OBSERVATIONS ON THE SECT OF JAINS
BY H. T. COLEBROOKE, ESQ.
(Extracted from the Asiatic Researches, vol., ix. p. 287-322. Calcutta, 1807.)
THE information collected by Major Mackenzie, concerning a religious sect hitherto so imperfectly known, as that pf the Jainas, and which has been even confounded with one more numerous and more widely spread (the sect of Baudd'ha), may furnish the ground of further researches, from which an exact knowledge of the tenets and practice of a very remarkable order of people, may be ultimately expected. What Major Mackenzie has communicated to the society, comes from a most authentic source; the declarations of two principal priests of the Jainas themselves. It is supported by similar information, procured from a like source, by Dr, F. Buchanan during his journey in Mysore, in the year following the reduction of Seringapatam. Having the permission of Dr. Buchanan, to use the extracts, which I had his leave to make from the journal kept by him during that journey; I have inserted, in the preceding article, the information received by him from priests of the Jaina sect.
I am enabled to corroborate both statements, from conversation with Jaina priests, and from books, in my possession, written by authors of the Jaina persuasion. Some of those volumes were procured for me at Benares; others were obtained from the present Jagat-S'e't, at Morshedabady who, having changed his religion, to adopt the Worship of Vish-  n'u, forwarded to me, at my request, such books of his former faith, as were yet within his reach.
It appears, from the concurrent result of all the inquiries which have been made that the Jainas constitute a sect of Hindus differing, indeed, from the rest, in some very important tenets; but following in other respects, a similar practice, and maintaining like opinions and observances.
The essential character of the Hindu institutions is the distribution of the people into four great tribes. This is considered by themselves to be the marked point which separates them from Mlec'has or Barbarians. The Jaina it is found, admit the same division into four tribes, and perform like religious ceremonies, termed Samciras, from the birth of a male to his marriage. They observe similar fasts, and practise, still more strictly, the received maxims for refraining from injury to any sentient being. They appear to recognise, as subordinate deities, some, if not all, of the gods of the prevailing sects; but do not worship, in particular, the five principal gods of those sects; or any one of them by preference; nor address prayers, or perform sacrifice, to the sun, or to fire: and they differ from the rest of the Hindus in assigning the highest place to certain deified saints, who, according to their creed, have successively become superior gods. Another point, in which they materially disagree, is the rejection of the Vedas, the divine authority of which they deny; condemning, at the same time, the practice of sacrifices, and the other ceremonies, which the followers of the Vedas perform, to obtain speci6c promised consequences, in this world, or in the next.
In this respect, the Jainas resemble the Baudd'has or Saugatas, who usually deny the divine authority of the Vedas; and who similarly worship certain pre-eminent saints, admitting likewise, as subordinate dei-  ties, nearly the whole pantheon of the orthodox Hindus. They differ, indeed in regard to the history of the personages, whom they have deified; and it may be hence concluded, that they have had distinct founders; but the original notion seems to have been the same. In fact, this remarkable tenet, from which the Jainas and Baudd'has derive their most conspicuous peculiarities, is not entirely unknown to the orthodox Hindus. The followers of the Vedas, according to the theology, which is explained in the Vedanta, considering the human soul as a portion of the divine and universal mind, believe, that it is capable of perfect union with the divine essence: and the writers on the Vedanta not only affirm, that this union and identity are attained through a knowledge of God, as by them taught; but have hinted, that by such means the particular soul becomes God, even to the actual attainment of supremacy.1
So far the followers of the Vedas do not virtually disagree with the Jainas and Baudd'has. But they have not, like those sects, framed a mythology upon the supposed history of the persons, who have successively attained divinity; nor have they taken these for the objects of national worship. All three sects agree in their belief of transmigration. But the Jainas are distinguished from the rest by their admission of no opinions, as they themselves affirm which are not founded on perception, or on proof drawn from that, or from testimony.
It does not, however, appear, that they really withhold belief from pretended revelations; and the doctrines, which characterise the sect, are not confined to a single tenet; but form an assemblage of mytholo-  gical and metaphysical ideas found among other sects, joined to many visionary and fantastic notions of their own.
Their belief in the eternity of matter and perpetuity of the world, is common to the Sanc'hya philosophy from which it was perhaps immediately taken. Their description of the world has much analogy to that which is given in the Puranas, or Indian theogonies: but the scheme has been rendered still more extravagant. Their precaution, to avoid injuring any being a practice inculcated in the orthodox religion, but which has been carried by them to a ludicrous extreme.2
In their notions of the soul, and of its union with body, and
of retribution for good and evil some analogy is likewise observable. The Jainas.
conceive the soul (jiva), to have been, eternally united to a very subtil
material body, or rather to two such bodies, one of which is invariable, and
consists. (if I rightly apprehend their metaphysical notions) of the powers of
the mind; the other is variable, and is composed of its passions and affections:
(this, at least is what I understand them to mean by the Tajasa and
Carmana Sariras). The soul, so embodied, becomes, in its successive
transmigrations, united with a grosser body denominated Audarica, which
retains definite form as man and other mundane beings, or it is joined with a
purer essence varying in its appearance at pleasure, as the gods and genii. This
last is termed Vaicarica. They distinguish a fifth sort of body, under
the name of ^Aharica, which they explain as a minute form, issuing
from the head of a meditative sage, to consult an omniscient saint; and
returning with the desired information to the person whence
 that form issued, or rather from which it was
elongated; for they suppose the communication not to have been interrupted.
The soul is never completely separated from matter, until it obtain a final release from corporeal sufferance, by deification, through a perfect disengagement from good and evil, in the person of a beatified saint. Intermediately it receives retribution for the benefits or injuries ascribable to it in its actual or precedent state, according to a strict principle of retaliation, receiving pleasure or pain from the same individual; who, in a present or former state, was either benefited or aggrieved.
