like unto crystal; thine arms
(24) are stablished through the strength which protecteth them; thy heart is
glad each day; thy breast is of the
work of the two divine Forms; thy person adoreth the starry deities who dwell in
the heights and depths of heaven; ( 25) thy belly is, as it were, the heavens
thy navel is the Tuat (i.e., underworld)
which is open, and which ordereth the light in the darkness, and the offerings
of which are (26) ankham flowers. And Nebseni praiseth the majesty of Thoth, the
beloved one [saying]: 'May his
beauties be in my tomb, and may all the purity which he loveth (27) be there
even as my God bath commanded for me."'
V. "Hail, verily thou art invoked; hail, verily thou art invoked. Thy two hands are a pool of water in the season of an abundant inundation, a pool of water fringed about with the divine offering of the water-god. Thy (28) thighs are encircled with gold; thy knees are the plants of the waters where are the nests of the birds; thy feet are stablished each day; thy legs lead thee into a (29) path of happiness, O scribe Nebseni, thou favoured one. Thy hands and arms are pillars (?) [set] upon their pedestals; thy fingers are strips (?) of gold, the nails of which are like sharp flakes (30) of flint by reason of the works which they perform for thee."
VI. "Hail, verily thou art invoked; hail, verily thou art invoked. Thou clothest thyself with the garment of purity (abu), and behold, thou drawest off from thyself the umet garment when (31) thou goest up to stretch thyself upon the couch(?). Haunches of meat are cut for thy ka, O scribe Nebseni, and a breast (or heart) of the animal is offered unto thy sahu. Thou receivest a garment of the finest linen (32) from the hands of the ministrant(?) of Ra; thou eatest the cakes upon the cloth which the goddess Tait herself hath prepared; thou eatest the haunch of the animal (33); thou takest boldly the joint which Ra hath endowed with power in his holy place; thou washest thy feet in the silver basins which the god Seker, the artificer, hath wrought; and behold, (34) thou eatest of the cake which appeareth on the altar and which the two divine fathers have sanctified. Thou eatest of the baked bread and of the hot meats of the storehouse; thou (35) smellest the flowers; thy heart feareth not [to advance] to the altar of the offerings made to thee; and those who feed thee with food make for thee the loaves and bread-cakes of the Souls of Annu (Heliopolis), (36) and they themselves bear them unto thee. Thine offerings (?) are ordered for thee, and thy ordinances are in the gates of the Great House. Thou risest up like Sah (Orion); thou arrivest like the star Bau; (37) and the goddess Nut [stretcheth out] her hands unto thee. Sah (Orion), the son of Ra, and Nut, who gave birth to the gods the two mighty gods in heaven-speak each to the other, saying, (38) "Take the scribe and draughtsman Nebseni into thine arms, and I will take him into mine on this day, and let us make happiness for him when praises are sung to him and when mention is made of him, and when [his name] is in the mouth of all young men and maidens.' (39) Thou art raised up, [O Nebseni,] and thou hearest the songs of commemoration through the door of thy house."
VII. "Hail, verily thou art invoked; hail, verily thou art invoked. Anubis hath bestowed upon thee thy winding-sheet, he hath (40) wrought [for thee] according to his will, he hath provided thee with the ornaments of his bandages, for he is the overseer of the great god. Thou settest out on thy way and thou hast been washed in the Lake of Perfection; thou makest offerings in the celestial mansions, and thou propitiatest (41) the lords of Annu (Heliopolis). The water of Ra is presented unto thee in vessels, and milk in large vases. Thou art raised up and thou makest offerings upon the altar, thou washest thy feet upon the stone of (42) on the banks of the Lake of God. Thou comest forth and thou seest Ra upon the pillars which are the arms of heaven, upon the head of An-mut-f and upon the arms of Ap-uat; he openeth but for thee a way (43) and thou seest the horizon wherein is the place of purity which thou lovest."
VIII. "Hail, verily thou art invoked; hail, verily thou art invoked. Offerings
are allotted unto thee in the presence of Ra, and according to that which Horus
and Thoth ordered for thee thou hast
had a beginning and an end. (44) They invoke thee, O scribe Nebseni, and see thy
splendour there, causing thee to come forth [as] a god (45) and to advance to
the Souls of Annu. Thou goest
forth upon the great roads in thy Sah, who hast received the offerings of thy
father upon thy two hands; thou art furnished with linen garments each day, at
the beginning of the journey of the god
through the gates of the (46) Great House."
