FRAGMENTS OF THE CHALDEAN COSMOGONY

TRANSLATED
By Mr. Jules Oppert,
Professor of Assyriology at the College of France.

Fragments of a collection of tablets entitled cosmological; the first word of the tablets is "once" (Enuma).

[Extracted from Ledrain's Histoire d'Israel, vol. 1, appendix, 1879. Translated into English by Google from the original French.]

CREATION

THE BEGINNING

Once, which is not called high heaven,
And what is the earth below had no name.
An infinite abyss1 was their generator,
A chaos, the sea, was the mother who bore all this universe.
Waters they contained converged together.
There was darkness without light beams, a hurricane without lulls.

[p.412]

Once the gods were no existence,
A name was not called, a fate was not set.
The gods Luhma and Lahamu were created first.
Many years passed,
Until that is their number increased.
The god Assur and Ki-Assur ..................
The god Bel ..............

FRAGMENT OF THE FIFTH TABLET

He left the mansions, seven in number, to the great gods,
And pointed to the stars that are the homes of the seven lumasi (spheres?).
He created the revolution of the year, and divided it into decades (misrat)
And for each of the twelve months he fixed three stars.
Since the day begins in the year to the end,
He gave the mansion to the god Nibir,2 two for the day are renewed in their limits,
For they are not interrupted or shortened.

[p. 413]

He took a side of the mansion thereof for Bel and Hea,
And opened the large doors in the side, near the angles,
It strengthens the sigar to left and right,3
The four facades, the household stairs.
Nannar (Moon) was responsible for light by night,
And he did renew, to conceal the night for the last day.
"Monthly uninterrupted fill your disk,
The beginning of the month, must dominate the night,4
Horns are invisible, because the sky is renewed.
On the seventh day, he will fill the disk from right to left,
But it will remain open in obfuscation, a half.
(In the middle of the month) the sun will be in the depths of heaven at thy rising,
(In your splendour) bends your form,
(And then decreasing) to turn around to find the path of the sun,
(So change) obfuscation, back toward the sun,
............... seek the path of the sun.
(Get up and) lie down, according to the eternal laws.
...............................

(The rest is missing.)

[p.414]

This translation has been exhibited at the College of France in the year 1877 to 1878.

We can compare it with the alleged version of Mr. Smith, or the so-called discovery of the Sabbath, "contemporary creation," proposed by Mr. Fox Talbot: he translates the word aga well known (hard) by party (!) and thus introduced the Sabbath, that nothing speaks (!):

"On the seventh day, he instituted a feast!"

As for decades and 36 decans, the passage is clear: 12 arhi kakkabi 3 ta-aan usziz duodecim mensibus Stellas ternas fecit. How can this mean, 12 months he divided into four quarters? We know from the testimony of ancient historians that the Chaldeans designated for each zodiac sign three stars called decans. Saumaise, the great philologist, has already said that the word must have an eastern origin. The Sanskrit word is dreshkana; we propose as a possible origin of the Assyrian "Tarsan" (interpreter).

THE ALLEGED LEGEND OF THE FALL

These two fragments were common as having a connection with the story of the fall,5 the reader will see that nothing justifies this view. The pieces are difficult to understand; one is a hymn addressed to the god Nibir, another is the episode of the war of Merodach against Tihāmat, the sea. This is comparable to the [p.415] account of Berosus, where Bel bisects the sea, and he cuts heaven and earth into two. We believe that this story has no relation to this myth, at least nothing in the fragment cannot justify this assumption.

I. IN PRAISE OF THE GOD NIBIR AND HIS SEVEN POWERS

First tablet

(the beginning is missing)

.............................

Second, he is the god of life. ......
Who instituted the light?
Their teachings are .....
What are, never forget their testimonies
Thirdly, He is the god of the holy life, called Regent of telilt,
God of good winds, master of education and blessed,
Who makes the wool and fat, because of the abundance
In the vast forests we felt its fair wind.
Who at first is small, but growing to become strong.
Calls it his worshipers, that it exalts, that the student!
Fourth, he is the god of the sacred disk that quickens the dust,
He is the Lord of the holy song, who raises the dead.
Who forgives the enemies of the gods, turning to them,
But he vows eternal putrefaction to those who persist to go against him.
To form a counterweight to them, he created Man.