Major Mackenzie's information confirms that, which I had also received, concerning the distribution of these sectaries into clergy and laity. In Hindustan the Jainas are usually called Syauras; but distinguish themselves into Sravacas and Vatis. The laity (termed Sra'vaca) includes persons of various tribes, as indeed is the case with Hindus of other sects: but, on this side of India the Jainas are mostly of the Vaisya class.3 The orthodox Hindus have a secular, as well as a regular clergy: a Brahmana, following the practice of officiating at the ceremonies of his religion, without quitting the order of a household, may be considered as belonging to the secular clergy; one who follows a worldly profession, (that of husbandry for example,) appertains to the laity; and so do people of other tribes: but persons, who have passed in to the several orders of devotion, may be reckoned to constitute the regular clergy. The Jainas have, in like manner, priests who have entered into an order of devotion; and also employ  Brahmanas at their ceremonies; and, for want of Brahmanas of their own faith, they even have recourse to the secular clergy of the orthodox sect. This subject is sufficiently explained by Major Mackenzie and Dr Buchanan; I shall, however, add, for the sake of a subsequent remark, that the Jainas apply the terms Yati and 'Sramana (in Pracrit and Hindi written Samana) to a person who has devoted himself to religious contemplation and austerity; and the sect of Buadd'ha uses the word Sraman'a for the same meaning. It cannot be doubted, that the Sommonacodom of Siam is merely a corruption of the words Sramatia Gautama, the holy Gautama or Budd'ha.4
Having been here led to a comparison of the Indian sects which follow the precepts of the Vedas with those which reject their authority, I judge it necessary to notice an opinion, which has been advanced, on the relative antiquity of those religions; and especially the asserted priority of the Baudd'ha before the Brahmanas.
In the first place, it may be proper to remark, that the earliest accounts of India, by the Greeks who visited the country, describe its inhabitants distributed into separate tribes.5 Consequently a sect which, like the modern Baudd'has, has no distinction of cast could not have been then the most prevalent in India.
It is indeed possible that the followers of Buddha may, like the Jainas, have retained the distribution into four tribes, so long as they continued in Hindustan.  But in that case, they must have been a sect of Hindus; and the question, which is most ancient, the Brahmana or the Baudd'ha, becomes a solecism.
If it be admitted that the Baudd'has are originally a sect of Hindus it may be next questioned whether that, or any of the religious systems now established, be the most ancient. I have, on a former occasion,6 indicated the notions which I entertain on this point. According to the hypothesis which I then hinted, the earliest Indian sect, of which we have any present distinct knowledge, is that of the followers of the practical Vedas, who worshipped the sun, fire, and the elements; and who believed the efficacy of sacrifices, for the accomplishment of present and of future purposes. It may be supposed that the refined doctrine of the Vedantas, or followers of the theological and argumentative part of the Vedas, is of later date: and it does not seem improbable that the sects of Jaina and of Budd'ha are still more modern. But I apprehend that the Vaishnavas, meaning particularly the worshippers of Ra'ma and of Crishna,7 may be  subsequent to those sects; and that the 'Saivas also, are of more recent date.
I state It as an hypothesis, because I am not at present able
to support the whole of this proposition on grounds which may appear quite
satisfactory to others; nor by evidence which may entirely convince them. Some
arguments will, however, be advanced, to show that the supposition is not
The long sought history of Cashmir which, in the original Sanscrit was presented to the emperor Acber, as related by Abul-fazil in the Ayin Acberi8 and of which a Persian translation exists, more ample than Abul-Fazil's brief abstract, has been at length recovered in the original language.9 A fuller account of this book will be hereafter submitted to the society: the present occasion for the mention of it, is a passage which was cited by Dr. Buchanan,10 from the English translation of the Ayin Acberi, for an import which is not supported by the Persian or Sanscrit text.
The author, after briefly noticing the colony established in Cashmir by Casyapa, and hinting a succession of kings to the time of the Curus and Pandavas, opens his detailed history, and list of princes, with Gonanda, a contemporary of Yud'hisht'hira. He describes Asoca (who was 12th in succession from Gonanda,) and his son Jaloca, and grandson Damadara, as devout worshippers of Siva; and Jaloca, in particular, as a conqueror of the Mlech'has, or barbarians. Damodara, according to this history was succeeded by three kings of  the race of Turushca; and they were followed by a Bod'hisatwa, who wrested the empire from them by the aid of S'a'cyasinha, and introduced the religion of Budd'ha into Cashmir. He reigned a hundred years; and the next sovereign was Abhimanya who destroyed the Baudd'has and re-established the doctrines of the Nilapurana. This account is so far from proving, the priority of the Baudd'ha, that it directly avers the contrary.
From the legendary tales concerning the last Budd'ha, current in all the countries in which his sect now flourishes;11 and upon the authority of a life of Budd'ha in the Sanscrit language, under the title of Lalita purana, which was procured by Major Knox, during his public mission in Nepal, it can be affirmed, that the story of Gautama Budd'ha has been engrafted on the heroic history of the lunar and. solar races, received by the orthodox Hindus: an evident sign, that his sect is subsequent to that in which this fabulous history is original.
The same remark is applicable to the Jainas with whom the
legendary story of their saints also seems to be engrafted on the Pauranic
tales of the orthodox sect. Sufficient indication of this will appear, in the
passages, which will be subsequently cited from the writings of the Jainas.
Considerable weight might be allowed to an argument deduced from the aggravated extravagance of the fictions admitted by the sects of Jaina and Budd'ha. The mythology of the orthodox Hindus their present chronology adapted to astronomical periods, their legendary tales, their mystical allegories, are abundantly extravagant. But the Jainas and  Baudd'has surpass them in monstrous exaggeration of the same kind. In this rivalship of absurd fiction, it would not be unreasonable to pronounce that to be most modern which has outgone the rest.
The greater antiquity of the religion of the Veda is
also rendered probable from the prevalence of a similar worship of the sun and
of fire in ancient Persia. Nothing forbids the supposition, that a religious
worship, which was there established in times of antiquity, may have also
existed from a remote period in the country between the Ganges and the Indus.
The testimony of the Greeks preponderates greatly for the early prevalence of the sect, from which the present orthodox Hindus are derived. Arrian, having said that the Brachnanes were the sages or learned among the Indians12 mentions them under the latter designation as a distinct tribe which, though inferior to the others in number, is superior in rank and estimation: bound to no bodily work, nor contributing any thing from labour to the public use: in short, no duty is imposed on that tribe, but that of sacrificing to the gods for the common benefit of the Indians; and, when any one celebrates a private sacrifice, a person of that class becomes his guide; as if the sacrifices would not else be acceptable to the gods.13
Here, as well as in the sequel of the passage, the priests of a religion consonant to the Vedas are well described: and what is said, is suitable to them; but  to no other act, which is known to have at any time prevailed in India.