IX. "Hail, verily thou art invoked; hail, verily thou art inyoked. The scribe Nebseni hath air for his nose and breath for his nostrils, and one thousand geese, and fifty baskets of pure and fair offerings. Hail, Nebseni, thine enemies have fallen down headlong and they shall nevermore exist."
Vignette: "Osiris, the great god, the lord of Abtu, the lord
of transformations, the prince of eternity",
seated in a shrine; the deceased stands, with hands raised in adoration, before the god,
and the ground between them is covered with the bodies of birds and beasts which have been prepared for sacrifice.
Text: THE SPEECHES OF HORUS TO HIS DIVINE FATHER OSIRIS WHEN HE ENTERETH IN TO SEE HIM, AND WHEN HE COMETH FORTH FROM NEAR THE GREAT ABT CHAMBER TO LOOK UPON RA AS UN-NEFER, THE LORD OF TA-TCHESERT; THEN DOTH EACH EMBRACE THE OTHER AT THE PLEASURE OF HIS KHU, THERE IN THE UNDERWORLD.
(1) A Hymn of Praise to Osiris, governor of those in the underworld, the
great god, the lord of Abydos, the king of eternity, the prince of
everlastingness, the holy god in Re-stau,
(2) by the scribe Nebseni, who saith:
(3) "I ascribe praise unto thee, O lord of the gods, thou God One, who livest
(4) upon right and truth, behold, I thy son Horus come unto thee;
(5) I have avenged thee, and I have brought to thee maat—even to the place where is the company of thy gods.
(6) Grant thou that I may have my being among those who are in thy following, for I have overthrown all thy
(7) foes, and I have stablished all those who are of thy substance upon the earth for ever and ever."
[Here follow forty declarations each of which is preceded by the words "Hail, Osiris, I am thy son".]
(8) "I have come, and I have avenged [thee, O my father Osiris].
(9) "I have come, and I have overthrown for thee thine enemies.
(10) "I have come, and I have done away with every evil thing which belongeth unto thee.
(11) "I have come, and I have slain for thee him that attacked thee.
(12) "I have come, and I have sent forth mine arm against those who were hostile towards thee.
(13) "I have come, and I have brought unto thee the fiends of Set with their fetters upon them.
(14) "I have come, and I have brought unto thee the land of the South, and I have united unto thee the land of the North.
(15) "I have come, and I have stablished for thee divine offerings from the South and from the North.
(16) "I have come, and I have ploughed' for thee the fields.
(17) "I have come, and I have filled for thee the canals with water.
(18) "I have come, and I have hoed up for thee the ground.
(19) "I have come, and I have built cisterns for thee.
(20) "I have come, and I have gone round about the soil for thee.
(21) "I have come, and I have made sacrificial victims of those who were hostile to thee.
(22) "I have come, and I have made sacrifices unto thee of thine animals and victims for slaughter.
(23) "I have come, and I have supplied [thee] with food in abundance [of the creatures which are upon earth].
(24) "I have come, and I have brought unto thee
(25) "I have come, and I have slain for thee
(26) "I have come, and I have smitten for thee emasculated beasts .
(27) "I have come, and I have netted for thee birds and feathered fowl .
(28) "I have come, and I have taken captive for thee thine enemies in their chains .
(29) "I have come, and I have fettered for thee thine enemies with fetters .
(30) "I have come, and I have brought for thee cool water from Abu (Elephantine), wherewith thou mayest refresh thine heart.
(31) "I have come, and I have brought unto thee herbs of every kind .
(32) "I have come, and I have stablished for thee those who are of thy substance daily .
(33) "I have come, and I have made thy cakes in the city of Pe of the red barley .
(34) "I have come, and I have made thy ale in the city of Tepu of the white grain .
(35) "I have come, and I have ploughed for thee wheat and barley in Sekhet-Aaru.
(36) "I have come, and I have reaped it for thee therein.
(37) "I have come, and I have glorified thee.
(38) "I have come, and I have given [to thee] thy souls.
(39) "I have come, and I have given [to thee] thy power.
(40) "I have come, and I have given [to thee thy]
(41) "I have come, and I have given [to thee thy]
(42) "I have come, and I have given [to thee] thy terror.
(43) "I have come, and I have given [to thee] thy victory.
(44) "I have come, and I have given to thee thine eyes, [which are] the plumes on thy head.
(45) "I have come, and I have given [to thee] Isis and Nephthys that they may stablish thee.
(46) "I have come, and I have filled for thee the Eye of Horus [with] oil (or unguent).
(47) "I have come, and I have brought unto thee the Eye of Horus, whereby thy face shall be destroyed."
Vignette: The deceased standing upright; pure water is being poured out before him, and offerings of linen garments are being made unto him.