[p.416]

Who is merciful for having the principle of life.
And its precepts should never be forgotten,
In the mouths of those whose head is shaded (the hair), he created with his hand.
Fifth, he is the god of charm, his mysterious actions destroy the enemy!
After he broke the spell by one of his opponent's curse
The connoisseur of hearts, he knows the hearts of the gods that his power felt.
Against it cannot stand on .......... enmity.
He restored peace in the assembly of the gods,
He flexes those who are hostile. ...
He directs the conventions....
Yes, the pact ...
Sixth, he is the god of ... life,
He is the god ...... in seventh place ....
..............................

Second face.

.................. The stars

It creates good sustainability6 of heavenly courts ....
It is he who removes the swirl of the sea7 and its effect.
Nibir is his name; the indicator of the future,

[p.417]

It dictates the stars in the sky in their imperishableness.
It governs, like a flock, the gods together!
He conjured the sea, and closed it in the walls of the dike.
Even up till the last man, until at the end of the day,
They are endless, it lasts forever!
Because he built the place he formed, he has fortified it.
God of countries, we called Father, Bel.
Names of the gods, the five and two8 he called as they are called,9
And Hea10 heard, and his anger vanished.
"Yes, his creations (men) exalt his memory
To him, as to me, God is the name of the waters.
It links my ..... that all the fights.

[p.418]

"It annihilates my ... 11
(In uttering) the fifty names of the great gods."
Fifty names they (the gods) and the pronounced, they established his regime.
Whether he starts again for that it is still in force.
Inexorable, wise, he reigns as a judge.
Whether the father accepts his law, and he transfers it to the son.
Whether the pastor and flock opened his ears,
What Bel obeys, Merodach is the judge of the gods,
It makes his land green, he (himself) to make prosper.
Laws of His will does not feel small, words that escape him,
And what comes out of his mouth, no god has vilified.
His heart is wide, his stomach is an abyss.
The Pasha and the curse vanish before him.
....................

(The rest is missing.)

II. THE WAR OF MERODACH AND TIAMAT.

First face.

..................... Showed his right. ........
Of all odds? His arm sent terror
He threw lightning before him
. ............... He fills his body.
And he pronounced the mysterious12 word that produces calm and swirling sea

[p.419]

And he let the four winds, the calm of the sea could not get out.
North and south, and east and west,
And he repeated the mysterious word, and he sent the cohort of his father Anu;
He created the hostile wind, the ill wind that destroys hope,
The four winds, the seven winds, the storm and the endless wind.
And he sent forth the winds that he had created, with a sevenfold strength.
And he awoke the vortex of the sea, that the high wave should succeed.
And the divine master rose like lightning, his greatest weapon,
And he mounted his chariot, which sweeps everything, nobody anticipates the calm it brings.

[p.420]

He made ​​ready, and with his arm he set off four pairs of horses.
.... his relentless, the inundater, the inevitable.
.........................

(The rest is missing.)

Second face.

(The beginning of the speech of Merodach is missing.)

.... are not, your enmity bothers me
Without consistency is your strength, your arrows will only tickle their skin.
"Master of the will, it's me, and as to you, it will do what I decide."13
When Tiamat heard this,
She returned to her first resolution and exchange sound design.
Tiamat examined carefully the cliffs,
The edge, and on the surface it strengthened his position.
She counted her songs, and she repeated his signs,
And the gods who fought with her, she looked at their weapons,
And Tiamat threw the purifier of the god Merodach,
Who had imagined the mysterious word, as a weapon in battle.14
But the Master resisted, and he mingled with his mysterious word

[p.421]

And he dropped the ill wind that turns upside in below.
Then Tiamat opened her mouth to swallow the wind.
But the wind was bad, so she could not close her lips
The power of the wind fulfils its stomach,
His heart turned, his mouth was blocked,
His bowels were broken, and digestion stopped.
(The god) broke his heart and his body split.
He  killed him and cut off his life,
He did throw his. ... and scattered his brains;
Those who came out of the sea before him, he destroys.
He scattered his battalions and drove his armies.
Gods, their agents who had assisted,
Trembled with fear and turned back,
They put their lives first, and fled.
They hid, escaping without courage.
But he surprised them and broke their arms.
They gathered like sheep, they remained in a net.
Their strength was gone, their hand was withered.
What was left was brought and disappeared like a kisuk.15
And the eleven offspring, terror fills,
Without a flood. ... came to swallow.
.............................