A similar description is more succinctly given by Strabo. 'It is said, that the Indian multitude is divided into seven classes; and that the philosophers are first in rank, but fewest in number. They are employed, respectively, for private benefit, by those who are sacrificing or worshipping, &c.'14
In another place he states, on the authority of Megasthenes, 'two classes of philosophers or priests; the Brachmanes and Germanes: but the Brachmanes are best esteemed, because they are most consistent in their doctrine.'15 The author then proceeds to describe their manners and opinions: the whole passage is highly deserving of attention, and will be found, on consideration, to be more suitable to the orthodox Hindus than to the Baudd'has or Jainas: particularly towards the close of his account of the Brachmanes where he says, 'In many things they agree with the Greeks; for they affirm, that the world was produced and is perishable; and that it is spherical: that God, governing it as well as framing it, pervades the whole: that the principles of all things are various; but water is the principle of the construction of the world that, besides the four elements, there is a fifth nature, whence heaven and the stars: that the earth is placed in the centre of all. Such and many other things are affirmed of reproduction, and of the soul. Like Plato, they devise fables concerning the immortality of the soul,  and the judgment in the infernal regions; and other similar notions. These things are said of the Brachmanes.'
Strabo notices likewise another order of people opposed to the Brachmanes, and called Prannae: he characterizes them as 'contentious cavillers, who ridicule the Brachmanes for their .study of physiology and astronomy.'16
Philostratus, in the life of Apollonius, speaks of the
Brachmanes as worshipping the sun. 'By day they pray to the sun respecting the
seasons, which he governs, that he would send them in due time; and that India
might thrive: and, in the evening, they intreat the solar ray not to be
impatient of night and to remain as conducted from them.'17
Pliny and Solinus18 also describe the Gynnosophists contemplating the sun: and Hierocles, as cited by Stephanus of Byzantium19 expressly declares the Brachmaues to be particularly devoted to the sun.
This worship, which distinguishes the orthodox Hindus, does
not seem to have been at any time practised by the rival sects of Jina and
Porphyrius, treating of a class of religious men, among the Indians, whom the Creeks were accus-  stomed to call Gymnosophists mentions two orders of them; one, the Brachmanes, the other, the Samanaeans: the Brachmanes receive religious knowledge, like the priesthood, in right of birth; but the Samanaeans are select, and consist of persons choosing to prosecute divine studies.' He adds, on the authority of Bardesanes, that 'all the Brachmanes are of one race; for they are all descended from one father and one mother. But the Samanaeans are not of their race; being selected from the whole nation of Indians, as before mentioned. The Brachman is subject to no domination, and contributes nothing to others.'20
In this passage, the Brachman, as an hereditary order of priesthood, is contrasted with another religions order; to which persons of various tribes were admissible: and the Samanaeans who are obviously the same with the Germanes of Strabo, were doubtless Sannyasis; but may have belonged to any of the sects of Hindus. The name seems to bear some affinity to the 'Sramanas or ascetics of the Jainas and Bauddhas.
Clemens Alexandrinus does indeed hint, that all the
Brachmanes revered their wise men as deities;21
and in another place, ho describes them as worshipping Hercules and Pan.22
But the following passage from Clemens is most in point. Having said, that
philosophy flourished anciently among the barbarians, and afterwards was
introduced among the Greeks, he instances the prophets of the Egyptians, the
Chaldees of the Assyrians; the Druids of the Gauls (Galatae); the
Samanaeans of the Bactrians;  the
philosophers of the Celts; the Magi of the Persians; the Gymnosophists of the
Indians: and proceeds thus: 'They are of two kinds, some called Sarmames,
others Brachmanes. Among the Sarmanes those called Allobii23
neither inhabit towns, nor have houses; they are clad with the bark of trees,
and eat acorns, and drink water with their hands. They know not marriage, nor
procreation of children; like those now called Encratetai (chaste). There
are likewise, among the Indians, persons obeying the; precepts of Butta, whom
they worship as a god, on account of his extreme venerableness.'24
Here, to my apprehension, the followers of Buddha are clearly distinguished from the Brachmanes and Sarmanes.25 The latter, called Gernanes by Strabo, and Sanumaeans by Porphyrius, are the ascetics of a different religion: and may have belonged to the sect of Jina, or to another. The Brachmanes are apparently those who are described by Philostratus and Hierocles, as worshipping the sun; and by Strabo and by Arrian, as performing sacrifices for the common benefit of the nation, as well as for individuals. The religion which they practised, was so far conformable with the precepts of the Vedas: and their doctrine and observances, their manners and opinions, as noticed by the authors above cited, agree with no other religious institutions known in India, but the orthodox sect.
 In short, the Brachmanes are distinctly mentioned by Greek authors as the first of the tribes or casts, into which the Indian nation was then, as now, divided. They are expressly discriminated from the sect of Buddha by one ancient author, and from the Sarmanes or Samanaeans, (ascetics of various tribes) by others. They are described by more than one authority, as worshipping the sun, as performing sacrifices, and as denying the eternity of the world, and maintaining other tenets incompatible with the supposition that the sects of Budd'ha or Jina could be meant. Their manners and doctrine, as described by these authors, are quite conformable with the notions and practice of the orthodox Hindus. It may therefore be confidently inferred, that the followers of the Vedas flourished in India when it was visited by the Greek under Alexander: and continues to flourish from the time of Megasthenes. who described them in the fourth century before Christ, to that of Porphyrius, who speaks of them, on later authority, in the third century after Christ.
I have thus stated, as briefly as the nature of the subject
permitted, a few of the facts and reasons by which the opinion, that the
religion and institutions of the orthodox Hindus are more modern than the
doctrines of Jina and of Budd'ha, may, as I think, be successfully resisted. I
have not undertaken a formal refutation of it, and have, therefore, passed
unnoticed, objections which are founded on misapprehensions.
It is only necessary to remark, that the past prevalence of either of those sects in particular places, with its subsequent persecution there by the worshippers of S'iva, or of Vishnu, is no proof of its general priority. Hindustan proper was the early seat of the Hindu religion, and the acknowledged cradle of both the sects in question. They were foreigners in the Peninsula of India; and admitting, as a fact,  (what need not however be conceded,) that the orthodox Hindus had not been previously settled in the Carnataca and other districts, in which the Jainas or the Baudd'has have flourished, it cannot be thence concluded, that the followers of the Vedas did not precede them in other provinces.
It may be proper to add, that the establishment of particular sects among the Hindus who acknowledge the Vedas, does not affect the general question of relative antiquity. The special doctrines introduced by Sancara-a'charya, by Ra'ma'nuja, and by Ma'dhava'charya, and of course the origin of the sects which receive those doctrines, may be referred, with precision, to the periods when their authors lived: but the religion in which they are sectaries has undoubtedly a much earlier origin.
To revert to the immediate object of these observations, which is that of explaining and supporting the information communicated by Major Mackenzie: I shall, for that purpose, state the substance of a few passages from a work of great authority among the .Jainas, entitled Calpa Sutra, and from a vocabulary of the Sanscrit language by an author of the Jaina sect.