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF RAISING UP THE KHU AND OF MAKING THE SOUL TO LIVE IN THE UNDERWORLD. The scribe Nebseni, the draughtsman in the Temple of Ptah, the lord of piety who is in the favour of his god, saith: (2) "[Hail,] Nut, Nut who castest thy father to earth and settest (?) Horus behind him, his wings grow like [those of] a hawk, and his plumes like (3) [those of] him who seeth (?). His soul hath been brought unto him, he is filled with words [of magical power], and his place is decreed for him opposite to (4) the stars of the heaven, for behold thou art a star of Nut by thyself ... Thou seest the scribe Nebseni, the lord of piety, [in] happiness, (5) and giving his commands unto the Khus; and behold, the divine Power (or Prince) is not [among them], and thy ... is not among them, unless thou art among them. Thou seest the chief Nebseni, the scribe (6) and draughtsman of the Temple of Ptah, in the form of a soul who bath the horns of the cows Smamet and An-unser the Black. [Hail,] children of Serat-Beget, who have sucked milk from (7) the four Uaipu cows (?), Horus of the blue eyes cometh unto you; protect ye Horus of the red eyes who is sick. Let not his soul be turned back, (8) let his offerings be brought [unto him], let the things which are for his benefit(?) be carried to him; and let them come upon the shoulder over the West. This only one advanceth to thee. The God speaketh thy words (9); the gods make thy name to be triumphant before the gods, and the company of the gods distinguish thee with their hands. The God of the Field of the gods speaketh, and thou gainest the power over the door of Kas in their horizon; they unbolt (10) for thee their doors, for they have a favour unto thee, and thou gainest power over their shrines. The god [Seb and his company of gods enter in], and they come forth lifting on high (11) their faces, and they look upon thee in the presence of the great god Amsu thy head .... thy head. I [make to] stand up thy head [for thee], and thou hast power thereover. His head diminisheth behind thee, but thy head shall not diminish, and thou shalt not be destroyed, and thou shalt do what thou hast to do before men and before the gods."
Vignette: This Chapter has no Vignette.
Text: (1) THE CHAPTER OF RAISING UP THE DEAD BODY, [OF GIVING SIGHT TO] THE EYES, OF GAINING POWER OVER THE EARS, OF STABLISHING (2) THE HEAD, AND OF PROVIDING THE FACE WITH THE POWER OF PROTECTION. The Osiris, the scribe Nebseni, the draughtsman of the Temple of Ptah, the lord of piety, saith: "The Eye of Horus is presented unto thee, and it feedeth thee with the food of offerings. Hail, ye who make the (3) labourers to rejoice and who raise up the heart and purify the body, who have eaten the Eye of Horus, thou Olive tree in Annu, (4) destroy ye [what evil there is] in the body of [Osiris] Nebseni, the scribe and draughtsman in the Temple of Ptah. O Osiris, let him not suffer thirst before his god, let him suffer neither hunger nor thirst, and let the god (5) Khas (?) carry them away, and let him do away with his hunger, O thou that fillest, O thou that fillest hearts. O chiefs who dispense cakes [and ale], O ye who have charge of (6) the water flood, command ye that cakes and ale be given unto the Osiris Nebseni even as Ra himself commanded this thing. And, moreover, Ra hath commanded those who are over the abundance of the (7) year to take handfuls of wheat and barley and to give them to him for his cakes, for behold, he is a great bull; [these] shall ye give to the Osiris Nebseni. O guardian of the five cakes in (8) the divine house, three cakes are in heaven before Ra, and two are upon earth before the company of the gods; may he burst through Nu, may he see, may he see! O Ra, be gracious unto the scribe (9) Nebseni this day, be gracious. The scribe Nebseni is as a lord of piety according to the command of Shu and Isis, and he hath been united (10) unto the piety of happiness before his god. May [the gods] give cakes and ale unto the scribe Nebseni, and may they prepare for him all good and pure things (11) this happy day, things for journeying and travelling, things of the Eye of Horus, things of the boat (?), and all things which should enter into the sight of the god Thou shalt have power over the water, and thou shalt advance to (12) the table of offerings having cakes(?) and four measures (?) of water. The Eye of Horus bath ordered these things for the scribe Nebseni, and the god Shu hath ordered the [means of] subsistence for him, (13) [both] cakes and ale. Watch, O judges of the form (?) of Thoth, watch him that lieth in death. Wake up, O thou that dwellest in [Kenset]! Grant thou offerings (14) in the presence of Thoth, the mighty god, who cometh forth from Hapi (i.e., the Nile), and