(The rest is missing.)

Justly, Mr. Smith often deserves the discovery of all the precious texts which he mentions in existence. We, above all else, paid tribute to the memory of a man who died in the prime of life, a martyr of science, who he had enlarged the area. But this science also has its rights. The translation of both pieces we have just given, as conscientiously as possible, as accurately as permitted, by the embryonic state of our [p.422] Assyrian lexical knowledge, there is not a word to justify any comparison with the Fall of Man, as presented in Genesis. It is time finally, in the interest of science, to cut short all attempts of translation that does not make the text, and prevent extension by works that are too little and too carelessly compiled. The texts are very difficult to understand, but it is one more reason to work harder on their interpretation. A new science, like Assyriology, must especially be on guard, and those who  are not expected to be exposed to reproach, or allowing very lightweight, reproducing, as established facts in science, versions of which nothing will remain but thorough examination  of the original text.

THE LEGEND OF THE DELUGE

Two Chaldean stories of the flood, rather different from each other, have been preserved, one in the fragments of the Greco-Babylonian historian Berosus, the other in the episode of an Assyrian epic, including the fragments discovered by George Smith. We offer a translation of this song, which the English scholar tries to do a version of, unfortunately too little accurate in details, and the mutilation of the text makes the task difficult on some points. We have put in brackets the restorations we offer.

Here is the stage. The god of the lower order we name Istubar (but we do not know the true pronunciation16) [p.423] who was a warrior and hunter, combined, but several adventures with another divine being, sent Belbirut to kill Khumbaba, whose name is preserved in the myth of Combabus of Lucien. The feats of Istubar earned him the love of the goddess Ishtar (Astarte); she persecutes his affection of Istubar, but rejects it with contempt. The goddess despised Istubar, sent an affliction, an impure disease, to get rid of this scourge. He travelled on his ship, to see the last antediluvian king of Babylon, who was saved in the flood by the mercy of the gods, and lived eternally on a remote island, to the ends of the earth. King Adrahasis (Adra-Khasis or Khasisu-Adra, hence came the name given to Xisuthrus by Berosus). This story of Istubar, then, is a story of the flood and its own conservation. Some students may be inspired by this story17 as it should interest them; it is not like the document of Berosus, which contains exhibits of historical dates and [p.424] chronologies18 as well as the passage of Genesis, which, from this point of view, offers more parallels with the Babylonian historian. The poem will be read in translation.

ELEVENTH TABLET OF THE EPIC OF ISTUBAR.

1st column.

Istubar said after it Adrahasis, the distance:19
"I must ask you a question, O Adrahasis.
The number of thy years shall not change: in that you like me.
And you yourself do not change: in this you look like me.
The perfection is to remain always at the same point
(Weaknesses of age) do not accumulate on your back.
(Tell me) how you did it and you live in the company of the gods."
Adrahasis then said to Istubar:
"I want to reveal to you, O Istubar the mystery of my preservation,
and the secret of the gods I will manifest.

[p.425]

It is a city of Surippak you know and that I was the prince
The city is ancient, but (impiety against) the gods met.
(And I was alone) the servant of the gods.
(The gods wanted to destroy) Istar (?) and Anu
(A deluge was proposed by) Bel-El
(And he consented) Nebo, Nergal and Ninip.20
But Kin,21 the lord of the abyss,
He revealed their intentions (in a dream).
He gave me his revelation, and spoke as follows:22
"O Surippakite, son of Otiartes,23
You, make a craft, and finish it (soon).
(A flood) will swallow the seed of living beings.
The seed of the living beings whoever they are, put on the ship.
The ship that thou shalt build,
A ner (600) spans measure its extent,
A soos (60) spans will be the account of its height and width.
On the surface of the ocean launch the ship."
I understand, and I said to Kin, my lord:
"The ship, which you have ordered me to construct,
(How) can I do it by myself (only?)
But the men in the prime of the life and the old (shall help me)."
Kin then opened his mouth and spoke to me, his servant, saying:

[p.426]

"(The purpose of the gods), you tell them.
(The rest of the men) made ​​me despise,24
(And I will avenge) what has been done against me:
(I did not save them), and the will (of the gods).
I will hold judgment on what is up and down.
(To save you), close the vessel.
(When) the flood I predicted happens,
Up on the ship and open the door of the ship.
Load it with thy corn, and thy utensils, and your food,
Your valuables, your slaves, your maids, and men in the prime of life,
And the herds of the desert, all desert creatures, all who stay there.
Like I prophesy: ​​preserve your door (all)".
Adrahasis opened his mouth and said,25
And spake to Kin, his lord
"Like anyone, I will not ship
(No same?) in the universe, I am a carpenter.
(Her beauty?) that way?26
(Like him), in the universe, a ship does not exist,
That ship which thou hast ordered to construct..."

Column II.

"Powerful27 .............
After five days, I began (first pick up the materials.)
Then, on the site, I arranged ten yards for the bricks.
Ten yards were measured (for beams) ...
I made ​​the plan of the ship (fourth) and I am a carpenter (fifth).

[p.427]

I ? the sixth ship, and I ? its seventh floors
I ? compartments eighth.
I opened inside tanks for receiving the waters.
The rest of the rig and the necessary things, I added;
Three sars of cake bitumen, I employed on the inside
Three sars of cakes bitumen, I employed on the outside
Three sars of nails (?) bore the baskets containing bread,28
A tenth sar of blanks had to be eaten by lambs
Three sars of blanks, I distributed to the sailors
For (food) and the slaughter of cattle, I made ​​arrangements for each day
(Then I brought) beverages, bread and wine in quantity,
In amount as the waters of rivers,
(Flour)29 as the dust of the earth; breads, I put my hand
............. bread, I put my hand.
(Light) from the sun was excluded from the vessel and completed. 
......... .............30
The ... 31 I made them move up and down,
(The water) to cover two-thirds.
Whatever I did, I picked it up,
All the money had, I picked it up,
All the gold I had, I picked it up,
All I had, I did, I picked it up, all the living races of any kind
I made ​​up on the ship everything. I owned slaves and servants,
Herds of the desert and the desert creatures;

[p.428]

The men in the prime of life, all I made ​​up (and say:)
Samas (the sun) must bring a ...:
It sends darkness at night, it will rain torrential rains.
Enter the ship, and shut the door
Because of the flood, it is terrifying.
There will be darkness, as in the night, and it will rain heavy rains.
Thee, for four days, you can divert (in prayer)
But the day or destiny fulfilled, casts out fear. "
I went into the ship, and I closed the door
The farm gate (first) and (then) in order to distribute the space for sailors.
Men palace, I left him with his treasures.
A calm wind prevailed towards the dawn,
But from the depths of heaven a black cloud arose.
Ben dropped his lightning in the middle (of the cloud),
Bel and Nebo walked forward,
They walked in shaking the mountains and valleys.
Nergal, the mighty, dragged after him the hurricane.
Ninip came and spread darkness.
Anunna took away all the light;
In their work, lilies cut away the surface of the earth,
While Ben tried to reach heaven with his thunderbolts,
And that without shine, he returned to the earth.

Column III.

Waves as ... covered (the ground).
Sentient beings ............
(There was) struggles between men seeking (their salvation32).