The Abhid'hana Chintameni, a vocabulary of synonymous terms, by Hemachandra Acharya, is divided into six chapters (Candas,) the contents of which are thus stated in the author's preface. 'The superior deities (Devad'idhidi'vas) are noticed in the first chapter; the gods (Devas) in the second; men in the third; beings furnished with one or more senses in the fourth; the infernal regions in the fifth; and terms of general use in the sixth.' 'The earth,' observes this author, 'water, fire, air, and trees, have a single organ of sense (indriya) worms, ants, spiders, and the like, have two, three, or four senses; elephants, peacocks, fish, and other beings moving  on the earth, in the sky, or in water, are furnished with five senses: and so are gods and men, and the inhabitants of hell.'
The first chapter begins with the synonyms of a Jina or deified saint; among which the most common are Arhat, Jinaswara, Tirt'hancura or Tirt'hacara: others, viz. Jina, Sarvajnya and Bhagavat, occur also in the dictionary of Amera as terms for a Jina or Buddha: but it is deserving of remark, that neither Buddha not Sugata, is stated by Hemanchandra among these synonyms. In the subsequent chapter, however, on the subject of inferior gods, after noticing the gods of Hindu Mythology, (Indra and the rest, including Brahma &c.) he states the synonyms of a Buddha, Sugata, or Bodhisatwa, and afterwards specifies seven such, viz. Vipasvi, Sichi, Viswanna, Cucuchanda, Canchana, and Ca'syapa,26 expressly mentioning as the seventh Buddha, Sa'cyasinha, also named Serva'rt'hasiddha, son of S'uddhodana and Maya, a kinsman of the sun, from the race of Gautama.
In the first chapter, after stating the general terms for a
Jina or Arhat; the author proceeds to enumerate twenty-four Arhats who have
appeared in the present Avasarpini age: and afterwards observes, that excepting.
Munisuvrata and Ne'mi, who sprung from the race of Hari, the remaining
twenty-two Jinas were born in the line of Icshwacu.27
The fathers and mothers of the several Jinas are then mentioned; their,
attendants; their standards or charac- 
teristics; and the complexions with which they are figured or described.
The author next enumerates twenty-four, Jinas who have appeared in the past Utsarpini period; and twenty-four others who will appear in the future age: and, through the remainder or the first book, explains terms relative to the Jaina religion.
The names of the Jinas are specified in Major Mackenzie's communication. Wherever those names agree with Hemachandra's enumeration, I have added no remark; but where a difference occurs I have noticed it,28 adding in the margin the name exhibited in the Sanscrit text.
I shall here subjoin the information gathered from Hemachandra's vocabulary, and from the Calpa Sutra and other authorities, relative to the Jinas belonging to the present period. They appear to be the deified saints, who are now worshipped by the Jaina sect. They are all figured in the same contemplative posture, with little variation in their appearance, besides a difference of complexion: but the several Jinas have distinguishing marks or characteristic signs, which are usually engraved on the pedestals of their images, to discriminate them.
1. Rishabha, or Vrishabha, of the race of Igshwa'cu, was son of Na'bhi by Marude'va': he is figured of a yellow or golden complexion; and has a bull for his characteristic. His stature, as is pretended, was 500 poles (dhanush); and the duration of his life, 8,400,000 great years (purva-varsha). According to the Calpa Sutra as interpreted by the commentator, he was born at Cosala or Ayod'hya (whence he is named  Causalica), towards the latter part of the third age. He was the first king, first anchoret, and first saint; and is therefore entitled Prat'hama-Raja, Prat'hama Bhicshacara, Prat'hama Jina, and Prat'hami Tirt'hancara. At the time of his inauguration as king, his age was 2,000,000 years; He reigned 300,000 years; and then resigned his empire to his sons: and, having employed 100,000 years in passing through the several stages of austerity and sanctity, departed from this world on the summit of a mountain, named Asht'apada. The date of his apotheosis was 3 years and 8 months before the end of the third age, at the precise interval of one whole age before the deification of the last Jina.
2. Ajita was son of Jita'satru by Vijata: of the same race with the first Jina, and represented as of the like complexion; with an elephant for his distinguishing mark, His stature was 450 poles; and his life extended to 7200,000 great years. His deification took place, in the fourth age, when fifty lacshas of crors of oceans of years had elapsed out of the tenth cror of crors.29
3. Sambhava was son of Jita'ri by Se'na'; of the same race and complexion with the preceding; distinguished by a horse; his stature was 400 poles; he lived 6,000,000 years; and he was deified 30 locshas of crors of sagaras after the second Jina.
4. Abhinandana was son of Sambara by Siddhart'ha': he has an ape for his peculiar sign. His stature was 300 poles; and his life reached to 5,000,000 years. His apotheosis was later by 10 lacshas of crors of sagaras than the foregoing.
 5. Sumati was son of Me'gha by Mangala: he has a curlew for his characteristic. His life endured 4,000,000 years, and his deification was nine lacshas of crors of sagaras after the fourth Jina.
6. Padhaprabha was son of Srid'hara by Susima; of the same
race with the preceding, but described of a red complexion. He has a lotos for
his mark: and lived 3,000,000 years, being 200 poles in stature. He was deified
90,000 crors of sagaras after the fifth Jina.
7. Supa'rs'wa was son of Pratishta by Prithwi; of the same line with the foregoing; but represented with a golden complexion: his sign is the figure called Swastica. He lived 2,000,000 years; and was deified 9,000 crors of sagara subsequent to the sixth Jina.
8. Chandraprabha was son of Maha'seva by Lacshman'; of the same race with the last but figured with a fair complexion: his sign is the moon; his stature was 150 poles, and he lived 1,000,000 years: and his apotheosis took place 900 crors of sagaras later than the seventh Jina.
9. Pushpadanta, also named Suvid'hi, was son of Supriya by
Rama: of the same line with the preceding, and described of a similar
complexion: his mark is a marine monster (Macara): his stature was 100
poles, and the duration of his life 200^000 years. He was deified 90 crors
of sagaras after the eighth Jina.
10. Sitala was son of Dridharatha by Nanda: of the same race, and represented with a golden complexion: his characteristic is the mark called  Srivatsa. His stature was 90 poles; and his life 100,000 great years; his deification dates 9 crors sagaras later than the preceding.
11. 'Srevan ('Sre'yas) or 'Sre'ta'nsa, was son of Vishnu by Vishna; of the same race, and with a similar complexion; having a rhinoceros for his sign. He was 80 poles in stature, and lived 8,400,000 common years. His apotheosis took place more than 100 sagaras of years before the close of the fourth age.