of Ap-uat who cometh forth from Asert, for the mouth of Nebseni, the scribe and designer of the (15) Temple of Ptah, is pure. The company of the gods offer incense to the scribe Nebseni, and his mouth is pure, and his tongue which is therein is right and true. That which (16) the scribe Nebseni abominateth is filth, and he bath freed himself therefrom even as Set freed himself [from it] in the city of Rehiu, and he hath set out [with] Thoth for heaven (17). O ye who have delivered the scribe Nebseni along with yourselves, let him eat of that whereof ye eat, let him drink of that whereof ye drink, let him sit down upon that whereon (18) ye sit, let him be strong in the strength wherein ye are strong, let him sail about where ye sail about; the scribe Nebseni hath drawn the net together in the (19) region of Aaru, and he hath running water in Sekhet-hetep, and his offerings are among [those of] the gods. The water of the scribe Nebseni (20) is the wine of Ra, and Nebseni goeth round about heaven and travelleth [therein] like unto Thoth. It is an abomination unto the scribe Nebseni to suffer hunger and not to eat, and it is an abomination unto him (21) to be thirsty [and not to drink]; but sepulchral meals have been given unto him by the lord of eternity, who hath ordered [these things] for him. The scribe Nebseni was conceived in (22) the night, and was brought forth in the daylight, and those who are in the following of Ra, the divine ancestors, adore [him]. [The scribe Nebseni was conceived in Nu, and was brought forth in Nu, and he hath come] and hath brought to you what he hath (23) found of that which the Eye of Horus bath shed upon the branches of the Then tree. The governor of those in Amenti cometh to him and bringeth to him the divine food and offerings of Horus, (24) the governor of Temples, and upon that whereon he doth live the scribe Nebseni liveth also, and of that whereof he drinketh doth the scribe Nebseni, the designer of the (25) Temple of Ptah, drink also, and facing his offerings of cakes and ale is a haunch of meat also. Osiris, the scribe Nebseni, is triumphant, and he is favoured of Anubis (26) who is upon his hill."
"Hail, scribe Nebseni, thou hast the form wherein thou hadst thine existence
upon earth, and thou livest and renewest thy youth each day; thy face is
uncovered and thou seest (27) the lord of the
horizon, who giveth to thee sepulchral meals in thy hour and in thy season of
night. Horus hath avenged thee, and he hath destroyed the jaw-bones (28) of
thine enemies; he hath shut in the doer
of violence at the mouth of his fortress."
"Hail, scribe Nebseni, thou hast no enemies in Het-ur, (29) and the scales balanced when thou wert weighed therein, and the hall wherein they were belonged to Osiris, the lord of offerings of Amentet. And thou shalt enter in at will, and thou shalt see (30) the Great God in his form, and life shall be given to thy nostrils, and thou shalt triumph over thine enemies."
"Hail, scribe Nebseni, what thou abominatest is (31) iniquity. The divine lord of creation hath made peace with thee on the night of silencing the weeping. And sweet life, whereupon Thoth resteth, hath been given unto thee from the mouth of the company of the gods, (32) and thou dost triumph over thine enemies, O scribe Nebseni. Thy mother Nut spreadeth herself over thee in her name of Shetet-pet, and she maketh thee to be a follower (33) of the great god, and to be without enemies, and she delivereth thee from every evil thing in her name of Khnemet-urt, the divine, mighty form who dwelleth among her (34) children, O scribe Nebseni."
"Hail, chiefs of the hours, ancestors of Ra, make ye a way for the scribe Nebseni, the lord of piety, (35) and let him pass within the circle of Osiris, the lord of the life of the two lands, who liveth for ever. And let the scribe Nebseni, the draughtsman in the Temple of Ptah, the lord of piety, the happy one, (36) be in the following of Nefer-Tem, the lotus at the nostrils of Ra in the presence of the gods, and let him see Ra for ever."
1 In the Saite Recension this Chapter is found twice, viz., as Chapters XIII and CXXI; as there is no good reason why it should be Chapter CXXI, it has been placed here.
2 The Nebseni Papyrus is the authority for these words.
3 The version of this Chapter found in the Papyrus of Nebseni (sheet 24) is much shorter than that here given and that Papyrus omits all the supplementary Chapters and rubrics which are written in the Papyrus of Nu; a version much shorter still is given by Naville (op. cit ., Bd. II. p . 361) from the Papyrus of Nefer-uben-f at Paris.
4 A shortened form of this Chapter also occurs in the Papyrus of Nebseni (sheet 21); it has for a Vignette a male head, and is entitled, "The Chapter of a head of secret things".