[p.429]

The brother did not see his brother,
Men did not recognize themselves among themselves
The gods themselves feared the storm
They changed their minds and walked towards the sky of Anu
Gods were like a guard dog stands couched corners
Istar cried like a woman in childbirth.
The Great Goddess, which is good to hear, spoke thus:
"Creation is really returned to mud,
What, in the presence of the gods, I announced an enemy.
But, as in the presence of the gods, I announced an enemy,
I ordered it a misfortune that strikes my men, it stops.
Me, the mother, I give birth to my men
And today, like a swarm of small fish, they inhabit the sea
The gods, joined Anunna,33 crying with me."
The gods, sitting in their place, crying,
But they closed their lips,  to accomplish the end.
For six days and nights
The wind ruled, storm and destruction swept all
The seventh day in its approach,
the torrential waters of the storm stopped,
What (is announced by a shaking) comparable to an earthquake.
The sea became calm, the wind calmed and the storm ceased.
I noticed that the sea had done its work of destruction,
And that all mankind had changed into mud.
Like reeds, floating corpses.
I opened the window and the light penetrated the surface of my face.
I was dazzled. I sat down and wept;
On all my figure the shedding of tears.
I watched parts of the visible area of the ocean,

[p.430]

But, to the twelve houses of the horizon, no continent.34
Above countries Nizir (salvation) floated the ship,
The Mountain Nizir stopped and did not give way.
On the first day, the second day, Mount Nizir did the same.

[p.431]

On the third day, the fourth, Mount Nizir did the same.
On the fifth day, the sixth day, Mount Nizir did the same.
​​On the seventh day, when it came.
It did so and I let out a dove.
The dove went and came back.
She had not found shelter and returned
I brought and I dropped a swallow;
Swallow went and came back.
She had not found any shelter and returned.
I brought and I let out a raven.
The raven went and saw the corpses into the sea.
It ate, swam, walked away and never came back.
I brought a lamb, I sacrificed it to the four winds.
Atoning I made ​​a fire on the mountain ridge.
Seven by seven, I filled the empty jars,
Basically I also gathered reeds, cedar and cypress.
The gods smelt the smell.
The gods smelt the sweet smell.
The gods like flies, amassed from the master sacrifices;35
Then the great goddess, to his arrival,
Took large amulets that the god Anu had made, as the desire (of the gods).
O gods, they are really like alabaster, my necklace, I will not forget!

[p.432]

Column IV.

X

"O gods, those I loved and I will never forget.36
May all the gods want to approach the sacrificial fire.
But Bel-El does not approach the fire offering,
Because he has not mastered, and produced the flood,
And he parks the men in an ark."
So Bel-El, when he approached,
Life to the ship, and he was amazed,
It was filled with anger against the gods five and two.37
 "No one is breathing out,
The man who is in this ark will not live!"
Ninip opened his mouth and said,
And spake the hero Bel-El:
"Nobody, except Kin, has unveiled the plan,
For Kin knew, and he knows everything."
Kin opened his mouth and said,
And spake the hero Bel-El:
"O thou purifier of gods, heroes,
Because you did not master, you started the flood.
To expiate the sinner's sin,
The villain has expiated his crime.
But crime is not destroyed, the evil is not destroyed.
Why did you do the flood?
Lions would arise for the decimation of men.
Why did you do the flood? 
Leopards would arise to decimate the people
Why did you do the flood?
Famine could exist and depopulate the earth.
Why did you do the flood?
War could arise and destroy man.

[p.433]

"It is not I who revealed the secrets of the gods.
Adrahasis interpreted the dream and understood the secret of the great gods."
Since that time, Bel-El mastered his anger,
And he mounted amidships,
He grabbed my hand and lifted me
Up and dazzles the woman of my ribs:
He turned to us and disappeared, brushing us very near38
"Until now, Adrahasis was a perishable man
Henceforth Adrahasis and his wife live like us, like gods.
And Adrahasis will remain in the distance, at the mouth of the rivers "
He grabbed me and put me in the mouths of rivers.
Now you, whosoever of the gods you made ​​for companions,
The life you seek, you've found.
But I let it go six days and seven nights.
But then as a bundle of arrows is connected strength (of life),
And the years of age spend on it, driven by the wind like a cloud."

Following, this bitter speech addressed by Istubar, the distinctions of the story of the same flood. The narrative goes on to speak of the council of Adrahasis who stands with his wife to purify the epic hero and cure his disease. Before his health recovered, Istubar gets on his ship, led by the helmsman and Uriel returns to Uruk, his place of residence.