12. Va'supujya was son of Vasuphiya by Jaya: of the same race, and represented with a red complexion, having a buffalo for his mark: and he was 70 poles high, lived 7,200,000 years, and was deified later by 54 sagaras than the eleventh Jina.
13. Vimala was son of Critavarman by Sya'ma; of the same race; described of a golden complexion, having a boar for his characteristic he was 60 poles high, lived 6,000,000 years, and was deified 30 sagaras later than the twelfth Jina.
14. Ananta, also named Anantajit, was son of Sinhase'na by Suyas V. He has a falcon for his sign; his stature was 50 poles, the duration of his life 3,000,000 years, and his apotheosis 9 sagaras after the preceding.
15. D'harma was son of Bha'nu by Suvrata; characterised by the thunderbolt: 45 poles in stature, and lived 1,000,000 years: deified 4 sagaras later than the foregoing.
16. Sa'nti was son of Vis'wase'na by Achira, having an
antelope, for his sign; he was 40 poles  high
lived 100,000 years, and was deified 2 sagaras subsequent to the last
17. Cunt'hu was soft of Sura, by Sri; he has a goat for his mark; his height was 35 poles, and his life 95,006 years. His apotheosis is dated in the last palya of the fourth age.
18. Ara was son of Sudarsa'na by Divi: characterised by the
figure called Nandavarta. his status was 50 poles, his life 84,000 years, and
his deification 1000 crors of years before the next Jina.
19. Malli was son of Cumbha by Prabhavali; of the same race with the preceding; and represented of a blue complexion; having a jar for his characteristic; he was 25 poles high, and lived 55,000 years; and was deified 6,584,000 years before the close of the fourth age.
20. Munisuvrata, also named Suvrata, or Muni, was son of Sumitua by Padma, sprung from the race called Hauivaxs'a; represented with a  black complexion having a tortoise for his sign: his height was 20 poles, and his life extended to 30,000 years. His apotheosis is dated 1,184,000 years before the end of the fourth age.
21. Nimi was son of Vhaya by Vipra; of the race of Icshwa'cu;
figured with a golden complexion; having for his mark a blue water-lily, (Nilotpala),
his stature was 15 poles; his life 10,000 years; and his deification took place
584,000 years before the expiration of the fourth age.
22. Nemi, also called Abisab'mi, was son of the king Saml'urajava by Siva; of the line denominated Harivansa; described as of a black complexion, having a conch for his sign. According to the Calpa Sutra, he was born at Soriyapura: and, when 300 years of age, entered on the practice of austerity, he employed 700 years in passing through the several stages of sanctity, and, having attained the age of 1,000 years, departed from this world at Ujjinta, which is described as the peak of a mountain, the same, according to the commentator, with Giranara.31 The date of this event is 84,000 years before the close of the fourth age.
23. Pa'rs'wa (or Pa'rswanavha) was son of the king As'wasena by Va'ma', or Bamankvi; of the race of Icshwa'cua; figured with a blue complexion, having a serpent for his characteristic. The life of this celebrated Jina, who was perhaps the real founder of the sect, is the subject of a poem entitled Parswantha charitra. According to the Calpa  sutra, he was born at Banarasi,32 and commenced his series of religious austerities at thirty years of age; and having completed them in 70 years, and having consequently attained the age of 100 years, he died on Mount Sammeya or Samet.33 This happened precisely 250 years before the apotheosis of the next Jina: being stated by the author of the Calpa Sutra at 1230 years before the date of that book.
24. Vard'hama'na, also named Vira, Mahavi'ra, &c, and surnamed Charama-tirt'hacrit, or last of the Jinas: emphatically called Sramana, or the saint. He is reckoned son of Sidd'ha'rt'ha by Trisala; and is described of a golden complexion having a lion for his standard.
The subject of the Calpa Sutra before cited is the life and institutions of this Jina. I shall here state an abstract of his history as there given, premising that the work, like other religious books of the Jainas, is composed in the Pracrit called Magadki; and that the Sanscrit language is used by the Jainas for translations, or for commentaries, on account of the great obscurity of the Pracrit tongue.34
 According to this authority, the last Tirt'hancara, quitting the state of a deity, and relinquishing the longevity of a god, to obtain immortality as a saint, was incarnate towards the close of the fourth age, (now past,) when 15 years and 8½ months of it remained. He was at first conceived by Deva'nanda, wife of Rehabhadatta, a Brahmana inhabiting Brahmanacundagran, a city of Bharata varsha in Jambu dwipa. The conception was announced to her by dreams. Indra,35 or Sacra, who is the presiding deity on the south of Meru, and abides in the first range of celestial regions, called Saudharma, being apprized of Mariavira's incarnation, prostrated himself, and worshipped the future saint; but reflecting that no great personage was ever born in an indigent and mendicant family, as that of a Brahmana. Indra commanded his chief attendant Hahinaigumeshi, to remove the foetus from the womb of Deva'nanda to that of Trisala, wife of Siddha'rt'ha, a prince of the race of Icshwa'cu, and of the Casyapa family. This was accordingly executed; and the new conception was announced to Trisala by dreams; which were expounded by soothsayers, as foreboding the birth of a future Jina. In due time, he was born; and his birth celebrated with great rejoicings.
His father gave him the name of Vard'hamana. But he is also known by two other names; Sramana and Maha'vira. His father has similarly three appellations, Sid'ha'rt'ha, Sreya'ksa, and Yas'aswi; and his mother likewise his three titles, Trisala Vide'hadinna, and Priticavin'a. His paternal uncle was Sufa'rs'wa, his elder brother, Nandi  vard'hanai his sister (mother of Jama'li) Sudnsana. His wife was Yasada, by whom he had a daughter, (who became wife of Jaimali,) named Anojja and Privadarsana. His grand-daughter was called Seshavai and Jasovati.