The flood story offers some comparisons with the one presented in Genesis, but it lacks the moral dimension. It does not give sufficient account of the reason for this disaster, the develop- [p.434] ing and vicissitude rather show a kind of animosity between them as the gods justify their wrath against humanity. This is not the god who is the cause of the flood which prevents the innocent, the Babylonian Noah is the antagonist that plays a destructive deity, around this to prevent the victim of the disaster. In sum, apart from the construction of the ark, there is the story of the end of the flood and the details of the birds let go by Xisuthrus reminiscent of the mosaic narration. We are very pleased to have in the absence of other texts, at least this Assyrian document, which, as an episode of one great poem, was to expose the main features of the disaster, without stopping the curious details as we have Greek chronographs about the Chaldean cataclysm.

________________________

FOOTNOTES

1 Apsu, "the abyss". Smith had already assimilated the Apasou of Damascius, without understanding the meaning of the verse.

2 Here are some samples of the translation of Mr. Smith:

"Beautiful it was all that was learned by the great gods
He arranged the stars appeared in the shape of animals:
To set the year by observing their constellations,
He oversaw twelve months of stars in three sets,
Since the day or the year starts up at the end,
It delimited the positions of planets in their orbits as they shine,
For they do not damage nor the troubles embraced by someone, etc.. "

It is noteworthy that the original text does not have this translation: the same word "uddu, renew" is translated, 1. 3, for "set", 1. 6 by "shine". The word "animal", 1. 2 is not in the text, the word decade is "observation constellations."

3 Smith: In its lower mass (chaos) he cooking (boiling). The apostrophe addressed to the moon is not included either.

4 Night is the pinnacle. The verb napah can not mean "get up" as I once translated it, and as we have always  said in my opinion. This verb means "to be a zenith" and the word nappahti's zenith: it responds to some passages or word is, as also in it.

5 Here are some lines from the translation of Smith (April 1 ff.).:

"What is lacking in the preparation ......
The god Ziku shouted hale Guide purity,
Good Parent, senior intelligence and law,
Author of fertility and abundance, founder of fertility,
Another is mounted to us and has increased strongly, etc.. etc.. "

6 From this sign kun, eternity, Smith has "tail" of the snake.

7 This "vortex" of the sea, opposed to calm, is the "snake" of Mr. Smith, Mr. Delitzsch and others. This error is one of the most amazing views of philology, and it is explained by the desire to find, that tale, the serpent. The word is rapas. Looking cold, it is unclear how the snake can get into the meaning of the text, and indeed we speak of rapas dust!

8 The planets.

9 M. Delitzsch, translator of Mr. Smith, noted, with full reason, perhaps not a single line of the song was well translated by the English scientist. So do we give up to in following his completely incomprehensible versions. Here, as a sample, is the beginning of the second part:

".... Star ........
It grasps the tail and the head ...........
Because the dragon Tiamat had ........
Its punishment planets, with .......
Beside the stars of heaven mimes they can
As a lamb the gods tremble, all of them.
Tiamat it binds, it closes its prison, and he circles around,
After that, the people of the time draw back around,
The aside, he did not destroy it .... forever.
Instead, he created, it strengthens.
The master of the earth uttered his name, god Ilu
In the ranks of the angels told them curse, etc...."

10 The name of this god, master of the earth and the depths, is Kin.

11 The five lines, speeches, places it in Heakin's mouth. Ocean, lacking in one of the two copies of the text.

12 The term sapar, we made ​​a sword! It cuts the vortex, that is to say the snake. It has even found that sapar was saber, like the Turks. It is a verb, Honover an Om  Smith reflects:

"And he brought the sword to silence the sea dragon
He bewitched the four winds, so that they do not leave their wounds
To the south, north, the east and west.
He held in his hand the sword to the grove of his father Anu.
He created the hostile wind, bad wind, storm, hurricane.
The four winds, the seven winds, the wind ... and without rule,
And he dropped winds, he created seven in number.
The Sea Dragon came after him (bitter what?)
He brought lightning, his greatest weapon (dragon?)."

We read in a hymn:

"Merodach, who can withstand your power?
Thy will is sapar, you explain to the sky, to the earth.
control the sea, and the sea obey.
Ordering a hurricane, and Hurricane will be silent, etc.. "

We see that the word cannot mean a sword!

13 M. Smith reflects:

"............... You master your wrong,
The tribute to your motherhood must be imposed by their arms,
I (your husband) lend support, and you will be made ​​the prey."

14 This is likely to cause this passage we thought he saw a gun in the sapar but there is not the wind with a sword.

15 Word unexplained.

16 Istubar, a genius of fire perhaps, or simply as an ideogram meaning "the god of the big lower lip."

17 The unfortunate George Smith translated the text only so far, it is fair to say that all interpretations issued, without exception, are versions of his English work. The translation I give here is not perfect, there is in the world yet another thing that adjustable constitutions. But at least he has tried, whenever possible, to make it as faithfully as possible the difficult text and truncates above the market. We must pay this tribute to Smith after him, either in France or England or Germany; no Assyriologist has confronted the inclusion of the flood. We have a memory of the young scholar not to insist on that we could raise objections against its translation, but has a few passages that will provide us with all the parts of his trial, often unintelligible, forcing us to regret for we do not have access to his views. Here are the basics:

Istubar to him also said to Hasis-Adra, the distance:
"I am overwhelmed with the case,  Hasis-Adra,
Why not read your rehearsals to me,
And you do not have rehearsals from me
Cessation; your heart to make war
pressed you, I come after you.
... How did you and the assembly of the gods thou hast living room."

English is not more intelligible than the French, this is the first English version that appeared in the Times, and translated into and official Journal, and which the author has never revised.

18 Xisuthrus reigned a mere 64,800 years in the chronology of Berosus who puts the flood at 41,697 BC, 39,180 years or 653 sosses before the historic period (2,517 BC).

19 Or the eternal. Adrahasis is written with two signs that mean "living forever."

20 The return lines, whose end is reserved only, seems to be indicated by the rest of the story. It is likely that the text we have is shortened, for the wickedness of men, the reason for the anger of the gods, is not sufficiently exposed.

21 This is the god Hea generally pronounced.

22 Passage difficult.

23 We do not know the Babylonian form of the name, it is written with two characters meaning "revealing generator god." Otiartes is the Greek form.

24 We do not have legends that are related to this charge.

25 The forgotten story here Adrahasis tells of himself.

26 All verses are mutilated.

27 This word is retained.

28 Blanks, mode eastern bread.

29 Mutilated text.

30 Verse missing.

31 Word retained but unexplained.

32 These lines are mutilated.

33 Earth Spirits.

34 Smith translated:

A twelve (measures), arises the continent.

But the continent does not arise. The gifted ite are the twelve houses of the horizon, we still find in modern astrology: the English author has the word Itela, ite and the point. But the following lines are Smith's version, except for some grammatical inaccuracies, blameless, and we emphasize the fact that we correct this error among others. The story about the birds belong to him. Since we have given the beginning of the version of Smith, we give the end, which we translate carefully:

He took my hand and led me up,
He made ​​me get up and get my wife to my side,
He cleansed the country, made ​​a contract and took the people,
In the presence of Hasisadra and the people.
When Hasisadra and his wife, and the people were taken to be equal to the gods.
Hasisadra then remained in a remote place of the mouths of rivers.
They took me and put me in a remote place, at the mouth of the rivers.
As to you that the gods have also chosen.
For health you seek applications,
Do this six days and seven nights,
As in a seat as per the contract binding it.
Path, like a storm, will be on him.

The analysis of the text and common sense do not recommend this version. Thus, Smith would certainly have seen, any revision, the name of Hasisadra, found three times, is put into the mouth of the god, recovered from his surprise and his wrath; he would reform the whole passage of the translation first, and it would meet the requirements of the original relatively clear and complete surplus. These texts there are often inconvenient, it should be interpreted as they are: it is a task sometimes more difficult to solve than is the one that is purely to make assumptions in the restoration of the passages that we cannot fill, and where a large field is open to the imagination.

35 That is to say, me.

36 We do not know to what the myth relates, nor these words. The words "those" means the surviving men.

37 The seven gods who preside over the planets

38 Literally, ad latus nostrum attigit nos.