His father and mother died when he was 28 years of age; and
he afterward continued: two yean with his elder brother: after the second year
he renounced worldly pursuits, and departed, amidst the applauses of gods and
men, to practise austerities. The progress of his devout exercises and of his
attainment of divine knowledge, is related at great length. Finally, he became
an Arhat, or Jina, being worthy of universal adoration, and having subdued all
passions;36 being likewise
omniscient and all-seeing: and thus, at the age of 72 years, he became exempt
from all pain for ever. This event is stated to have happened at the court of
king Hastiaxa, in the city of Pawdpuri, or Papuri;37
and is dated 3 years and 8½ months before
the close of the fourth age, (called Duthama sudhama) in the great period
named avasarpinu. The author of the Calpa Sutra mentions, in
several places, that, when, he wrote, 980 years had elapsed since this
apotheosis.38 According to
tradition, the death of the last Jina happened more than two thousand four
hundred years  since; and the Calpa Sutra
appear therefore to have been composed about fifteen hundred year ago.39
The several Jinas are described as attended by numerous followers, distributed into classes, under a few chief disciples, entitled Ganadharas or Ganddhipas. The last Jina had nine such classes of followers, under eleven disciples, IndrbhutiI, Agnibhuti, Vayubhuti, Vyacta, Sudharma, Manditaputra, Mauryaputra, Acampita, Achalabhrata, Mvaiya, Prabhasa. Nine of these disciples died with Mahavira; and two of them, Indrabhuti and Sudharma survived him, and subsequently attained beatitude. The Calpa Sutra adds, that all ascetics, or candidates for holiness, were pupils in succession from Sudharma, none of the others having left successors. The author then proceeds to trace the succession from Sudharma to the different Sac'has, or orders of priests, many of which appear still to exist. This enumeration disproves the list communicated to Major Mackenzie by the head priest of Belligolla.
The ages and periods, which have been more than once alluded to in the foregoing account of the Jainas are briefly explained in Hemachandra's Vocabulary. In the second chapter, which relates to the heavens and the gods, &c. the author, speaking of time, observes that it is distinguished into Avasarpari and Utsarpini, adding that the whole period is completed by twenty cotis of cotis of sagaras or 2,000,000,000,000,000 oceans of years. I do not find that he any where explains the space of time  denominated sagara or ocean. But I understand it to be an extravagant estimate of the time, which would elapse, before a vast cavity, filled with chopped hairs, could be emptied, at the rate of one piece of hair in a century: the time requisite to empty such a cavity, measured by a yajana every way is a palya; and that repeated ten cotis of cotis of times40 is a sagara.
Each of the periods, above-mentioned, is stated by Hemachandra, as comprising six Aras; the names and duration of which agree with the information communicated to Major Mackenzie: In the one, or the declining period, they pass from extreme felicity (ecintasuc'ha) through intermediate gradations, to extreme misery (ecanta duch'ha). In the other, or rising period, they ascend, in the same order, from misery to felicity. During the three first ages of one period, mortals lived for one, two, or three Palyas; their stature was one, two, or three leagues (Goyotis); and they subsisted on the fruit of miraculous trees; which yielded spontaneously food, apparel, ornaments, garlands, habitation, nurture, light, musical instruments, and household utensils. In the fourth age, men lived ten millions of years; and their stature was 500 poles (Dhanush): in the fifth age, the life of man is a hundred years: and the limit of his stature, seven cubits: in the sixth, he is reduced to sixteen years, and the height of one cubit. In the next period, this succession of ages is reversed, and afterwards they recommence as before.
Here we cannot but observe, that the Jainas are still more
extravagant in their inventions, than the 
prevailing sects of Hindus, absurd as these are in their fables.
In his third chapter, Hemachandra, having stated the terms for paramount and tributary-princes, mentions the twelve Chacravartis and adds the patronymics and origin of them. Bharata is surnamed A'rshabhi, or son of Rishabha; Maghavan is son of Vijaya; and Sanatcuma'ra, of Aswasena. 'Sa'nti, Cunt'hu and Ara are the Jinas so named. Sagara is described as son of Sumitra; Subhuma is entitled Carta virya; Padma is said to be son of Padmottara; Harishena of Hari. Jaya of Vijaya; Prahmadatta of Brahme; and all are declared to have sprung from the race of Icshwa'cu.
A list follows, which like the preceding, agrees nearly with the information communicated to Major Mackenzie. It consists of nine persons, entitled Vasudevas, and Crishnas. Here Tripishita is mentioned with the patronymic Prajapatya; Dwiprishta is said to have sprung from Brahme; Swayambha is expressly called a son of Kudra; and Purushattama, of Soma, or the moon. Purushasinha is surnamed Saivi, or son of 'Siva; Purushapindarica, is said to have sprung from Mahaviras. Datta is termed son of Agnisinha; Na'ra'yana has the patronymic Da'sarat'pu (which belongs to Ramachandra); and Crishna is described as sprung from Vasude'va.
Nine other persons' are next mentioned, under the designation of Sucla Balas, viz. 1 Achala, 2 Vyaya, 3 Bhadra, 4 Suprabha, 5 Sudarsana, 6 A'izanda, 7 Nanda, 8 Padma, 9 Rama.
They are followed by a list of nine foes of Vishnu: it corresponds nearly with one of the lists noticed by Major Mackenzie viz. 1 Asvagriva, 2 Ta'raca,  3 Meraca, 4 Mad-hu, 5 Nisimhua, 6 Bali, 7 Prahla'da, 8 The king of Lancfi (ravan'a), 9 The king of Magadha (Jara'sand'ha).
It is observed, that, with the Jinas these complete the number of sixty-three eminent personages, viz. 24 Jinas, 9 Chacravartis, 9 Vasudevas, 9 Baladevas, and 9 Prathasudevas.
It appears, from the information procured by Major Mackenzie,
that all these appertain, to the heroic history of the Jina writers. Most of
them are also well known to the orthodox Hindus: and are the principal
personages in the Puranas.
Hemachandra subsequently notices many names of princes, familiar to the Hindus of other sects. He begins with Prithu son of Vena whom he terms the first king: and goes on to Ma'nd'hata', Harischandra; Kharata son of Dushyanta, &c. Towards the end of his enumeration of conspicuous princes, he mentions Carina, king of Champa and Anga; Ha'la or Sa'lava'hana; and Cuma rapala surnamed Chaulucya, a royal saint, who seems, from the title of Paramarhata to have been a Jaina and apparently the only one in that enumeration.
In a subsequent part of the same chapter, Hemachandra, (who
was himself a theologian of his sect, and author of hymns to Jina41,)
mentions and discriminates the various sects; viz. 1st, A'rkatas, or Jainas,
2ndly, Saugatas, of Baudd'has, and, 3dly, six philosophical schools, viz. 1st.
Naiydyica: 2d. Yuya; 3d. Capilas Sam'hya; 4th. Vauhldcai; 5th.
 Varhiupiym Nastioa; and 6th. Charvaca, or
Locoyata. The two last are reputed atheistical, as denying a future state and a
providence. If those be omitted, and the two Mimimansas be inserted we
have the six schemes of Philosophy familiar to the Indian circle of the
The fourth chapter of Hemachandra's vocabulary relates to earth and animals. Here the author mentions the distinctions of countries which appear to be adopted by the Jainas; viz. the regions (Varsha) named Bharata, Aifata, and Vidaka, to which he adds Cura; noticing also other distinctions familiar to the Hindus of other sects, but explaining some of them according to the ideas of the Jainas. 'Aryavorta,' he observes, 'is the native land of Jainas, Chacris, and Ardd'hachacris, situated between the Vindliya and Himadri mountains.' This remark confines the theatre of Jaina history, religious and heroic, within the limits of Hindustan proper.
A passage, in Bha'scaha's treatise on the sphere, will suggest further observations concerning the opinions on the Jainas, on the divisions of the earth. Having noticed, for the purpose of confuting it, a notion maintained by
 The commentators44 agree that the Jainas are here meant; and one of them remarks, that they are described as naked sectaries &c.; because the class of Jiyambaras is a principal one among these people.
It is true that the Jainas do entertain the preposterous notion here attributed to them: and it is also true that the Digambaras, among the Jainas, are distinguished from the 'Sudamharas, not merely by the white dress of the one, and the nakedness, (or else the tawny apparel) of the other; but also by some particular tenets and diversity of doctrine. However, both concur in the same ideas regarding the earth and planets, which shall be forthwith stated, from the authority of Jaina books: after remarking, by the way, that ascetics of the orthodox sect, in the last stage of exaltation, when they become Parahamsa, also disuse clothing.
The world, which according to the Jainas is eternal, is figured by them as a spindle resting on half of another; or as they describe it, three cups, of which the lowest is inverted; and the uppermost meets at its circumference the middle one. They also represent the world by comparison to a woman with her arms akimbo.45 Her waist, or according to the description first mentioned, the meeting of the lower cups, is the earth. The spindle above, answering to the superior portion of the woman's person, is the abode of the gods; and the inferior part of the figure comprehends the infernal regions. The earth, which they suppose to be a flat surface, is bounded by a circle, of which the diameter is one raju.46 The  lower spindle comprises seven tiers of inferior earths or hells, at the distance of a raju from each other, and its base is measured by seven rajus. These seven hells are Ratna prabha, 'Sarcara prabha, Baluca prabha, Panca prabha, Dhuma prabha, Tama prabha, Tamatama prabha. The upper spindle is also seven rajus high; and its greatest breadth is five rajus. Its summit, which is 4,500,000 yojanas wide is the abode of the deified saints: beneath that are five Vimanas, or abodes of gods: of which the centre one is named Sarvart'hasiddha: it is encompassed by the regions Apardjita, Jayanta, Vaijayunta and Vijaya. Next, at the distance of one raju from the summit, follow nine tiers of worlds, representing a necklace (graiveyaca), and inhabited by gods, denominated, from their conceited pretensions to supremacy, Ahamindra. These nine regions are, Aditya, Pritincara, Somansa, Suprvaddha, Suvisala, Sarvalobhadra, Manorama, Supravaddha, and Suddursdna.
Under these regions arc twelve (the Digambaras say sixteen) other regions, in eight tiers, from one to five rajus above the earth. They are filled with Vimanas, or abodes of various classes of gods, called by the general name of Calpavasis. These worlds, reckoning from that nearest the earth, are, Saudhama and I'sana: Sanalcuindra and Muhrudra: Brahme: Loulaca: 'Sucra: Sahasrdra: Anata and Pranata; Arana and Achyuta.
The sect of Jina distinguish four classes of deities, the
Vaiminicas, Bhuvavanapalis, Jyotisis, and Vyautaras. The last comprises eight
orders of demigods or spirits, admitted by the Hindus in general, as the
 Racshanas, Pisacshas, Cinnaras, &c.
supposed to range over the earth. The preceding class (Jyahshis) comprehends
five orders of luminaries; suns, moons, planets, constellations, and stars, of
which more hereafter. The Vaimancas belong to the various Vimanas, in the
twelve regions, or worlds, inhabited by gods. The class of Bhavunapali includes
ten orders, entitled Asuracumdra, Nagacumara, &c; each governed by two
All these gods are mortal, except, perhaps, the luminaries.
The earth consists of numerous distinct continents in concentric circles, separated by seas forming rings between them. The first circle is Jambhuiwipaj with the mountain Sudarsa Meru in the centre. It is encompassed by a ring containing the salt ocean; beyond which is the zone, named Dhatucidwipa; similarly surrounded by a black ocean. This again is encircled by Pushcaradwipa; of which only the first half is accessible to mankind: being separated from the remoter half, by an impassable range of mountains, denominated Manushottara parvata. Dhatuci dwipa contains two mountains, similar to Sumeru, named Vijanga and Anchala; and Pushcara contains two others, called Mandira and Vidyundali.
The diameter of Jambu dwipa being 100,000 great Yojanas,47
if the 190th part be taken, or 526 6/19 we have the breadth of Bharata varsha
which occupies the southern segment of the circle. Airvata is a similar
northern segment. A band (33648 4/19 yojanas wide) across the circle, with
Sudars'a Meru in the middle of it, is Videha varsha, divided by Meru
(or by four peaks like elephant's teeth, at the four corners of that
 vast mountain) into east and west Videha.
These three regions, Bharata, Airvata, and Videha, are inhabited by men who
practise religious duties. They are denominated Carmachumi, and appear to be
furnished with distinct sets of Tirthancaras or saints entitled Jim. The
intermediate regions, north and south of Meru, are bounded by four chains of
mountains; and intersected by two others: in such a manner, that the ranges of
mountains, and the intermediate vallies, increase in breadth progressively. Thus
Himavat 712 twice as broad as Bharata varsha (or 1052 12/19); The valley beyond it
is double its breadth (2105 5/19); the mountain Mahahimavati is twice as much
(4210 10/19) its valley is again double (8421 1/19); and the mountain Nishad'ha
twice that breadth (16842 2/19). The vallies between these mountains, and between
similar ranges reckoned from Airavata (viz. Sic'hari, Racmi and
inhabited by giants (Yugala) and are denominated Bhogabhmi. From either
extremity of the two ranges of mountains named Himavat and Sichari, a pair of
tusks project over the sea; each divided into seven countries denominated Autaradwipas. There are consequently fifty-six such; which are called
Cubhogabhumi, being the abode of evil doers. None of these regions suffer a
periodical destruction; except Bharaia and Airdvata^ which are depopulated, and
again peopled, at the close of the great periods before mentioned.
We come now to the immediate purpose, for which these notions of the Jainas have been here explained. They conceive the setting and rising of stars and planets to be caused by the mountain Sumeru; and suppose three times the period of a planet's appearance to be requisite for it to pass round Sumeru and return to the place whence it emerges. Accordingly they allot  two suns, as many moons, and an equal number each planet, star, and constellation, to Jambu dwipa and imagine that these appear, on alternate days, south and north of Meru. They similarly allot twice the number to the salt ocean; six times as many to Dhatuca dwipa; 21 times as many, or 42 of each, to the Calodadhi; and 72 of each to Pushcara dwipa.
It is this notion, applied to the earth which we inhabit, that Bh'ascara refutes. His argument is thus explained by his commentators.
'The star close to the north pole, with those near it to the east and west, form a constellation figured by Indian astronomers as a fish. In the beginning of night (supposing the sun to be near Bharani Musca), the fish's tail is towards the west, and his he towards the east; but at the close of the night, the fish's tail, having made half a revolution, is towards the east, and his head towards the west: and since the sun when rising and setting, is in a line with the fish's tail there is but one sun; not two.' This explanation given by Muniswara and Lacshmida'sa. But Vasana Bhashya reverses the fish; placing his head towards the west at sun set, when the sun is near Bharani.
1. Vrihad aranyaca Upanishad.
2. Jaina Priests usually bear a broom adapted to sweep insects out their way; lest they should tread on the minutest being.
3. I understand that their Vaisya class includes eighty-four tribes: of whom the most common are those denominated O'swal, Agarwal, Pariwir, and C'handiwal.
4. See As. Res. vol. 7, p. 415.
5. Seven tribes are enumerated; but it is not difficult to reconcile the distinctions which are stated by Arrian and Strabo, with the present distribution into four classes.
6. As. Res. vol. 8, p. 474.
7. In explanation of a remark contained in a former essay (As. Res. vol. 8, p. 475), I take this occasion of adding, that the mere mention of Ra'ma or of Crishna in a passage of the Vedas, without any indication of peculiar reverence, would not authorize a presumption against the genuineness of that passage, on my hypothesis; nor, admitting its authenticity, furnish an argument against that system. I suppose both heroes to have been known characters in ancient fabulous history; but conjecture, that on the same basis, new fables have been constructed, elevating those personages to the rank of gods. On this supposition, the simple mention of them of genuine portions of the Vedas, particularly in that part of it which is entitled Brahmana, would not appear surprising. Accordingly, Crishn'a, son of De'vaci, is actually named as the Ch'handogya Upanishad (towards the close of the 3d Chapter,) as having received theological information from Ghora a descendant of Angiras. This passage, which had escaped my notice, was indicated to me by Mr. Speke, from the Persian translation of the Upanishad.
8. Vol. 2, p. 175.
9. The copy which I possess, belonged to Brahmana who died some months ago (1805) in Calcutta. I obtained it from his heirs.
10. As. Res. vol. VI. p. 165.
11. Tachaud, Royaume de Siam. Laloubere, Relation d'un Voyage.
12. [Greek] Lib. 6.
13. [Greek] Arrian in Indicis.
14. [Greek] lib. 15.
15. [Greek] lib. 15.
16. [Greek] lib. 15.
17. [Greek] lib. 3. cp. 4.
18. Pliny, lib. vii. c. 2. Solin. i. 52.
19. [Greek] Steph. de Urbibus, ad vocem Brachmanes.
20. Porph. de Abstentia, lib. 4.
21. [Greek] Strom. lib. 1.
22. Strom. lib. 3. etc.
23. Same with the Hyboli of Strabo.
24. [Greek] Strom. lib. 1.
25. The passage has been interpreted differently, as if Clemens said, that the Allobii were those who worshipped Butta. (See Morri. Art. Samaneenn.) The text is ambiguous.
26. Two of these names occur in Captain Mamont's and Mr. Joinville's lists of five Buddhas. As. Res. vol. vii. pp. 32 and 414.
27. I understand that the Jitiuas have a mythological poem entitled Harivansa purana, different from the Harivansa of the orthodox. Their I'cshwacu, likewise, is a different person; and the name is said to be a title of their first Jina, Risharma Deva.
28. See pages 260 to 262.
29. The divisions of time have been noticed by Major Mackenzie.
30. The life of this Jina is the subject of a separate work entitled Santipurana.
31. I understand this to be a mountain situated in the west of India, and much visited by pilgrims.
32. Belspura, in the suburbs of Benares, esteemed holy, as the place of his nativity.
33. Samet sic'hara, called in Major Rennel's map Parsatumi, is situated among the hills between Bihar and Bengal. Its holiness is great in the estimation of the Jainas: and it is said to be visited by pilgrims from the remotest provinces of India.
34. This Pracrit, which does not differ from the language produced by dramatic poets into their writings, and assigned by them to the female persons in their dramas, is formed from Sanscrit. I once conjectured it to have been formerly the colloquial dialect of the Saraswata Brachmens (As. Res. vol. 7, p. 219) but this conjecture bas not been confirmed by further researches. I believe it to be the same language with the Pali of Ceylon.
35. The Jainas admit numerous Indras; but some of the attributes, stated in this place by the Calpa Sutra belong to the Indra of the Indian mythology.
36. So the commentator expounds both terms.
37. Near Rajagrihah, in Bihar. It is accordingly a place of sanctity. Other holy places, which have been mentioned to me are, Champdpuri, near Bhagalpur, Chandravali distant ten miles from Benares, and the ancient city Hastindpurain Hindustan: also 'Salrunjaya, said to be situated in the west of India.
38. Samanassa bhagavau Mahabiessa Java duhc'ha hinassa navabasa saya'in bicwantu'in dasamassaya basa sayassa ayam asi ime sambach'hare cale gach'hai. "Nine hundred years have passed since the adorable Mahabira became exempt from pain; and of the tenth century of years, eighty are the time which is now elapsed."
39. The most ancient copy in my possession, and the oldest one which I have seen dated in 16l4 samvat: it is nearly 1250 years old.
40. 1.000.000.000.000.000 palyas = one sagara or sagaropama.
41. A commentary on these hymns is dated in Saca 1214 (A. D. 1292); but how much earlier He'machandra lived, is not yet ascertained.
42. Golad'hyaya, 3. v. 8 & 10.
43. Ursa minor.
44. Lacshmidasa, Muniswara, and the Vasanubhashya.
45. The Sangrahani ratna and Locanab sutra, both in Pracrit, are the authorities here used.
46. This is explained to ho a measure of space, through which the gods are able to travel in six months, at the rate of 2,057,152 yojanas, (of 2,000 crosa each), in the twinkling of an eye.
47. Each great Yojana contains 2000 cos.